Rocks and Minerals - Science Olympiad

Rocks and Minerals Station 1 a) Put these forms of carbon in order of from lowest to highest rank. (A-D) b) Identify each form of carbon. c) Which specimen is the most commonly found in America? d) What is the answer to part B commonly called? e) Which specimen is the most stable form? f) Which country is the biggest producer of Specimen C? g) Which specimen is the most environmentally friendly? h) Why does coal generally form in swamp environments?

Station 2 a) Identify each rock specimen. b) Match the metamorphic rocks with their parent rocks. (A-F) c) Specimen E has a property called continuous cleavage. Define what that means. d) Is continuous cleavage dependent on scale? e) What specific continuous cleavage does Specimen E have? f) How close do the layers of the rock have to be to be considered this specific continuous cleavage? g) What is the difference between rock cleavage and mineral cleavage? h) True or false: The grain size of the minerals in a

metamorphic rock decrease as temperature increases. Station 3 a) Identify the rock. b) What mineral is apparent? Be specific as to what type of mineral it is. c) What is the metamorphic grade of this rock? d) What environment did it form in? e) What 3 things does foliation form from? f) Which type of metamorphism does foliation occur? Station 4 a) Identify Specimen A b) Identify Specimen B

c) Is specimen B mafic or felsic? d) What is an obvious general distinction in color between mafic and felsic rocks? e) What causes the contrast in color? f) Which is the most common felsic rock found on Earth? g) What is the percentage of silicon dioxide needed to classify a rock as felsic? h) How would you define the texture of specimen A? i) What is the plutonic equivalent of specimen A? j) Which specimen could occur in a batholith? Station 5 a) Identify this mineral. b) What is this minerals crystal structure?

c) Where in the U.S. are deposits commonly found? Be specific about the states and locations! d) What did the Greeks call this stone and why? e) Does the mineral commonly appear in twinned formations? f) Does this mineral typically occur in mafic or felsic igneous rocks? g) Which other variety of this mineral is known as one of the birthstones for November? Station 6 a) Identify this mineral. b) Describe the luster. c) Which state has this mineral as their state mineral?

d) What substance does this mineral have in some of its natural forms that can cause cancer? e) Circle the products/materials that use this mineral. f) Which country mines this mineral the most? Station 7 Identify these minerals. a) Specimen A b) Specimen B c) Specimen C d) Which specimen is magnetic? e) Which is more common, A or B? f) Which two specimens belong to the Sulfide group?

Station 8 Identify these minerals. a) Specimen A b) Specimen B c) Specimen C d) Specimen D e) Which specimen has the most color varieties in the world? f) Specimen C has the property thermoluminescence. Define what that means. g) Which other two specimens in this station exhibit that property as well? Station 9

Place these minerals in order from softness to hardness. a) Softest b) c) d) Hardest e) of the specimens are markers on a qualitative scale. What scale is this? f) Which specimen is the only one not on it? g) Identify the mineral of part f). Station 10 Identify the structures of these minerals. a) Specimen A

b) Specimen B c) What mineral does B most commonly pseudomorph into? d) Between B and the pseudomorph of B, what stays the same and what changes? e) Define what a pseudomorph is. f) What kind of pseudomorph would B to its respective mineral be? Station 11 a) Identify Specimen A b) Identify Specimen B c) Are these minerals commonly found in igneous

rocks? d) What is the main physical difference between these two specimens and is often used to determine the two apart? e) Which specimen crystallizes at a lower temperature according to Bowens Reaction Series? f) What is the difference between the continuous and discontinuous branch of the Bowens Reaction Series? g) What experiment did Bowen do to determine the order of crystallization of minerals as the temperature drops? h) Which type of rock is better understood

because of Bowens Reaction Series? Station 12 a) Identify whether these sedimentary rocks are Clastic or Organic and which environment they are found. b) Identify Specimen A c) Identify Specimen B d) Identify Specimen C e) Are any of these commonly found in the transitional area where the land meets the ocean? f) Which sedimentary rock is very similar to Specimen A?

g) What is the physical difference between them? h) Which is more common and why? Station 13 a) Most minerals in the Earths crust belong to which mineral group? b) What distinguishes plagioclase from orthoclase feldspar? c) Which mineral group tends to be dense, metallic in luster and have cubic crystals? d) Why do olivine and quartz never occur together in igneous rocks? e) The addition of magnesium to limestone creates which sedimentary rock?

f) Which two minerals can form into rosette formations often called desert roses? g) Which of the two minerals has a more defined and sharper rose? Station 14 a) Label the Rock Cycle using the word bank below Sedimentary Rock Melting

Magma Heat & pressure Melting Crystallization Igneous rock Metamorphic Rock Weathering, erosion & deposition

Weathering, erosion & deposition Compaction & cementation Sediment Heat & pressure

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