Office of Research 2015 Texas Christian University 2015 Texas Christian University Teacher-Scholar Model TCU believes that the best teachers are active scholars whose scholarly endeavors inform their teaching. Faculty is expected to remain current in their disciplines and sub-fields, and to be engaged in their own inquiry or creative work. Concurrently, Faculty should be models of life-long learners to their students, providing highquality and scholarly teaching. TCU faculty must be both excellent scholars, active and respected in their disciplines, and excellent teachers, informed by the latest developments in their discipline, and ready mentors to promising student scholars. - Associate Provost for Research, Bonnie Melhart, Ph.D. 2015 Texas Christian University

What is Research? Research is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. Research is different from other ways of discovering knowledge because it follows a developed design/plan and requires the production of observable and measurable evidence to support the question posed. A researcher must review, interpret and ultimately opine on this evidence and submit the results to peer and public scrutiny. 2015 Texas Christian University Why is Research Important? Research is the foundation for knowledge and provides the source of new ideas, methods, techniques and innovation across a whole range of disciplinary areas. Research invariably leads to a better understanding of and a deeper appreciation for the discipline under investigation.

TCU recognizes the importance of research as central to its mission and vision. Research contributes to both individual professional fulfillment and teaching excellence. Research results bring honor and prestige to the faculty and TCU, and help to attract support and additional, competent faculty and students. 2015 Texas Christian University Basic v. Applied Research Basic research is mainly about formulating and testing theories. Basic research is generalized research that intends to gather information and build upon our knowledge base, not necessarily to create or invent something. Applied research, on the other hand, uses theories from basic research to develop a conceptual framework to guide a project. Applied research is conducted to solve problems or to make lives easier through new inventions. The key difference between the two is the restrictions under which the investigator much operate. For applied research, the issue is defined and the

research is directed at finding the best possible solution to the issue within the defined restrictions. For basic research, the only limitations are the investigators imagination and ability. 2015 Texas Christian University Some Types of Research Methods Qualitative v. Quantitative Usually expressed in motives and generalizations Usually expressed in variables Measures are usually developed to interpret the primary data taking into account the unique characteristics of the research

Measures are usually universal, like formulas for finding mean, median and mode for a set of data Data is usually in the forms of words, images, transcripts, etc. Data is usually in the forms of numbers and specific measurements Usually presented in analysis by using Usually illustrated in tables, graphs and words pie-charts 2015 Texas Christian University

"If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?" - Albert Einstein 2015 Texas Christian University 1998 Bardstown Internet HELP IS ON THE WAY! The TCU Office of Research oversees TCU research efforts to help ensure integrity, training and compliance, and research promotion and marketing.

Research Compliance and Training Research Integrity Committees Center for Writing Sponsored Programs 2015 Texas Christian University Office of Research Bonnie Melhart, Ph.D. Associate Provost for Research, Research Integrity Officer Tim Barth, Ph.D. Associate Dean for Research Steve Sherwood, Ph.D. Center for Writing

Safety Compliance (Laser, Hazardous Materials, Radiation) Lorrie Branson, J.D. Research Compliance Support and Training Committees IRB, IACUC, IPRC, IBC 2015 Texas Christian University Linda Freed Sponsored Programs

Research Institutes Compliance Oversight Research Integrity Responsible Conduct of Research Research Misconduct Intellectual Property

Export Controls Contracts TCU Policies and Procedures Sponsored Programs 2015 Texas Christian University Endeavors Magazine You can learn about the ideas and inventions being explored by our researchers by visiting the Endeavors magazine site, at Their exciting results are helping to find new ways to deliver cancer curing drugs, uncovering the nature of gender distinctions in history, helping adopted children to adjust to a new life, examining diets to alleviate obesity, helping us to understand the environmental effects of wind farms, keeping unsafe fish from the food supply, identifying the best ways to prepare math teachers, curing addiction among prison inmates, and doing much, much more. 2015 Texas Christian University Committees and Safety

