LEARNING FOR ACCESS: IMPACT ON ENROLMENT AND LEARNING
LEARNING FOR ACCESS: IMPACT ON ENROLMENT AND LEARNING LEVELS OF CHILDREN Pratham 59th Annual Comparative and International Education Society Conference (CIES) 8th - 13th March, 2015 Farwa Fatima PRESENTATION Introduction MDGs/EFA Goals; Proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Definition of OOSC Case of Pakistan Learning for Access Program-Framework Chalo Parho Barho Camp-Coverage Methodology of Analysis Data Source Results- Enrolment, Retention and Learning Levels of Children
Conclusion INTRODUCTION Education is a powerful tool by which economically and socially marginalized adults and children can lift themselves out of poverty and participate fully as citizens Nearly 57 million children of primary school age (typically between 6 and 11 years of age) are not enrolled in school Two-fifths of these childrenor 15 million girls and 10 million boysare
unlikely to ever set foot in a classroom The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education for All (EFA) targets for Universal Primary Education (UPE) will not be met by 2015 UNFINISHED BUSINESS OF MDGS AND EFA And.. 250 million Children In School But Not Learning! (GMR 2013-14)
BY 2015 GOAL 2 MAY REMAIN UNMET. Pakistan is close to EFA targets set for Target No. 2 but QUALITY is a challenge PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS(SDGS) BY OWG The post 2015 development agenda across the proposed 17 goals build a sharper case for bringing OOSC to schools with strong links to other goals and indicators - (Goals 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,9, 10,11, 16..17) Goal 1: End poverty everywhere Goal 2: Nutrition Improvement Goal 3: Health Gains Health for All Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and
equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all Goal 5: Gender Equality and Empowerment Goals 6 & 7 : Water & Energy Sustainability For All Goals 8 & 9: Economic Growth & Innovation Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries
Goals 11-15: Environmental Protection and Resilience Goal 16: Peaceful just and inclusive societies and institutions Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development DEFINITION OF OUT OF SCHOOL CHILDREN (OOSC) The Global Partnership for Education (GPE) has defined the term OOSC to include children who: Do not have
access to a school in their community Drop out of the education system Out of School Children (OOSC) includes children who: Enroll but do not attend school Do not enroll despite the availability of a school
FACTORS THAT LIMIT ACCESS TO SCHOOLS Income poverty Ethnicity Poor health and nutrition Disability Gender Child labor Migration Geographical disadvantage s
Cultural factors Situations of fragility and conflict THE CASE OF PAKISTAN Pakistan is at the centre of these unmet global targets for OOSC- takes second position after Nigeria at estimates of 5.7 million at primary level and 25 million for age groups of 5-16 The 18th Amendment (Article 25-A) to the constitution of Pakistan declares education as a fundamental guaranteed by the State Each province has deliberated enactments to implement Article 25-A Innovations are being tested to address the challenges of learning and access
ASER 2014 Results: National-Rural 2014*: 6-10% 1120% Above 30% Children (ages 6-16) not attending school: 21% 15% never enrolled, 6% drop out * Selected Urban areas
National-Urban 2014 : 21-30% Children (ages 6-16) not attending school: 6% 3% never enrolled, 3% drop out LEARNING FOR ACCESS PROGRAM The program builds on the The Five Dimensions of Exclusion framework; targets children of Dimensions 2, 3, 4 and 5 It is implemented at village level for one year in two stages
www.itacec.org/learningforaccess/ STAGE 1: LEARNING CAMP MODEL: Duration: 03 months Conduct a school survey to identify schools that require support Identify children from grades 3, 4 and 5 of these schools who are at a risk of dropping out Conduct a 100% household survey to identify OOSC in the communities Conduct Baithaks or community meetings to disseminate results of the household survey and convince the community the need to send OOSC to schools Identify Para teachers from amongst the community who are willing to bring OOSC to schools and teach Train the Para Teachers according to a CAMaL methodology - Combined Activities for Maximized Learning Set up Chalo Parho Barho (CPB) Camps at the
identified school premises or available community spaces after school hours (2-3 hours every day for 45 days) Ensure Para Teachers bring identified OOSC and identified in school children to the camp CHALO PARHO BARHO (CPB) CAMP - LETS READ AND GROW CPB Camp Minimum 40 children in each Camp Baseline assessment 15 days CPB Camp 15 days CPB Camp 3 to 5 days break Total Academic Duration: 45days
15 days CPB Camp 3 to 5 days break STAGE 2: WHOLE SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM ENSURE RETENTION OF CHILDREN Duration: 09 months Mainstream Para teachers into the schools to help with the increased enrolment Build capacity of all school teachers through regular subject-based trainings Provide Teaching Learning Materials (TLMs) and small libraries/reading kits for children Establish Students Club to encourage students to conduct school enrichment activities Track learning levels of mainstreamed children Strengthen School Management Committees (SMCs) and School Councils
(SCs) Maintain and repair basic necessary school infrastructure CHALO PARHO BARHO (CPB) CAMP - COVERAGE Provinces Districts Tehsils UCs Villages Schools 3 4 11 26 155 200 Schools Covered District
Boys Girls Mix Total Sukkur 48 19 19 86 Shikarpur 19 10 17
46 Sukkur 78 Lasbela 37 1 38 Shikarpur 45 8 30
Lasbela 37 44 200 Muzaffergarh 41 Muzaffergarh 4 Total 18 108 48 No. of Camps Set Up
Total 201 METHODOLOGY Construct basic variables to estimate the impact on enrolment, retention and learning levels of children in the camp Check for transitions across learning levels of children in the camp through a variable such that it is equal to one if the child transitions from a lower category to a higher category in a subject and 0 otherwise Introduce a basic regression model to see the impact of variables on the learning levels of the children. The model is as follows: Where Li indicates transition of children from a lower level category to a higher level category in subject i, Aj indicates ages of the children in category j, G indicates
gender of the children and S indicates school status (out of school or in-school) of the children. Use a univariate dprobit model to estimate the equation above. Hence, the model takes the form: Where a subscript index subjects is (i). Adding parameters for district and province variables, the model looks like: Where a subscripts index subjects is (i), and a district is (d). Our dependent variable is defined as: y = 1 if children transition from a lower category to i a higher category in subject I or 0 otherwise X contains a set of control variables which include dummy variables for age in categories 5-8, 9-12, 1316, gender and school status of the children; includes dummy variables for districts and captures the time invariant district fixed effects; is the error term.
