Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background:

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Basic definition Psychopathology AKA: Abnormal psychology Abnormal behavior Mental illness

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Basic definition Psychotic disorder Abnormal patterns of thought, emotion, behavior Irrational thought process Disconnect from reality Usually cannot function in society

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Basic definition Psychotic disorder Abnormal patterns of thought, emotion, behavior Irrational thought process Disconnect from reality Usually cannot function in society

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Basic definition Neurotic disorder Abnormal patterns of thought, emotion, behavior Can think rationally & function socially Can function in normal society

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Basic definition Necessary condition for abnormality Characteristic that would be found in all psychological disorders; must be present Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Basic definition Necessary condition for abnormality Characteristic that would be found in all psychological disorders; must be present Sufficient condition for abnormality Distinguishes normal from abnormal Condition that would NOT be found in normal conditions

However, not found in all disorders, just in specific ones Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality Adapted from David Rosenhan & Martin Seligman (1989), et al. One alone does not indicate abnormality

Need to be several present Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality Adapted from David Rosenhan & Martin Seligman (1989), et al. One alone does not indicate abnormality

Need to be several present 1) Emotional distress* 2) Significant impairment/maladaptiveness* 3) Deviance from the norm 4) Irrationality 5) Unpredictability & loss of control 6) Suffering Other 7) Help seeking** Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality 1) Emotional distress* 2) Significant impairment/maladaptiveness* 3) Deviance from the norm 4) Irrationality 5) Unpredictability & loss of control 6) Suffering First two considered Other

more useful markers 7) Help seeking** 8) Observer discomfort** of psychopathology Others, especially last two, less useful However, still serve a purpose Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Eight properties/elements of abnormality 1) Emotional distress* Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality 1) Emotional distress*

2) Significant impairment/maladaptiveness* Behavior prevents individual from achieving life goals (fulfilling relationships, working effectively, etc.) Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality

3) Deviance from the norm Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality 3) Deviance from the norm

Behavior goes against norms of society Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality 3) Deviance from the norm

Behavior goes against norms of society Problematic: extremely relative term Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality

3) Deviance from the norm Behavior goes against norms of society Problematic: extremely relative term Mental illness always deviance, but deviance not always mental illness Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Eight properties/elements of abnormality 3) Deviance from the norm Behavior goes against norms of society Problematic: extremely relative term Mental illness always deviance, but deviance not always mental illness

Example Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality 3) Deviance from the norm Behavior goes against norms of

society Problematic: extremely relative term Mental illness always deviance, but deviance not always mental illness Example Those who spoke out against the Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Eight properties/elements of abnormality 4) Irrationality Behavior differs substantially from how normal people are expected to behave in similar situation Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of

abnormality 4) Irrationality Behavior differs substantially from how normal people are expected to behave in similar situation 5) Unpredictability & loss of control Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of

abnormality 4) Irrationality Behavior differs substantially from how normal people are expected to behave in similar situation 5) Unpredictability & loss of control 6) Suffering Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Eight properties/elements of abnormality 4) Irrationality Behavior differs substantially from how normal people are expected to behave in similar situation 5) Unpredictability & loss of control 6) Suffering Not all psychopathology involves suffering Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality 4) Irrationality Behavior differs substantially from how normal people are expected to behave in similar situation 5) Unpredictability & loss of control 6) Suffering Not all psychopathology involves

suffering Schizophrenia: delusions, hallucinations seen as a gift Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality 4) Irrationality Behavior differs substantially from how

normal people are expected to behave in similar situation 5) Unpredictability & loss of control 6) Suffering Not all psychopathology involves suffering Schizophrenia: delusions, hallucinations seen as a gift Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Eight properties/elements of abnormality 7) Help seeking Stigma causes people not to seek help People seeking help not sure sign of psychopathology Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Eight properties/elements of abnormality 7) Help seeking Stigma causes people not to seek help People seeking help not sure sign of psychopathology Nobody realizes that some people expend tremendous energy merely to be normal. Albert Camus Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Eight properties/elements of abnormality 7) Help seeking Stigma causes people not to seek help People seeking help not sure sign of psychopathology 8) Observer discomfort Social behavior governs norms When others break these rules, we

experience discomfort Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Key concepts Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Key concepts 1) Context important in defining & understanding psychopathology Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Charlotte overcame an impoverished and emotionally deprived childhood and went on to become a successful writer. But when she was 25 years old, recently married, and had just given birth to a healthy daughter, she became, in her

words, a mental wreck. Charlotte lost her energy and drive, and grew increasingly sad and lethargic. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Charlotte overcame an impoverished and emotionally deprived childhood and went on to become a successful writer. But when she was 25 years old, recently married, and had just given birth to a healthy daughter, she became, in her

words, a mental wreck. Charlotte lost her energy and drive, and grew increasingly sad and lethargic. If the baby died, this would be a normal reaction. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Charlotte overcame an impoverished and emotionally deprived childhood and went on to become a successful writer. But when she was 25 years old, recently

married, and had just given birth to a healthy daughter, she became, in her words, a mental wreck. Charlotte lost her energy and drive, and grew increasingly sad and lethargic. If the baby died, this would be a normal reaction. But because the baby didnt, is not Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Key concepts 1) Context important in defining & understanding psychopathology 2) Continuum between normal & abnormal behavior Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Key concepts

1) Context important in defining & understanding psychopathology 2) Continuum between normal & abnormal behavior At what point does behavior become abnormal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Key concepts

1) Context important in defining & understanding psychopathology 2) Continuum between normal & abnormal behavior At what point does behavior become abnormal? How many of different elements does a person need? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Key concepts 1) Context important in defining & understanding psychopathology 2) Continuum between normal & abnormal behavior At what point does behavior become abnormal? How many of different elements does a person need? And to what degree?

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Key concepts 2) Continuum between normal & abnormal behavior Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background What is hot?

