Chapter 11: lightning this girl is charged !! Source: Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, Fundamentals of Physics Lightning is due to in-cloud electric charge separation. This separation can only be understood in view of cloud
processes. Lightning Conductor large electric potential small
electric potential Source: Viemeister, The Lightning Book lifecycle of a lightning strike
pilot leader stepped leader return stroke textbook, Fig. 11.28 Lightning Strike Frequency
Ground strikes /km2/yr Source: Ackerman and Knox, Meteorology lightning occurs mostly over land reasons: 1. CAPE and convective updrafts are weaker for marine thunderstorms 2. the marine environment has fewer CCN and fewer ice nuclei.
review Final will cover
chapter chapter chapter chapter 7 global winds
9 airmasses and fronts 10 extratropical cyclones 11 thunderstorms and tornadoes Final is similar in format and value to the two mid-semester tests Summary of chapter 7: how winds blow around the globe General circulation model Hadley cell, Ferrel cell, Polar cell
trade winds, mid-lat westerlies, polar easterlies Polar front; mid-latitude heat transfer by transient airmass advection jet stream above the polar front (thermal wind) effect of continents and seasons ocean currents, and upwelling Summary of chapter 9: airmasses and fronts
airmass classification cT cP mT
mP frontal classification cold fronts
warm fronts stationary fronts occluded fronts Summary of chapter 10: how a mid-latitude frontal disturbance works Fronts exist, may strengthen, and may evolve
Polar front (initial) Developing phase (open wave) Mature phase (occlusion first forms) Dissipating stage (low far into the cold air) This evolution is tightly connected to the jet stream
Evolution of a frontal disturbance Chapter 10 review contd
The jet stream is consistent with a large horizontal temperature gradient (the atmosphere is baroclinic). The jet stream has waves, called Rossby waves These waves may first form in the lee of mountains (lee cyclogenesis) These waves propagate, and are unsteady The shorter waves are important for weather at the surface, because
UL divergence causes uplift, and cyclogenesis near the surface. These waves, in turn, are affected by the low-level cyclogenesis.
UL divergence occurs ahead of the Rossby trof Warm advection ahead of the surface low builds the UL ridge Cold advection behind the surface low deepens the UL trof. The evolution of midlatitude frontal disturbances is understood by the synergy between UL wave evolution, and LL cyclone evolution (baroclinic instability).
Finally, the raison dtre of these frontal disturbances is to transfer heat poleward fast fast slow
Note the advection of cold and warm airmasses Chapter 11: review All thunderstorm types require static instability
The more instability, the stronger the updraft, and the more severe the storm can be Three types exist:
Ordinary (air mass, single-cell) Multicell Supercell The distinction between these types is based on wind shear
Low-level warm, humid air Upper-level cool air Ordinary storms: little shear short-lived Supercell storms: strong shear -> long-lived
Thunderstorms are sometimes organized on the mesoscale as large storm clusters (maybe squall lines) Chapter 11: review contd Supercell storms are marked by Rotating updraft Due to the tilting of horizontal spin (from the wind shear) Strengthened by vortex stretching
Separate downdraft Sometimes also a hook echo a bounded weak-echo region A v-notch Most tornadoes, and all severe ones (F3-F5), are spawned by supercell storms
The supercell mesocyclone may spawn a tornado by the same mechanisms: Vortex tilting Vortex stretching Tornadoes are classified from F0 to F5, according to intensity Lightning results from charge separation in a thunderstorm supercooled droplets need to collided with graupel/hail
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