TeachLivE vs. RolePlay: TM Comparative Effects on Special
TeachLivE vs. RolePlay: TM Comparative Effects on Special Educators Acquisition of Basic Teaching Skills Melanie Rees Dawson & Benjamin Lignugaris/Kraft 1st National TeachLivE Conference Orlando, Florida, May 2013 TM Rationale A core goal of teacher preparation programs is to bridge the gap between knowledge and
practice (Allsopp, DeMarie, Alvarez-McHatton, & Doone, 2006; Dieker, Hynes, Hughs, & Smith, 2008; Hixon & So, 2009). Training experiences are often constructed using situated learning as a theoretical foundation. Situated Learning: Knowledge acquisition requires realistic content and complexity Skill transfer depends on how closely practice opportunities match the situation in which
information is to be applied (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) Rationale Simulating classroom scenarios is one strategy for situating learning for novice teachers. Role-playing is perhaps the oldest form of classroom simulation, dating back to the 1800s (Brown, 1999). Recently, virtual simulations have emerged in teacher training programs (Hixon & So, 2009). TeachLivETM is a virtual classroom that can realistically represent the complexities that
exist in actual classrooms (Dieker et al., 2008). Rationale TeachLivETM is an example of technology-enhanced learning in contrast to traditional approaches. Three types of Technology-Enhanced Learning used in university settings (Kirkwood & Price, 2013): (1) Replicating existing teaching practices: delivering instruction using technology (2) Supplementing existing teaching practices: creating additional resources or making resources/tools
available for students to access at any time (3) Transforming the learning experience: Redesigning activities to provide active learning opportunities for students Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of practice sessions in TeachLivETM (a technologyenhanced approach) compared to practice sessions in role-play (a traditional approach) on preservice special educators development of essential teaching skills. Research Questions Study 1: (Foundation teaching skills) 1) To what extent will preservice special educators, who are trained to deliver opportunities to respond (OTR) and praise, demonstrate a higher
response rate for the skill practiced in TeachLivETM Gen 1 than the skill practiced in role-play with colleagues, when assessed in TeachLivE TM Gen 3? 2) To what extent will teachers who practice praise in TeachLivE TM Gen 1, demonstrate a higher percentage of specific praise than teachers who practice praise in role-play with colleagues, when assessed in TeachLivE TM Gen 3? Study 2: (Complex teaching skills) 3) To what extent will preservice special educators, who are trained to deliver error correction and praise around, demonstrate a higher percentage of correct steps for the skill practiced in TeachLivE TM Gen 1 than the skill practiced in role-play with colleagues, when assessed in TeachLivE Gen 3? Methods: Participants 7 teachers in an Alternative Teacher Preparation (ATP) program
Full-time special education teachers on letters of authorization Given $150 for participating in the study Two Groups: 3 teachers practiced praise in TeachLivE TM and OTR in role-play (Group 1) 4 teachers practiced OTR in TeachLivETM and praise in role-play (Group 2) Methods: Participants
Methods: Measures Dependent Variables OTR: The teacher asks an academic question and indicates if it is directed to the group or an individual student OTR rate= # OTR/mins (Goal= 4 per min) Praise: Positive teacher statements and gestures referring to student work or behavior General: positive statements or gestures that dont specifically reference student work or behavior Specific: positive statements that directly reference student work or
behavior Praise rate= # praise statements/mins (Goal= 4 per min) % Specific praise= (# specific/total praise) x 100 (Goal= >50%) Methods: Measures Assessment: Immediately following training sessions conducted in either TeachLivETM Gen 1 or role-play Generation 3 classroom
Primary Data Collector: 100% of assessment videos Second Data Collector: 31% of assessment videos OTR: Rate: 88.1% (71.4%-100%) Praise: Rate: 88.4% (70.8%-100%) Type: 96.5% (82.4%-100%) IOA= Agreements/(Agreements+Disagreements) x 100 Methods: Intervention Prior to Practice Sessions: Target Skill Instruction
Video about each target skill Handout with examples/non-examples Quiz Lesson Plans Vocabulary Lesson (words & definitions) Teaching Formats (e.g. example/non-example, definition, sentence generation, sentence substitution)
A short story that included the target vocabulary words 1 lesson plan for TeachLivETM, 1 lesson plan for role-play Methods: Intervention Training vs. Assessment TeachLivETM Gen 1 or role-play No misbehaviors No academic errors TeachLivETM Gen 3 4 misbehaviors 4 academic errors Training vs.