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Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Who, in the rainbow, can draw the line where the violet ends and the orange tint begins? Distinctly we see the difference of the colors, but where exactly does the one first blindingly enter into the other? So with sanity and insanity. In pronounced cases there is no question about them. But in [less obvious cases, few people are

willing] to draw the exact line of demarcationthough for a fee, some Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Is having one cat normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Is having two cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Is having three cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Is having four cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Is having five cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Is having six cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Is having seven cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Is having eight cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Is having nine cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Is having ten cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Is having eleven cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Is having twelve cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Is having thirteen cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Is having fourteen cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Is having fifteen cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

Is having sixteen cats normal? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Key concepts 1) Context important in defining & understanding psychopathology 2) Continuum between normal & abnormal behavior

3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: All on the same page Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: All on the same page

Disadvantages: Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: All on the same page Disadvantages: Diagnosis correct?

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: All on the same page Disadvantages: Diagnosis correct? Reliability of the test? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: All on the same page Disadvantages: Diagnosis correct? Reliability of the test? Validity of the test? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: All on the same page Disadvantages: Diagnosis correct? Reliability of the test? Validity of the test? Oversimplify complex issue

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: All on the same page Disadvantages: Diagnosis correct? Reliability of the test? Validity of the test? Oversimplify complex issue

He is bipolar. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis Advantages: All on the same page Disadvantages: Diagnosis correct? Reliability of the test?

Validity of the test? Oversimplify complex issue He is bipolar. O.k., magic; what exactly does that mean? Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis

Rosenhan Experiment (1973) Researchers admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be hearing voices. Only symptom Otherwise acted normal Diagnosed as schizophrenic, despite having no other symptoms Page other 623

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Key concepts 1) Context important in defining & understanding psychopathology 2) Continuum between normal & abnormal behavior 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis 4) Principle of multiple causality

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Reductionism Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

4) Principle of multiple causality Reductionism Explaining complex phenomenon (i.e., psychological disorder) using single idea/reason Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality

Reductionism Explaining complex phenomenon (i.e., psychological disorder) using single idea/reason Rarely only one cause Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality

Reductionism Explaining complex phenomenon (i.e., psychological disorder) using single idea/reason Rarely only one cause Charlotte: birth of baby causes depression. Probably more complex than that. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality

Precipitating cause Immediate trigger of an event Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause Immediate trigger of an event Predisposing cause

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause Immediate trigger of an event Predisposing cause Underlying condition that makes it possible for precipitating cause to trigger

disorder Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause Immediate trigger of an event Predisposing cause Underlying condition that makes it

possible for precipitating cause to trigger disorder Charlotte: Body produces little serotonin, abused as child; both predisposing cause Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality

Precipitating cause Immediate trigger of an event Predisposing cause Underlying condition that makes it possible for precipitating cause to trigger disorder Charlotte: Body produces little serotonin, abused as child; both predisposing cause Birth of child: precipitating cause Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause Immediate trigger of an event Predisposing cause Underlying condition that makes it possible for precipitating cause to trigger disorder Syd Barrett:

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause Immediate trigger of an event Predisposing cause Underlying condition that makes it possible for precipitating cause to trigger

disorder Syd Barrett: Body produces too much dopamine; predisposing cause Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause

Immediate trigger of an event Predisposing cause Underlying condition that makes it possible for precipitating cause to trigger disorder Syd Barrett: Body produces too much dopamine; predisposing cause Heavy LSD use: precipitating cause Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause Analogy turning on a light switch Predisposing cause Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

4) Principle of multiple causality Precipitating cause Analogy turning on a light switch Predisposing cause Analogy - wiring & electricity that have to be there in order for light switch to turn on, but just because they are there, doesn't guarantee the light will always be on. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Diathesis-stress model Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality

Diathesis-stress model Development of disorder requires interaction of: Diathesis (predisposing cause) Stress (precipitating cause) Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

4) Principle of multiple causality Diathesis-stress model Development of disorder requires interaction of: Diathesis (predisposing cause) Stress (precipitating cause) Analogy - someone must flip switch & wiring must be connected correctly in order for light switch to turn on.

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Comorbidity Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

4) Principle of multiple causality Comorbidity Presence of one or more disorders in addition to primary disorder Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality

Comorbidity Presence of one or more disorders in addition to primary disorder Usually others are result of primary disorder Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality

Comorbidity Presence of one or more disorders in addition to primary disorder Usually others are result of primary disorder Example Agoraphobia -> anxiety -> depression Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

4) Principle of multiple causality Comorbidity Presence of one or more disorders in addition to primary disorder Usually others are result of primary disorder Example Agoraphobia -> anxiety -> depression Narcolepsy -> anxiety

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Comorbidity Presence of one or more disorders in addition to primary disorder Usually others are result of primary disorder Example

Agoraphobia -> anxiety -> depression Narcolepsy -> anxiety Narcolepsy -> depression Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal 4) Principle of multiple causality Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective Studies how specific disorders are

caused by interaction of the following factors: Biological Psychological (cognitive) Social factors (environmental) From Banduras social cognitive theory Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal

4) Principle of multiple causality Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective Example: Pierre was told by his parents that he would never amount to anything (social) He thinks of himself as worthless (psychological) He has a predisposition for depression (lack of serotonin) (biological) Because he thinks of himself as worthless, he is self-deprecating & negative, which makes it hard to make friends (social) His lack of friends makes himself even more

depressed (psychological) Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Key concepts 1) Context important in defining & understanding psychopathology 2) Continuum between normal & abnormal behavior 3) Advantages & limitations of diagnosis

4) Principle of multiple causality 5) Mind & body connection Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Maude showers 8 times per day. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Paul occasionally wears a brown paper bag over his head. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Debbie is always sad/ unhappy.

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Your neighbor invites you over for dinner and he serves you dog Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Cheryl hardly ever bathes/

showers. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Larry wears 6 earrings in each ear. Randy believes that he is George

Washington. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Bill cant seem to hold a job and has no friends. Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Medical Model Mental disorders: Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Medical Model Mental disorders: Have physical causes, like any

disease Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Medical Model Mental disorders: Have physical causes, like any disease Can be diagnosed, treated, cured, classified like any other disease.