2015 Texas Christian University Committees and Safety Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) o Develops standards and reviews proposed projects involving animals o Oversees and evaluates TCUs animal research program, procedures, and facilities, including the vivarium. Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) o Develops standards and reviews all proposed research projects involving recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules Select agents and toxins Blood borne pathogens Stem cell research

Dual Use research 2015 Texas Christian University Committees and Safety (contd) Institutional Review Board (IRB) o Protects the rights and welfare of human research subjects o Develops standards, reviews, and has authority to approve, require modifications in, or disapprove all research activities involving human subjects in which TCU is engaged Intellectual Property Review Committee (IPRC) o Reviews disclosures related to intellectual property and recommends to the Associate Provost for Research regarding actions to be taken including, copyright, patent, trademarks and related legal protections o Responsible for maintaining a published process for review and contact with creators/inventors 2015 Texas Christian University

Committees and Oversight Laser Safety o Helps to ensure that users of lasers are trained in laser safety o Oversees TCUs compliance with applicable state law regarding the control of laser radiation hazards Laboratory Safety (X-ray and Radioactive Materials) o Develops and administers laboratory safety training, helping to ensure safety compliance and hazardous material management Environmental and Occupational Safety o Helps to ensure regulatory compliance with applicable environmental and occupational safety laws, including hazardous materials 2015 Texas Christian University Research Integrity 2015 Texas Christian University

Research Integrity Research Integrity is the commitment to and practice of ethical principles and professional standards essential for the responsible conduct of research. It involves following established and accepted standards, as well as a personal commitment to these standards. Basically, it is doing the right thing, even in the face of adversity. Honesty * Accuracy * Efficiency * Objectivity 2015 Texas Christian University Research Integrity 2015 Texas Christian University Integrity is doing the right thing, even when no one is watching. 2015 Texas Christian University

- C.S. Lewis Research Integrity Officer assessing research misconduct allegations to determine if they are sufficiently credible and specific to warrant an investigation overseeing the inquiry and investigative process sequestering all relevant documents and evidence ensuring confidentiality is maintained, as appropriate ensuring that necessary expertise is secured to carry out a thorough and authoritative evaluation of the relevant evidence taking all reasonable steps to ensure that the persons involved are treated fair, competent and impartial, and without conflict of interest reporting to the appropriate parties and federal funding agency, as required 2015 Texas Christian University Responsible Conduct of Research RCR is a key principle of research integrity. It is critical for research

excellence, as well as public trust. Consequently, education in RCR is essential to research and is required of any institution that applies for financial assistance from federal agencies. RCR Training at TCU TCU offers training and support to all researchers, whether graduate or undergraduate students, postdoctoral researchers, or faculty and staff. 2015 Texas Christian University Responsible Conduct of Research (contd) Faculty/Principal Investigators are responsible for: Working with the Office of Research to identify researchers required to complete RCR training Verifying that researchers have completed training requirements Documenting additional RCR training received and providing documentation to the Office of Research. Consequences for Failure to Complete Training

Prohibition from further research activities and revocation of research support, until training is completed. Any federal funds expended for support of such individuals will be removed from grant funds and will be charged to an appropriate department fund. Possible discipline according to TCU Policy. 2015 Texas Christian University Research Misconduct Federal regulations and TCU policy establish: definition for misconduct; procedures for reporting and investigating misconduct; and protections for whistleblowers and persons accused of misconduct. Researchers are primarily responsible for reporting allegations of misconduct. A finding of research misconduct requires: A significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research community;

The misconduct be committed intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly; and The allegation be proven by a preponderance of the evidence 2015 Texas Christian University Investigating Research Misconduct Incidents of research misconduct at TCU are administered by the Integrity Officer. An initial inquiry is conducted to assess allegations. If allegations have merit, an investigation is conducted. All information related to any proceedings will be kept confidential to the extent possible. Retaliation of any kind is prohibited.

When no research misconduct is found, TCU will attempt to restore the reputation of a respondent. Handling Research Misconduct Allegation Flowchart 2015 Texas Christian University Intellectual Property 2015 Texas Christian University Intellectual Property in a Nutshell Intellectual property or IP refers to creations of the mind that are unique and can provide economic benefit - music, literature, and other artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. IP may be in tangible or intangible form. Intellectual property is protectable under law. Invention A novel and useful idea relating to processes, machines, manufactures, and compositions of matter.