Assessment TeachLivETM Gen 1 ormisbehaviors role-play No TeachLivETM Gen 3 4 misbehaviors 4 academic errors No academic errors 1 lesson for A new lesson for each TeachLivETM assessment session 1 lesson for role-play
Methods: Design Alternating Treatments Design Treatments alternated between TeachLivETM and Role-Play Target skills were counterbalanced across treatments and groups Role-Play TeachLivETM Group 1 Praise
OTR Group OTR Praise 2 Advantages of an Alternating Treatments Design: Quickly compare effectiveness of two treatments Does not require baseline data or withdrawal
Minimizes sequence effects (Cooper, Heward, & Heron, 2007) Results Results Results: Specific Praise Praise Targete d Praise Targeted Praise Targeted
Study 2: Measures New Dependent Variables: Error Correction: When a student makes an academic error the teacher delivers a model, test, and delayed test. Model: The teacher provides the correct answer to the question Test: The teacher repeats the initial question Delayed Test: After one or more intervening responses, the teacher again asks the initial question. % correct Steps: (# correct steps/#possible steps) x 100 Praise Around: When a student exhibits a misbehavior that is persistent (5 s or more) or recurring (more than once) the teacher delivers the following steps: Step 1: The teacher praises another student who is exhibiting the
desired behavior. The praise statement must be specific and identify the behavior that is incompatible with the problem behavior. Step 2: When the target student exhibits the desired behavior, the teacher praises the student using a specific praise statement that is incompatible with the problem behavior. % correct Steps: (# correct steps/#possible steps) x 100 Study 2: Intervention Study 2: Design Alternating Treatments Design (with baseline) Baseline data collected during Study 1
Treatments alternated between TeachLivETM and Role-Play Role-Play TeachLivETM Target skills were counterbalanced across (Praise) (OTR) treatments Praise Around Error Correction Group 1 Group 2 (OTR) (Praise)
Error Correction Praise Around Study 2: Results Study 2: Results Surveys When both studies were complete, we administered two surveys: Presence Questionnaire: Surveyed the realness of the Gen 1 and Gen 3
classrooms, students, interactions, and teaching scenarios. (Adapted from a survey created by Aleshia Hayes) Social Validity: Surveyed the acceptability of the training procedures, and compared teacher experiences in TeachLivETM and Role-Play. Presence Questionnaire Findings: Majority of teachers understood the students different personalities
Teachers were split on their perceptions of realness of the classroom and students, as well as their ability to interact as they would in a real classroom. Perceptions of realness depended on the level to which TeachLivE TM matched their own classroom. Overall, the teachers degree of buy-in was the same for Gen 1 and Gen 3. The visual proximity to the students (zooming in and out) enhanced
interactions in some situations, but may have hindered it in others. Social Validity Findings: The training and lesson materials were appropriate The feedback structures were helpful TeachLivETM is more similar than role-play to their own classrooms
Social Validity Question: Which lab did you prefer? Why? TeachLivETM: 3 for a more real-life encounter I enjoyed the comradery of role-play, but it did not put you on the spot as much as TeachLivE. TeachLivE gave a variety of behaviors compared to role-play (more students). Role-play: 4
engaged the whole time face-to-face interaction enjoyed working with colleagues practice more on academic issues than behaviors Question: If you were offered $50 for mastering a new skill in ONE session, would you choose to practice the skill in the TeachLivE TM lab or the role-play TMlab? Role-play: 1 I dont know: 1 TeachLivE :5
*Although teachers were split on their buyin and preference for TeachLivETM, they recognized that is it a powerful medium for practicing teaching skills. Discussion Overall, teachers demonstrated higher rates and percentage of steps in the assessment session on the skills they practiced in TeachLivETM compared to the skills they practiced in role-play. These results suggest that TeachLivETM (technology-enhanced simulation) facilitates development of essential teaching skills more effectively than role-play (traditional simulation). Discussion Limitations:
No Training Data Did teachers master the skill during training before generalizing to the assessment setting? No Classroom Data To what extent do teachers demonstrate the skills in their own classroom? Discussion Future Research:
Focus on TeachLivETM Generalization to real classrooms Understand how many sessions it takes for teachers to become proficient with a specific skill, without being interrupted by other repertoires (multiple baseline) Collect training data as well as assessment data
Regularly collect data in their own classrooms to investigate to what extent the levels of proficiency we see in TeachLivE TM transfer to actual teaching. Select more homogeneous participants with similar teaching situations to TeachLivETM Secondary schools Teaching language arts References Allsopp, D. H., DeMarie, D., Alvarez-McHatton, P., & Doone, E. (2006). Bridging the gap between theory and practice: Connecting courses with field experiences. Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(1), 19-35. Brown, A. H. (1999). Simulated classrooms and artificial students: The potential
effects of new technologies on teacher education. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(2), 30718. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall: New Jersey. Dieker, L., Hynes, M., Hughes, C., & Smith, E. (2008). Implications of mixed reality and simulation technologies on special education and teacher preparation. Focus on Exceptional Children, 40(6), 1-20. Hixon, E., & So, H.-J. (2009). Technologys role in field experiences for preservice teacher training. Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 294304. Kirkwood, A., Price, L. (2013). Technology-enhanced learning and teaching in higher education: What is enhanced and how do we know? A critical literature review. Learning, Media, and Technology, DOI:10.1080/17439884.2013.770404 Thank You!
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