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Medical Model Mental disorders: Have physical causes, like any disease Can be diagnosed, treated, cured, classified like any other disease. However,

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Medical Model Mental disorders: Have physical causes, like any disease Can be diagnosed, treated, cured, classified like any other disease. However,

Difficult to classify internal, mental symptoms Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: Defining what is abnormal Medical Model Mental disorders: Have physical causes, like any disease Can be diagnosed, treated, cured,

classified like any other disease. However, Difficult to classify internal, mental symptoms Highly subjective Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: How classified DSM - V APAs Diagnostic and Statistical

Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) Released 2013 Changes made from previous: Disorders combined, eliminated, etc. Axis system of classification eliminated Changes shows how we think about Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS I: includes all mental health conditions except: Personality disorders Mental retardation. Do not write this down

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS I: includes all mental health conditions except: Personality disorders Mental retardation. AXIS II: Personality disorders & Mental retardation

May coexist with those in AXIS I Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS III: physical disorders and

conditions Physical condition causes mental disorder Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified

AXIS III: physical disorders and conditions Physical condition causes mental disorder Example: Hypothryroidism causes depression Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS III: physical disorders and conditions Physical condition causes mental disorder Example: Hypothryroidism causes depression Can be indirectly related

Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS III: physical disorders and conditions

Physical condition causes mental disorder Example: Hypothryroidism causes depression Can be indirectly related Example: Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS III: physical disorders and conditions Physical condition causes mental disorder Example: Hypothyroidism causes depression Can be indirectly related Example:

Do not write this Fear of asthma attack may provoke anxiety attack down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified

AXIS IV: Psychosocial & Environmental Problems Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified

AXIS IV: Psychosocial & Environmental Problems Something external causes abnormality Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria

How they are classified AXIS IV: Psychosocial & Environmental Problems Something external causes abnormality Example Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background

Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS IV: Psychosocial & Environmental Problems Something external causes abnormality Example Homelessness, lack of access to healthcare, extreme poverty, conflict with the law

Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS IV: Psychosocial & Environmental Problems Something external causes abnormality

Example Homelessness, lack of access to healthcare, extreme poverty, conflict with the law Do not write this Stress: new job, new baby, divorce, etc. down

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS V: Global assessment of level of functioning (GAF) Do not write this down

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS V: Global assessment of level of functioning (GAF) Measures ability to function in society Do not write this down

Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS V: Global assessment of level of functioning (GAF) Measures ability to function in society Code of 100 = no evidence of abnormality

Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria How they are classified AXIS V: Global assessment of level of functioning (GAF)

Measures ability to function in society Code of 100 = no evidence of abnormality Code of 90 = minimal symptoms Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria

How they are classified AXIS V: Global assessment of level of functioning (GAF) Measures ability to function in society Code of 100 = no evidence of abnormality Code of 90 = minimal symptoms Code of 1 = maximal danger harm to self and others Do not write this

down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria Example of how written Axis I: Major depressive disorder Axis II: Dependent Personality Disorder Axis III: None

Axis IV: Threat of job loss Axis V: GAF = 45 on admission, 65 at discharge Do not write this down Abnormal Psychology: Introduction & Background Introduction & Background: The Multi-Axial Diagnostic Criteria

There have been five editions of the DSM and over the years several disorders have been added to it & several have been dropped. What does this tell us about the nature of diagnosing mental illnesses? Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorder - general

Excessive & long lasting Not focused on any particular object or situation Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorder - general Cognitive: From generalized worry to

overwhelming fear Focuses on various possibilities of impending doom Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorder - general Cognitive: From generalized worry to overwhelming

fear Focuses on various possibilities of impending doom Behavioral: Behaviors (usually maladaptive) that reduce anxiety Avoidance of anxiety-provoking situations (unwilling to leave home) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorder - general Behavioral: Maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Avoidance of anxiety-provoking situations (unwilling to leave home) OCD Rituals Biological: Sympathetic nervous system

aroused Physiological complaints (headache, stomachache, Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorder - general Context important Truly dangerous situation: anxiety

normal Absent truly dangerous situation; not normal Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Person is continuously tense, apprehensive Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Person is continuously tense,

apprehensive Pervades most aspects of persons life Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Person is continuously tense, apprehensive Pervades most aspects of persons

life Sympathetic nervous system aroused Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Person is continuously tense, apprehensive Pervades most aspects of persons

life Sympathetic nervous system aroused No known physical cause Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Person is continuously tense, apprehensive

Pervades most aspects of persons life Sympathetic nervous system aroused No known physical cause At least 6 months Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Person is continuously tense, apprehensive Pervades most aspects of persons life Sympathetic nervous system aroused No known physical cause At least 6 months Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders

Panic Disorder Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Acute bursts of extreme anxiety Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Acute bursts of extreme anxiety Episode of intense dread Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Acute bursts of extreme anxiety

Episode of intense dread Person experiences: Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Acute bursts of extreme anxiety Episode of intense dread Person experiences: Terror

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Acute bursts of extreme anxiety Episode of intense dread Person experiences: Terror Physical symptoms (chest pain, choking, etc.)

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Acute bursts of extreme anxiety Episode of intense dread Person experiences: Terror Physical symptoms (chest pain, choking, etc.)

Called a panic attack Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder constant state of panic

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder constant state of anxiety Panic disorder normally calm, sudden cases of panic Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Phobias Persistent irrational fear of specific object or situation Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Phobias Persistent irrational fear of specific object

or situation Three main types Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Phobias Persistent irrational fear of specific object or situation Three main types 1) Social phobias

Social situations or activities When possibility of being observed & judged Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Phobias Persistent irrational fear of specific object or situation Three main types

1) Social phobias Social situations or activities When possibility of being observed & judged 2) Agoraphobia Fear of open spaces Fear/avoidance of situations when escape Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders

