Roaring Twenties - CHISD

Post WWI American Foreign Policy and World War II AP U.S. History American Foreign Policy of the 1920s Disarmament Initiatives Washington Naval Conference (1921) Five-Power Treaty U.S.:GB:Japan:France:Ita ly 5:5:3:1.75:1.75 Kellogg-Briand (1928)

Pact American Foreign Policy of the 1920s Economic Policies Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) Dawes Plan (1924) Herbert Hoover (R) (19291933) Disarmament London Naval Conference (1930) Good Neighbor Policy Clark Memorandum (1930) Stimson

Doctrine (1932) In response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931) Franklin Delano Roosevelt (D) (19331945) Depression and Foreign Policy Good Neighbor Policy Pan-American Conferences (1933, 1936) London Economic Conference (1933) Reciprocal Trade Agreements The Axis Powers and Appeasement

Japan Invasion of Manchuria (1931) Invasion of China (1937) Italy Invasion of Ethiopia (1935) Germany Remilitarization of the Rhineland (1936) Anschluss and the Sudetenland (1938) Global Response

Munich Conference (1938) Molotov-Ribbentrop NonAggression Pact (1939) German invasion of Poland begins World War II in Europe (1939) American Isolationists Characteristics Midwest region Rural sectors Republicans and conservatives Nye Committee Merchants of Death

America First Committee Avoid possible entanglements with European affairs in WWII Promote isolationism across the nation FDR and Preparedness Neutrality Acts (19351937) Cash and Carry (1939) Selective Service Act of 1940 Destroyers-for-Bases (1940)

Election of 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) Drafted for unprecedented third term Wendell Willkie (R) Make New Deal programs more efficient FDRs Four Freedoms By Norman Rockwell Speech Worship

From Want From Fear Arsenal of Democracy Lend-Lease Act (1941) Provide arms to Great Britain on credit and decisively pro-British neutrality Atlantic Charter (1941) Promote and secure selfdetermination and free trade No pursuit of territorial expansion

Blueprint for United Nations Pearl Harbor U.S. Embargoes on Japan Prohibited trade of steel and oil Required Japans halt on expansion and removal from China December 7, 1941 Japanese surprise attack on U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii 2,400 Americans killed a date that will live in infamy

United States enters WWII U.S. declares war on Japan (12/8/41) Germany and Italy declare on U.S. German invasion of Soviet Union (1942) Allies U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union Axis Germany, Italy, Japan The Economy and World War II

Economic Recovery and Growth GDP $103.6B - 1929 $56.4B - 1933 $101.4B - 1940 $223.1B - 1945 Unemployment

17 million new jobs 3.2% - 1929 24.9% - 1933 14.6% - 1940 1.2% - 1944 Fiscal Policy War cost $304B $136B from tax revenue Revenue Act of 1942 $168B from war bonds National Debt

$25B in 1918 $20B in 1933 $39.65B in 1939 $251B in 1945 Industry Factories converted for war production Doubled industrial production Real wages increased by 50% Agriculture

Net farm income doubled $20B increase in land value $11B savings accumulated 17% decline in farm population Labor Unions National War Labor Board Smith-Connally War Act (1943) Union membership 9 million 1940 14.8 million - 1945 Economic Impact of World War II

War bonds helped the government finance the war Any Bonds Today? The Ducktators War Productions Board Office of War Information Office of Censorship Office of Price Administration (OPA) and Ration Books Women and World War II Women in Armed Forces 350,000 served in military Womens Army Corps (WAC) Women Appointed for Voluntary

Emergency Service (WAVES) Rosie the Riveter A woman is a substitute, like plastic instead of metal. War Department brochure Women in the Workforce 1940 27% 1945 37% Earned 65% of what men earned Domestic sphere included the home front American Family

Marriage and birth rates increased Divorce rates increased High school enrollment decreased At Boeing I found a freedom and an independence I had never known. After the war I could never go back to playing bridge again, being a clubwoman and listening to a lot of inanities when I knew there were things you could use for your mind. The war changed my life completely. Inez Sauer Blacks and World War II