Copyrightable work An original work of authorship that have been fixed in any tangible medium of expression that can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device. 2015 Texas Christian University Intellectual Property in a Nutshell (contd) Trademark A word, name, symbol, sound, color, or device (or any combination) adopted by an organization to identify its goods or services (Service Mark) and distinguish them from the goods and services of others. Discovery - A new product or process that is not a patentable invention or copyrightable work but that may contain or be based on proprietary information. (e.g. biological materials and chemical substances; prototype devices and equipment; and research data.) Discoveries sometimes may be protected as trade secrets. Trade secrets - Trade secrets are pieces of information that give a party an advantage over competitors. The information is valuable specifically because it is not widely known, and disclosing it would decrease or even destroy the value.

2015 Texas Christian University Intellectual Property Protection Patent A set of property rights granted through the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) or foreign government authority to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. The rights granted include the exclusive right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the invention. Trademark Common law and state and federal law offer trademark protection. Common law rights arise from actual use of the mark and offer limited protection automatically. Such protection only extends to the local regions in which it is used. If a trademark is registered with the USPTO, it is federally-protected, and holds more weight in court proceedings (i.e. nationwide constructive notice, evidence of ownership). 2015 Texas Christian University Intellectual Property Protection (contd)

Copyright The exclusive, federal right granted through the United States Copyright Office to print, publish, perform, film, or record an original work of authorship that has been fixed in a tangible medium of expression and to authorize others to do the same. Trade Secret While both state and federal law offer limited protection for trade secrets, the bulk of the protection comes from the holder of the secrets, who must proactively take steps to demonstrate the desire to keep the secret confidential. These steps include: identifying and labeling trade secrets; restricting access/limiting disclosure; and using confidentiality/NDA agreements. 2015 Texas Christian University Intellectual Property Quick Reference Trademarks Copyrights

Patents Trade Secrets Protection Words, names, symbols or devices used to identify a product or service Original creative works of authorship such as writings, movies, records, and software Utility, design, and plant patents

Advantageous formulas, devices, or compilation of information Applicable Standard Identifies and distinguishes a product or service Original creative works in writing or in another format New and non- obvious advances in the art Not readily ascertainable, not

disclosed to the public Copyright Office Patent and Trademark Office No public registration necessary Life of author plus 70 years or 95 years from publication for work for hire Utility and plant patents 20 Indefinite so long as secret is

years from date of application; not disclosed to public and design patents 14 years commercially valuable Patent and Trademark Where to Apply Office trademarks Duration Indefinite so long as it continues to be used and defended against infringement Inventor must file within one

year of public disclosure and be the first to file. Examples Mike Tysons face tattoo Isaac Newtons Opticks 2015 Texas Christian University Telephone Statue of Liberty

KFC Chicken Recipe Coca-Colas Coke Recipe Intellectual Property Ownership While conducting research, intellectual property may be created and associated rights may arise. Any IP that is developed in the course and scope of work at TCU, or that makes substantial use of TCU resources, is presumed to belong to TCU. TCU may seek to protect its intellectual property. This protection is critical to help ensure research findings, as well as the associated IP, are made available for broad utilization and commercial application. If you are the creator of IP that TCU seeks to protect, you should ensure that you:

Promptly disclose inventions to the Office of Research Provide necessary assistance throughout the process Comply with all commitments, agreements, and applicable law Take reasonable steps to prevent unauthorized use or disclosure 2015 Texas Christian University When to Publish TCU believes in freedom in research and in publication of the results, and recognizes that research and teaching is always a priority. At the same time, TCU seeks to encourage the use of TCU inventions, discoveries and other works resulting from research, and to facilitate the transfer of such technology for the use and benefit of the public. To balance both priorities, TCU promotes the disclosure, dissemination and utilization of research results, subject to reasonable delays to preserve potential patent or other intellectual property rights.