Phobias Three main types 1) Social phobias Social situations or activities When possibility of being observed & judged 2) Agoraphobia Fear of open spaces Fear/avoidance of situations when escape might be difficult/help unavailable (crowds) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Involves: Repetitive, unwanted anxiety producing thoughts (obsessions) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Involves: Repetitive, unwanted anxiety producing thoughts (obsessions) Irrational rituals repeated to protect against/reduce anxiety brought on by the obsessions (compulsions) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Trauma Emotionally overwhelming experience Possibility of death/serious injury (you or loved one) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Trauma Emotionally overwhelming experience Possibility of death/serious injury (you or loved one) Acute stress disorder Significant posttraumatic anxiety symptoms Occur within one month of traumatic

experience Not generally considered abnormal Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Acute stress disorder Significant posttraumatic anxiety symptoms Occur within one month of traumatic experience

Post-traumatic stress syndrome Significant posttraumatic anxiety symptoms Occur after one month of traumatic experience Often feels like reliving event Can be after act of violence, natural disaster, accident, etc. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress syndrome Significant posttraumatic anxiety symptoms Occur after one month of traumatic experience Often feels like reliving event Can be after act of violence, natural

disaster, accident, etc. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Classical conditioning Linking stimulus with response (fear) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Classical conditioning Linking stimulus with response (fear) Example Fell down stairs as a child Now afraid of heights Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement OCD: Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders

Behaviorism: Reinforcement OCD: Compulsive behavior reduces anxiety Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement OCD: Compulsive behavior reduces anxiety

Causing you to continue/increase that behavior Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement OCD: Compulsive behavior reduces anxiety Causing you to continue/increase that

behavior Washing hands reduces anxiety, more likely to continue doing it Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Phobia

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Phobia Avoiding or escaping the feared situation reduces anxiety Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Phobia Avoiding or escaping the feared situation reduces anxiety Which reinforces the phobic behavior Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders

Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Phobia Avoiding or escaping the feared situation reduces anxiety Which reinforces the phobic behavior Panic attack Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Phobia Avoiding or escaping the feared situation reduces anxiety Which reinforces the phobic behavior Panic attack Fearing panic attack, person escapes situation

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Phobia Avoiding or escaping the feared situation reduces anxiety Which reinforces the phobic behavior

Panic attack Fearing panic attack, person escapes situation This reduces anxiety Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Phobia

Avoiding or escaping the feared situation reduces anxiety Which reinforces the phobic behavior Panic attack Fearing panic attack, person escapes situation This reduces anxiety More often likely to repeat that action next time Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Panic attack Fearing panic attack, person escapes situation This reduces anxiety More often likely to repeat that action next time Learn to avoid panic-inducing situations

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behavioral/Observational learning Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders

Explaining Anxiety Disorders Behavioral/Observational learning We might learn fears through observing Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders

Behavioral/Observational learning We might learn fears through observing Parent fears dogs, model behavior to child that proper response to dog is fear Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Evolutionary perspective: Natural

Selection Anxiety general General state of anxiety kept us alive Let your guard down get eaten Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Evolutionary perspective: Natural

Selection Anxiety general General state of anxiety kept us alive Let your guard down get eaten Phobias Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders

Evolutionary perspective: Natural Selection Anxiety general General state of anxiety kept us alive Let your guard down get eaten Phobias Fearing things kept us alive Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders

Explaining Anxiety Disorders Evolutionary perspective: Natural Selection Anxiety general General state of anxiety kept us alive Let your guard down get eaten Phobias Fearing things kept us alive Biologically predisposed to fear threats

faced by our ancestors Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders Evolutionary perspective: Natural Selection Anxiety general General state of anxiety kept us alive

Let your guard down get eaten Phobias Fearing things kept us alive Biologically predisposed to fear threats faced by our ancestors Many phobias related to these things Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders

Explaining Anxiety Disorders Evolutionary perspective: Natural Selection OCD Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders

Evolutionary perspective: Natural Selection OCD Typically exaggerate behaviors that contribute to our species survival Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders

Evolutionary perspective: Natural Selection OCD Typically exaggerate behaviors that contribute to our species survival Examples Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders

Evolutionary perspective: Natural Selection OCD Typically exaggerate behaviors that contribute to our species survival Examples Grooming becomes Trichotillomania Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders

Explaining Anxiety Disorders Evolutionary perspective: Natural Selection OCD Typically exaggerate behaviors that contribute to our species survival Examples Grooming becomes Trichotillomania Washing becomes obsessive/ritual hand washing

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders The biological perspective: Genetic predisposition Heredity Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders The biological perspective: Genetic predisposition Heredity Neurotransmitter Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders The biological perspective: Genetic predisposition Heredity Neurotransmitter Too little GABA (I) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders The biological perspective: Genetic predisposition Heredity Neurotransmitter Too little GABA (I) or Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Explaining Anxiety Disorders The biological perspective: Genetic predisposition Heredity Neurotransmitter Too little GABA (I) or Too much Norepinephrine (E)

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Treating Anxiety Disorders The biological perspective: neurotransmitter Anxiolytics (anti-anxiety med) Either: GABA agonist (blocks reuptake) or

Norepinephrine antagonist (blocks neuroreceptor) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Counter conditioning Conditions new responses to stimuli

that usually trigger unwanted behavior Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Counter conditioning Conditions new responses to stimuli

that usually trigger unwanted behavior 3 types Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Anxiety Disorders Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Counter conditioning

3 types 1) Exposure/Flooding Therapy Treat anxieties by exposing them to what they fear and avoid Professor Gallagher and his controversial technique of simultaneously confronting the fear of heights, snakes, and the dark. Therapy: Psychotherapy varieties Treating Anxiety Disorders

Behaviorist perspective Counter conditioning 1) Exposure/Flooding Therapy Treat anxieties by exposing them to what they fear and avoid 2) Systematic desensitization Type of exposure therapy Gradual increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli (mild to extreme) Therapy: Psychotherapy varieties

Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Counter conditioning 2) Systematic desensitization Type of exposure therapy Gradual increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli (mild to extreme) Classical conditioning Replace: Fear producing stimuli -> fear With: Fear producing stimuli -> no fear

Replacing one response with another Therapy: Psychotherapy varieties Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Counter conditioning 2) Systematic desensitization Type of exposure therapy Gradual increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli (mild to extreme)