1.2 million served during the war Tuskegee Airmen Double V Campaign Great Migration Detroit Race Riot (1943) March on Washington (1941) A. Phillip Randolph Executive Order 8802 Desegregation of national defense industry Committee on Fair Employment Practice Congress

(CORE) of Racial Equality Japanese in World War II 442nd Infantry Japanese internment camps Executive Order 9066 Over 100,000 Japanese immigrants (isei) and Americans (nisei) Korematsu v. United States (1944) Supreme Court ruled internment camps constitutional in wartime

The Internment of Japanese Americans Was Justified; The Internment of Japanese Americans Was Not Justified Hugo Black Majority Opinion in Korematsu v. United States (1944) [W]e are not unmindful of the hardships imposed by it upon a large group of American citizens. But hardships are part of war, and war is an aggregation of hardships. All citizens alike, both in and out of uniform, feel the impact of war in greater or lesser measure. Citizenship has its responsibilities as well as its privileges, and in time of war the burden is always heavier. Compulsory exclusion of large groups of citizens from their homes, except under circumstances of direct emergency and peril, is inconsistent with our basic governmental institutions. But when

under conditions of modern warfare our shores are threatened by hostile forces, the power to protect must be commensurate with the threatened danger. Frank Murphy Dissenting Opinion in Korematsu v. United States (1944) This exclusion of all persons of Japanese ancestry, both alien and nonalien, from the Pacific Coast area on a plea of military necessity in the absence of martial law ought not to be approved. Such exclusion goes over the very brink of constitutional power and falls into the ugly abyss of racism Being an obvious racial discrimination, the order deprives all those within its scope of equal protection of the laws as guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment... [T]his order also deprives them of all

their constitional rights to procedural due process. Yet no reasonable relation to an immediate, imminent, and impending public danger is evident to support this racial restriction which is one of the most sweeping and complete deprivations of constitutional rights in the history of this nation in the absence of martial law. Other Minorities in World War II Mexicans Braceros program Zoot Suit Riots (June 1943) Natives Navajo Code Talkers 25,000 enlisted Election of 1944 Franklin

D. Roosevelt (D) Harry S. Truman as VP War success boosted popularity Thomas E. Dewey (R) Campaigned for smaller government and less regulation War Conferences Casablanca (Jan 1943)

Teheran (Nov 1943) Agree to open western front against Germany (Operation Overlord) Soviet invasion of eastern Germany Unconditional surrender of Germany Yalta (Feb 1945) German occupation zones Free elections in Soviet-occupied Eastern European nations Soviet Union will attack Japan three months after defeat of Germany New peace organization - United Nations

Security Council with veto power for P5 Potsdam (July-Aug 1945) Japanese unconditional surrender or prompt and utter destruction German and Berlin occupation zones Nuremberg Trials and Purge of Nazism Recognition of communist government in Poland Partition of Vietnam at Da Nang Atlantic Theater Battle of Stalingrad (19421943)

Operation Torch (1942) Operation Avalanche (1943) soft underbelly of the Axis Operation Overlo rd/D-Day (June 6, 1944)

North Africa Allied Western front opens Battle of the Bulge (19441945) V-E Day (May 7, 1945) Pacific Theater Battle of Coral Sea (May 1942) Battle of Midway

(June 1942) Island-hopping Not without a fight Guadalcanal (Aug 1942-Feb 1943) Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944) kamikazes Iwo Jima (Feb-Mar 1945) Okinawa (Apr-June 1945) Japanese Surrender Manhattan Project Hiroshima (Aug. 6, 1945)

70,000-80,000 killed 4.7 sq. mi. destroyed Nagasaki (Aug 9, 1945) 50,000-75,000 killed V-J Day (September 2, 1945) World War II Costs 70 million deaths or 4% of world population

25 million military 45 million civilians Genocides and War Crimes Holocaust Nanking Massacre Bataan Death March United States Over 400,000 casualties $306 billion cost World War II Legacy G.I. Bill (1944)

Provided living allowances, tuition fees to support veterans United Nations Superpowers and Cold War United States and Soviet Union Capitalism and Communism Individualism and Collective Society

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