Psychology of Language--Baldwin MEANING Ellis Ch. 4: Meaning
Psychology of Language--Baldwin MEANING Ellis Ch. 4: Meaning Meaning as a reference both to: Specific objects: my computer Categories, abstract qualities: /computer/
Problems with meaning Words are associated Words are ambiguous Words are redundant Words are poetic, metaphoric, contradictory, anomalous Structural Semantics
Object languagethe meaning of a complex expression of objects (Ellis, 1999, p. 57). Assumes meaning already assigned to words through social construction Not concerned with actual meanings or providing clues to common usage (p. 57) Concerned with way a sentence can be
true: Empirical truth: Kelvin has dreadlocks Linguistic truth: All men have dreadlocks if, then, and Semantics: Structural Criticisms of structural semantics? Stop-gaps: Contextual semantics: how people
assign meaning in context (including, but not limited to possibility, probability, etc.) Lexical semantics: Study of word meanings Standard Theory: (Chomsky) Markers: characteristics that show similarity/ difference: Whale Shark Jellyfish +AQUATIC, etc.
Rules: What the category of meaning can Implications of Semantics Linguistic relativity: the future subjunctive Parsing meaning: Wine Doritos TP
New words Where do they come from? How are they formed? How do some catch on and others not? Langue and Parole (beyond Ellis)
Langue: The structural meanings, usages, available in a language Parole: The meaning of a specific utterance in its context, the actual words and behaviors of communication The Basics Connotation
Denotation Triangle of Meaning Proper meaning superstition (line at bottom should be dotted!)
Practice [B-a-b-e] [A-r-a-b] Symbolic Interactionism Humans are distinctsymbol
manipulating The social world is a dynamic and dialectical webunstable, in process, never fixed The social world isinteractive SI seeks to look beneath symbols to find underlying patterns and forms of social life Implications Mind
Self Society (and language, and meaning!) Semiotics Original SemioticsSaussure and Others Sign = signified + signifier Not word & object, but sound pattern & category (sense, but not reference) Value of sign depends on relation to other
signs Semiotics--Barthes 1.Sign = signifier + signified 2.Sign systems and codes 3.Ideology/
Problem identification Research questions Constructs & Variables Research design Randomized experiments Controlling and manipulating variables Random assignment Independent vars vary within and between subjects Threats to internal validity Selection / selection by maturation Maturation History Instumentation Mortality Classification of research...
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