Classical conditioning Replace: Fear producing stimuli -> fear With: Fear producing stimuli -> no fear Replacing one response with another Cant feel fear and calm at same time Therapy: Psychotherapy varieties Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Systematic desensitization

Sight of spider causes anxiety (sympathetic nervous system arousal) Sight of spider causes anxiety (sympathetic nervous system arousal) Original response replaced by no response (sympathetic nervous system

The inevitable result of Systematic Desensitization is, of course, Tiffany marries a spider. The inevitable result of Systematic Desensitization is, of course, Tiffany marries a spider. Finding a drawing of a spider wearing a top hat was surprisingly easy Therapy: Psychotherapy varieties

Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Counter conditioning 3) Aversive conditioning Associating unpleasant state with unwanted behavior Therapy: Psychotherapy varieties

Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Aversive conditioning Therapy: Psychotherapy varieties Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Token Economy Operant conditioning

Rewards desired behavior Punishes undesired behavior Therapy: Psychotherapy varieties Treating Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist perspective Token Economy Operant conditioning Rewards desired behavior Punishes undesired behavior

Example: Swear jar Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder general Emotional extremes General functioning seriously disrupted

Different from normal mood: Duration Intensity Absence of cause Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Major Depressive disorders

Two or more weeks of: depressed moods feelings of worthlessness diminished interest or pleasure in most activities Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types

Major Depressive disorders Behavioral symptoms Unsmiling Slowed movements Spontaneous crying Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types

Major Depressive disorders Behavioral symptoms Unsmiling Slowed movements Spontaneous crying Cognitive symptoms Difficulty thinking, concentrating, remembering Negativity, pessimism Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Major Depressive disorders Cognitive symptoms Difficulty thinking, concentrating, remembering Negativity, pessimism Physical symptoms Changes in appetite Sleep disturbances (insomnia,

hypersomnia) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Dysthymic Disorder Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Dysthymic Disorder Characterized by chronic depression Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders

Mood Disorder: types Dysthymic Disorder Characterized by chronic depression Less severe than major depression, but longer lasting (at least 6 months) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders

Mood Disorder: types Manic episode Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Manic episode

A mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Manic episode A mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

Characteristics Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Manic episode A mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state Characteristics

Over talkative Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Manic episode A mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state Characteristics

Over talkative Overactive Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Manic episode A mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

Characteristics Over talkative Overactive Elated (easily irritated if crossed) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Manic episode

A mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state Characteristics Over talkative Overactive Elated (easily irritated if crossed) Little need for sleep Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders

Mood Disorder: types Bi-polar Disorder Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Bi-polar Disorder Formally called Manic Depressive

Disorder Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Bi-polar Disorder Formally called Manic Depressive Disorder Person alternates between:

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Bi-polar Disorder Formally called Manic Depressive Disorder Person alternates between: hopelessness & lethargy of

depression Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Bi-polar Disorder Formally called Manic Depressive Disorder Person alternates between:

hopelessness & lethargy of depression overexcited state of mania Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types Bi-polar Disorder Interval between moods at least 2

months Rapid cycling At least four major depressive, manic, hypomanic or mixed episodes during year period, or: Ultradian cycling have also been Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders

Mood Disorder: types Bi-polar Disorder Can involve psychosis: loss of contact with reality Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types

Bi-polar Disorder Behavioral symptoms Out-of-character energy or activity Disorganized goal-directed activity Spending sprees Risk taking Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: types

Bi-polar Disorder Cognitive symptoms Widely inflated self-esteem, grandiosity Easy distractibility Irritability, abusive when ideas questioned Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders

Explaining Mood Disorders Biological Perspective: Genetic predisposition Hereditary Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Explaining Mood Disorders Biological Perspective: Neurotransmitters Major depression

Lack of two neurotransmitters: Seratonin Norepinephrine Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Explaining Mood Disorders Biological Perspective: Neurons Bipolar Malfunction of sodium

potassium pump? poor neuron firing (depression) hypersensitive neuron firing (mania) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Explaining Mood Disorders Biological Perspective: Neurons

Bipolar Depressive stage - different cause then major depression Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Explaining Mood Disorder: Behavioral Perspective Stresses reinforcement Depression becomes learned

behavior Depressed at certain stimuli Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Explaining Mood Disorder: Cognitive Perspective Maladaptive thinking Focusing only on negative Perfectionists, set themselves up for failure

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Explaining Mood Disorder: Behavioral Perspective The Bio-Psycho-Social perspective Depression combination of three things: Biochemistry Cognition Social

Changing one affects others Negative thoughts feed negative moods, vice-versa Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Disorders: Mood Disorders The bio-psycho-social perspective Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders

Explaining Disorders: Mood Disorders The biopsychosocial perspective The Depression Cycle Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Treating Mood Disorder: Biological Perspective Major depression

SSRI: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor SNRI: Serotonin & Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (severe cases) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Mood Disorders Treating Mood Disorder: Biological Perspective

Bipolar Lithium Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorder general Involves split from normal/previous: Cognitive functions (memory) Consciousness

Identity Psychological (not physical) factors Usually trauma Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorder General Dissociative Disorder General Dissociative Disorder Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from:

previous memories thoughts Feelings Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorder General Dissociative Disorder General Dissociative Disorder Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from:

previous memories thoughts Feelings Detachment protects person from being overwhelmed by emotion Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder

Formally multiple personality disorder Rare, controversial Person exhibits two or more distinct personalities Own identity, name, behavior, etc. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorder Dissociative Amnesia

Dissociative Amnesia Inability to recall important personal information, usually following a traumatic event Too extensive to be ordinary forgetfulness No physical cause Repressed memory Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorder Dissociative Fuge Dissociative Fuge Form of dissociative amnesia Inability to recall ones past Often starts new life with new identity Usually far from home Now fairly rare (internet, etc.)