DATA: Data collected for the purpose by the external Monitoring and Evaluation team hired by the implementing body) for the Learning for Access Program. It gives longitudinal data over two periods from four districts, as follows: Sukkur Shikarpur Lasbela Muzaffargarh
RESULTS-ENROLMENT: A total of 8790 children attended the CPB Camps across the four districts District-wise enrolment shows that 32.4% of the children are in Sukkur, 30.1% of the children are in Shikarpur, 9.4% of the children are in Lasbela and 28.1% of the children are in Muzaffargarh. RESULTS-RETENTION: Data reveals that baseline assessments were conducted for all 8790 children. After 15 days, at the time of the 1st term assessment, 99.9% of the children remained. After 30 days, at the time of the 2nd term assessment, 99.2% of the children remained RESULTS-LEARNING LEVELS
Transition of Children across Subjects: Data reveals that positive transition patterns for children across all three subjects. 79.6% for Urdu/Sindh/Balochi, 85.2% for English 84.6% for Math Children transitioned most in English and least in the local language PROBIT MODEL RESULTS: Correlation between learning transitions and status of the children (out-of-school/in-school): Significant negative coefficient for the status of the children for each subject, the results reveal that being an in-school child decreases the predicted probability for the child to transition from a lower level to a higher level category in all three subjects. Correlation between learning transitions and gender of the children: Significant negative coefficient for the gender of the children for each subject, the results reveal that being a female decreases the predicted probability for the child to transition from a lower level to a higher level category in all three subjects.
Correlation between learning transitions and age of the children: Significant positive coefficients for the lower two categories for the age of the children for each subject, the results reveal that being younger increases the predicted probability for the child to transition from a lower level to a higher level category in all three subjects. Significant results with similar trends when controlled for district fixed effects CONCLUSION Highlights the effectiveness of learning model camps to reduce the number of OOSC in a community and to improve learning levels of the enrolled children as an effort to retain them later in school CAMaL Methodology allows for close connection between teachers and the children, builds interest of the children to come to school and that of the teachers to help children progress to the next stage of learning Grouping and teaching of children according to different learning levels gives children a chance to strive beyond limits
Engagement of local community members as para-teachers for the camp raises awareness of the need to enroll all children in schools, provides easy access to the community to solve the problem themselves The model takes care of basic demand and supply side realities while creating sustainable solutions through simple and cost-effective strategies Holding an in-school child status decreases the probability for the child to make a positive transition: Directs attention to scrutinize school and teaching systems that are slowing down the learning growth of children. Need to revamp the existing teaching methodologies to provide an engaging environment for positive development Being female decreases the probability for the child to transition to a higher level category: Raises the need to explore why such a correlation might exist; it may be due to the way girls are bred in certain societies and are purposely kept away from education. Calls for work towards inclusive education, with a special focus on providing quality education to girls. Positive direct relationship with age
Sets firm ground for rigorous policy frameworks that guarantee quality education in pre-primary and primary years as a key to foundations for lifelong development STORY FROM THE FIELD: FIGHTING TO EMPOWER THE TRAPPED CHILDREN OF MY COMMUNITY: STORY OF SEEMA Seema Saher is a passionate advocate of empowering children of her Diwala community through education. Her story is quite inspiring and echoes the lives of many girls living in the Diwala community in Usman Koria, Muzaffargarh. She visits different households within the community and fights with the household heads to send their children to school arguing for education as a right in words as simple as Before you make your children a source of earning, make them human. Since she has joined, she has hounded many household owners adamant to not send their children to schools, fought arguments with them and successfully convinced many to send their children to school. She recounts the story of three girls- Saima, Parveen and Sumaira, who belong to a juggi-an area notoriously known to be inhabited by faqeer (beggars). She discusses how the household owner would not send his children to schools not just because they are unaware of the benefits education accrues, but also because they did not want other children at school to make fun of their childrens background. Seema assured
them that his children are her responsibility now and that nobody will make fun of them. She successfully won his confidence and brought his children to school. All three girls have been enjoying a lot at school and have dreams that they never before could dare to think of. This is just one story. Seema has many other success stories to tell. She is surely the Malala of Diwala! ANNEX CPB ASSESSMENT TOOLS
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