Dissociative Fugue: The Mystery of Agatha Christie Published on March 17, 2012 by Neel Burton, M.D. in Hide and Seek In dissociative fugue, a traumatic event may prompt a person to embark on an unexpected journey that may last for up to several months. During this journey, there is memory loss and confusion about personal identity or assumption of another identity. Once the fugue ends, the memory of the journey is lost. The celebrated mystery writer Agatha Christie disappeared from her home in Berkshire, England, on the evening of December 3, 1926. Her mother, to whom she had been close, had died some months earlier, and her husband Colonel Archibald Christie (Archie) was having an affair with one Nancy Neele. Archie made little effort to disguise this affair, and on the day that Agatha disappeared

he had gone to the home of some friends in Surrey to be reunited with Nancy. Before vanishing, Agatha had written several confused notes to Archie and others: in one, she wrote that she was simply going on holiday to Yorkshire, but in another that she feared for her life. The following morning, her abandoned car was discovered with headlights on and bonnet up in Surrey, not far from a lake called Silent Pool in which she had drowned one of her fictional characters. Inside the green Morris Cowley, she had left her fur coat, a suitcase with her belongings, and an expired driver's license. Fearing the obvious, the police dredged the lake, organized as many as 15,000 volunteers to beat the surrounding countryside, and even (for the first time in England for a missing person) flew airplanes overhead - but all without any trace

of Agatha. In fact, Agatha had checked into a health spa in Harrogate, Yorkshire, not under her own name but significantly under that of Teresa Neele'. Her disappearance soon made the national headlines; several people at the spa thought to have recognized her, but she kept to her story of being a bereaved mother from Cape Town. Only when, on December 14, the police brought Archie up to Harrogate could she be reliably and conclusively identified. As Archie entered the spa, Agatha simply said, Fancy, my brother has just arrived.' Agatha never discussed this perplexing episode and also excluded it from her biography. Perhaps she contrived it as an act of revenge, maybe even as a publicity stunt, but a dissociative fugue is an equally likely explanation and also

the one upheld by her then doctors. In any case, it should be borne in mind that, just like dissociative fugue, revenge and fame can also be construed as ego defenses. In Agatha's own words, Most successes are unhappy. That's why they are successes - they have to reassure themselves about themselves by achieving something that the world will notice.' Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorder Dissociative Personalization

Dissociative Personalization Persistent or recurrent experiences of feeling detached As if outside observer to ones mental processes or body Feeling like one is in a dream Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Dissociative Disorders Cognitive

Person cant handle trauma Dissociates from it: Creates personality that can, or isnt aware of trauma (DID) Forgets it (amnesia) Starts new life (fugue) Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Dissociative Disorders Psychodynamic

Form of defense mechanism Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Dissociative Disorders Psychodynamic Form of defense mechanism Behaviorism: Reinforcement Dissociation decreases traumatic experience Which reinforces, increases behavior

If youre familiar with the Pink Floyd album The Wall, this is an example of a dissociative disorder Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Group of severe disorders characterized by:

Disorganized & delusional thinking Disturbed perceptions Inappropriate emotions, actions Deterioration of former level of functioning Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Group of severe disorders characterized by: Disorganized & delusional thinking Disturbed perceptions Inappropriate emotions, actions Deterioration of former level of functioning Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Delusions: False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Delusions: False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur Hallucinations Sensory experience without sensory stimulation Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

If you think youre King George V, delusion Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General If you think youre King George V, delusion If you think you see King George V, hallucination

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Hallucinations Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Hallucinations Delusions Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Hallucinations Delusions Agitation Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Hallucinations Delusions Agitation Disorganized thinking Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Disorganized thinking Result of breakdown in selective attention? Cannot filter out irrelevant information/stimulus Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic

Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Hallucinations Delusions Agitation Disorganized thinking Inappropriate emotions & actions Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Inappropriate emotions & actions Examples of: Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Inappropriate emotions & actions Examples of: Emotion: Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Inappropriate emotions & actions Examples of: Emotion: Cry for no reason Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Inappropriate emotions & actions Examples of: Emotion: Cry for no reason Laugh during funeral

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people) Inappropriate emotions & actions Examples of: Emotion:

Cry for no reason Laugh during funeral Actions Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Positive symptoms (present in schizophrenics, but not healthy people)

Inappropriate emotions & actions Examples of: Emotion: Cry for no reason Laugh during funeral Actions Rock back and forth Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics) Introversion

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics) Introversion (lacking extroversion) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics) Introversion (lacking extroversion) Apathy Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics) Introversion (lacking extroversion) Apathy (lacking caring) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Negative symptoms (present in healthy

people, but not in schizophrenics) Introversion (lacking extroversion) Apathy (lacking caring) Low affect: showing little or no emotion Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics)

Introversion (lacking extroversion) Apathy (lacking caring) Low affect: showing little or no emotion (lacking emotion) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics)

Introversion (lacking extroversion) Apathy (lacking caring) Low affect: showing little or no emotion (lacking emotion) Low self-esteem leading to personal neglect Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Negative symptoms (present in healthy

people, but not in schizophrenics) Introversion (lacking extroversion) Apathy (lacking caring) Low affect: showing little or no emotion (lacking emotion) Low self-esteem leading to personal neglect (lacking self-esteem) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General

Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics) Introversion (lacking extroversion) Apathy (lacking caring) Low affect: showing little or no emotion (lacking emotion) Low self-esteem leading to personal neglect (lacking self-esteem) Catatonic state (coma-like) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General Negative symptoms (present in healthy people, but not in schizophrenics) Introversion (lacking extroversion) Apathy (lacking caring) Low affect: showing little or no emotion (lacking emotion) Low self-esteem leading to personal neglect (lacking self-esteem)

Catatonic state (coma-like) (lacking consciousness) Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Psychotic Schizophrenia General No longer categorized into different categories (paranoid, etc.) as of the DSM - V

Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Schizophrenia Biological Perspective: Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Schizophrenia Biological Perspective: Genetic predisposition Strong evidence

Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Schizophrenia Biological Perspective: Genetic predisposition Strong evidence Neurotransmitter Increased level of dopamine

Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Schizophrenia Biological Perspective: Genetic predisposition Strong evidence Neurotransmitter Increased level of dopamine Other

Evidence - prenatal viral infection Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Explaining Schizophrenia Biological Perspective Abnormalities in brain structures & functioning Found abnormalities in: Frontal lobes Temporal lobes

Basal ganglia (Motivation & voluntary movements; Cognitive & emotional functions) Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Treating Schizophrenia Biological Perspective Only perspective Narcoleptics Anti-psychotics

major-tranquilizers Dopamine antagonist Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders General Inflexible pattern of inner experience and outward behavior Traits that are: Long-standing

Relatively stable across time & place Typically maladaptive traits in otherwise normal people Continuum between normal and abnormal behavior: usually involve extreme versions of common personality traits Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders General

Behavior interferes with personal & social functioning Dont involve excessive anxiety, fluctuations in moods, disruptions of thoughts, etc. In other words, isnt an anxiety disorder, mood disorder, schizophrenia, etc. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders General

Grouped into three clusters based on common features: Cluster A: odd or eccentric Cluster B: dramatic, emotional, or erratic Cluster C: anxious or fearful Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster A

Paranoid personality disorder Distrust and fear of others Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster A Paranoid personality disorder Jennifer, Age 29, is convinced that her coworkers gossip about her when she is not around. Despite the fact that her colleagues are quite friendly, Jennifer is sure that their kindness is just a front and that they are secretly plotting was to make her look bad in front of her boss. Recently,

Jennifer discovered that she was missing some pages from an important presentation shed been preparing for months. Though her coworkers offered to help her look for the missing pages, Jennifer was convinced that one of them had stolen the pages in order to undermine her presentation. Jennifer had left her last job abruptly when she decided that she cold no longer stand the horrible backstabbing that went on around the company. At that job, Jennifer was passed over for a promotion that went to a pleasant but slightly less competent colleague. Jennifer confronted her boss, accused him of sabotaging her chances of promotion, and then quit. Ever since childhood, Jennifer was given to angry outbursts, and was acutely sensitive to her parents and teachers moods. For example, when she sensed that one of her teachers was in a

bad mood, Jennifer would decide that the teacher no longer liked her; Jennifer would than become cold and hostile toward the teacher. She has always had trouble maintaining relationships because she invariably becomes jealous, suspicious, and vengeful. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B Antisocial personality disorder Self-centered lack of concern for others

and consequences of his/her own actions Also known as psychopath/sociopath Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B Antisocial personality disorder When the police arrested Nick, a 24-year-old unemployed man, for mugging a 65-year-old woman as she walked home from church, he denied that he had been anywhere near her neighborhood and seemed appalled at the implication that he might have committed

the crime. As the investigation continued that police discovered that Nick had a long history of similar crimes, and they also found two eyewitnesses to the mugging. When confronted with this evidence, Nick admitted that he had mugged the woman, explaining that he needed the money to visit a friend. When the police asked why he hit a defenseless 65-year-old woman, Nick stated a matter-of-factly that she had hesitated too long before handing over the purse. Nick was convicted and jailed, and in prison he quickly developed a reputation for having an uncanny ability to get his way. For example, Nick charmed one of the guards into buying him a carton of cigarettes each week in exchange for Nicks promise that he would exert his influence to keep order among the prisoners. When one of the

supervisory staff became aware of the contraband cigarettes, Nick did not hesitate to turn in the guard who purchased the cigarettes in order to avoid being punished himself. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B Borderline personality disorder Unstable sense of self Incredibly impulsive Tendency towards strict "black-and-white"

thinking. Have histories of unstable relationships Engage in self-destructive behavior such as: Self-mutilation Reckless spending Binge eating Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B Borderline personality disorder Lou, a 27-year-old salesman, has long-term friendships with several male

friends, but he has what he calls trouble with women. Lous good looks and charm make it easy for him to get dates, but he has difficulty sustaining a relationship over a period of time. In his most recent relationship, he fell madly in love in just a few days, and he and his girlfriend enjoyed a whirlwind beginning to their romance. But, when his new girlfriend needed to leave town for a short business trip, Lou was devastated. After a long night of drinking he called his girlfriend at her hotel to say that he felt unwanted and alone and that if she did not cut her trip short he might hurt himself. Lous friends have watched him go through several similar experiences with other women. His friends even have noticed that Lou becomes surprisingly angry with them when they have to change or cancel plans that they have made with him. Recently,

Lou received a somewhat critical evaluation from one of his supervisors at work. The negative tone of the evaluation came as a complete surprise to Lou despite the fact that he had missed work repeatedly over the course of the prior six months. He impulsively confronted his supervisor; who he had previously liked, and bad-mouthed him as an evil idiot to his co-workers. Lou then left work early, went home, and drank from his liquor cabinet until he passed out. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B

Histrionic personality disorder Extreme theatricality behavior Constant need to be the center of attention Many superficial, but no close, relationships Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B

Histrionic personality disorder Kathy sought psychotherapy because she was upset about the recent breakup of a romantic relationship. She explained to the therapist that her boyfriend seemed to lose interest in the relationship over time, and that this happened repeatedly in other relationships. Despite the fact that Kathy was initially quite charming and engaging, her therapist soon noticed that her emotions had a superficial quality. Even when Kathy would weep throughout the entire session, he had the feeling that she cried merely to get sympathy. When pressed to explore the cause of her distress, Kathys response were usually vague and imprecise. She would say things like its so tragic you

know how men can be! in a dramatic, even theatrical way, but she would change the subject. Though Kathy had a number of acquaintances, she didnt really have any close friends. Her coworkers liked her but described her a flashy and shallow and found it difficult to develop a relationship with her that went beyond a surface relationship. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B Histrionic personality disorder

Scarlett OHara Gone with the Wind Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B Narcissistic personality disorder Inflated sense of self-importance, superiority, uniqueness, etc. Believe other people should also

recognize his/her importance One-upmanship Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster B Narcissistic personality disorder Monica, who works as a sales representative for a pharmaceutical company, is quite unhappy at work. Though she is good at her job, she is painfully aware that she is not the top salesperson in her region. Monica makes frequent appointments with her boss

to complain about her assignments, arguing that she is entitled to the best territory so that she can blow everyone else away. When Monicas boss refused to assign her to a hospital where a colleague was achieving record sales, Monica stormed out of his office complaining enviously about the colleague and badmouthing her boss to anyone that would listen. Monica has some friends, but she has always had difficulty holding to anyone friend for very long. Most people find Monica to be impressive when they first meet her, but after a while they tire of her constant preoccupation with herself and her own achievements and minimal interest in other people. When friends share news of their accomplishments with Monica, she often responds by pointing out how she has had a similar, but superior, personal

success. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster C Avoidant personality disorder May be so afraid of criticism or rejection that they withdraw from social situations Different than anxiety disorder

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster C Avoidant personality disorder From early childhood, Claire has been described by her family as painfully shy. In elementary school she would watch her classmates play while she stood at the edge of the playground. While it was clear that she longed to join in the daily games, Claire felt sure that her classmates did not like her and thought she was a dork. Encouragement from her teachers and invitations to birthday parties did not help Claire to feel more confident about making friends. Claire found some relief from her social difficulties by throwing herself into her schoolwork when she reached high school. She achieved extremely high grades and scored well on her

college entrance exams. Claire and her parents were pleased with her academic achievement, but Claire also felt that her academic ability simply affirmed her reputation as a geeky girl with no friends. When it came time to apply to college, Claire decided that she would prefer to attend a trade school where she cold learn secretarial skills while living at home with her parents. When asked about her reluctance to attend college, Claire explained that she was worried that her professors would think that her professors would think that she had nothing of substance to offer in class, and her classmates and potential friends would find her boring. Though Claire tended to focus on her academic concerns, her parents also knew that she was worried about what it would be like to move away from home and live in a dorm. Even though Claire had managed to develop a few superficial friendships in high school, she continued to feel that she could not make friends

and would perceive even the most minor interactions (such as a friend saying that she already had plans for a coming weekend) as proof that others dislike her. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster C Dependent personality disorder Intensely dependent on others Feels uncomfortable when alone Has difficulty making decisions without

the approval or advice of others. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster C Dependent personality disorder William, 32, sought therapy because he was extremely distraught after being left by his wife of ten years. Though William makes a comfortable living as a systems analyst at a large company, he is extremely worried that he wont be able to care for himself now that his wife is gone, and he pleaded

with her not to divorce him. Indeed, he had relied on her to make or approve of most of the decisions in his life, from what tie to wear each day to whether he should ask for a promotion a work. Williams wife tired of his lack of independence and encouraged him, to no avail, to do things on his own. Interestingly, Williams boss had told William many of the same things that William had heard from his wife. In the annual evaluations of Williams work performance, his boss has noted that William is overly hesitant and cautious when making routine decisions, and the he tends to go from colleague to colleague asking advice, even in familiar situations when he has been successful in the past.

Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Personality Disorders Cluster C Obsessive compulsive personality disorder Preoccupation with lists and orderliness To the point that it interferes with interpersonal relationships, occupation, etc.

DSM V: Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) Criteria A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following: 1) is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost. 2) shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met) 3) is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)

4) is over-conscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification) 5) is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value 6) is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things 7) adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes 8) shows rigidity and stubbornness Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Personality Disorders Cluster C Obsessive compulsive personality disorder Natalie is a supervisor at a company that distributes cleaning supplies. The person who works directly below her quit after only four months, and the person who held the position before that quit after only three weeks. Neither employee could stand Natalies exacting and seemingly meaningless guidelines for how work had to be done. For example, Natalie was preoccupied with the companys regulations and would insist that those who worked for her provide a proof of illness if they called in sick. She made detailed lists that specified how every task had to be done, down to the correct procedure for making coffee in the company lounge. Natalie is in her office for long hours each day, making sure that

her work is perfect and keeping a close eye on the quality of work done by her subordinates. Little time is left over for a social life, which has contributed to Natalies difficulties in finding and maintaining a romantic relationship. Several months ago Natalie started to date a man whom she liked very much. Though their relationship got off to a good start, he soon started to feel that Natalie was bossy and inflexible. For example, she refused to stay out late (past 9 pm) on weekend evenings because it would disrupt her strict sleep schedule. Similarly, her friends and family had complained for years that Natalies inflexibility made it difficult to enjoy time with her. Abnormal Psychology: Types of Disorders

Types of Disorders: Personality Disorders Explaining Personality Disorders: Cognitive Maladaptive thinking Explaining Personality Disorders: Behaviorism Generally thought to be reinforced behavior/reinforced maladaptive thinking Perhaps physical component (structure of the brain)

Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorders General Complaints of physical symptoms No physiological or organic explanation Psychologically based Symptoms not voluntary or under conscious control.

Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorders Types Somatization disorder Multiple physical complaints with no organic explanation Patients strongly believe there is impairment Dont usually show actual symptoms Onset before age 30.

Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorders Types Somatization disorder Multiple physical complaints with no organic explanation Patients strongly believe there is impairment Dont usually show actual symptoms

Onset before age 30. Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorders Types Conversion disorder Specific physical complaint (paralysis of the legs, blindness) Patients strongly believe there is impairment

Often actually exhibit actual symptoms But may show less distress than Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorders Types Conversion disorder Specific physical complaint (paralysis of the legs, blindness)

Patients strongly believe there is impairment Often actually exhibit actual symptoms But may show less distress than Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorders Types Hypochondriasis

Persistent preoccupation with one's health, physical condition Genuine symptoms of any disorder lacking. Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorders Related Mnchausen syndrome Fakes illness, injury for attention

Consciously or unconsciously? May self-injure (drink bleach, etc.) Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorders Related Mnchausen syndrome by proxy Caretaker (usually parent) fakes illness, injury in another (usually child)

Reasons: Garner sympathy Play martyr So child needs them Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders Explaining Somatoform Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Similar to anxiety

Avoidance behavior: becoming ill to avoid anxiety-arousing stress Behavior reinforced two ways: Anxiety is reduced. Interpersonal gains (sympathy, support) Result: behavior strengthened Abnormal Psychology: Explaining Disorders Types of Disorders: Somatoform Disorders

Treating Somatoform Disorders Behaviorism: Reinforcement Counter conditioning Token economy

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