It is important for the inventor to be aware of the potential harm of premature publication, which severely undermines the patentability of an invention. Therefore, inventors are encouraged to disclose their inventions to the Office of Research as soon as the invention is reduced to practice and prior to sending out manuscripts or grant applications. 2015 Texas Christian University FAIR USE DOCTRINE The Fair Use doctrine is an equitable rule of reason that was judicially created originally and later codified into the federal Copyright Act of 1976. The basic concept is that the very purpose of copyright protection (i.e. to promote progress of science and useful arts) is furthered by opportunity for fair use of copyrighted material. Fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a limited and transformative purpose, including commentary, criticism, teaching, scholarship or research of a copyrighted work. Such use can be done without permission from the copyright owner, and is not an infringement of copyright.

Transformative The new work adds something new, with a further purpose or different character, altering the original creation with new expression, meaning, or message, as opposed to merely supersedes the objects of the first. 2015 Texas Christian University FAIR USE DOCTRINE Fair use is an affirmative defense, and, therefore, the alleged infringer bears the burden of proof. To determine whether unauthorized use of copyrighted material falls under the penumbra of fair use, courts consider the following four, non-exhaustive factors: (1) the purpose and character of the use (commercial v. noncommercial) (2) the nature of the copyrighted work (factual v. creative) (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole (quality and quantity) (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the

copyrighted work (impaired marketability; market substitute) These four statutory factors do not promise victory. Rather, each factor is explored and weighed together, in light of the purposes of copyright. 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls Export Controls - The body of federal law that regulates Exports. Export - Any disclosure, shipment, transfer or transmission, by any means, of any commodity, technology (information or data) or software to a foreign location or a foreign person inside the U.S. or abroad. Actual shipment outside of the U.S. Electronic or digital transmission of any covered good, item or related good or item Any written or oral release or disclosure, including verbal disclosures and visual inspection Actual use or application of covered technology on behalf of or for the benefit of a foreign entity or

person anywhere. Deemed Export - A transfer or release of information or technology that is subject to federal regulation to a foreign national located in the United States. When an Export is controlled or covered, a license may be required before it can be exported (if at all). Such items can include the following: Exports that have actual or potential military applications or economic protection issues Exports destined to a country, organization, or individual of concern to the U.S. Government Exports destined to a declared or suspected end use or end user 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls Applicable Law and Regulators 1)

The Export Administration Act of 1979 is implemented by the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), which are administered by the Department of Commerce The EAR regulates technologies, commodities, and software that are considered "dual-use (i.e. the item may have a legitimate scientific or commercial purpose, the misuse of which could cause a threat to national security.) Examples include certain engineering materials, electronic equipment, biological materials, navigation equipment, encryption software, and chemicals. See the commerce control list for a complete list of covered items. 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls Applicable Law and Regulators (contd)

2) The Arms Export Control Act is implemented by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), which are administered by the U.S. Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls ITAR regulates technologies, products, and information that are inherently military in nature - referred to as "defense articles", "defense services" and "technical data". Examples include submersible vehicles, radar and sonar instruments, spacecraft systems, protective equipment, and certain toxicological agents. See the US Munitions List for a complete list of covered items. 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls Applicable Law and Regulators (contd) 3)

Economic and trade embargoes and sanctions administered by the U.S. Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC) OFAC restricts transactions with foreign countries that have sanctions in place as well as the ability to transact with certain entities or individuals. These restrictions are found on the OFAC website. 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls Fundamental Research Exemption Fundamental Research - basic and applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community. Fundamental research is NOT research that is subject to any restrictions on the publication of the information resulting from the research, other than limited prepublication reviews by research sponsors to prevent inadvertent divulging of proprietary information or to ensure that publication will not compromise patent rights of the sponsor; and research that is federally-funded and subject to specific access or dissemination controls regarding the

resulting information. Research at TCU. TCU prefers Fundamental Research, which is exempted from the licensure requirements of Export Controls. Conducting Fundamental Research under the Fundamental Research exemption allows TCU to permit international faculty, students and visitors to participate in research projects on campus without first obtaining a license. Otherwise, a license may be needed. 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls and TCU Export Controls present unique challenges to TCU because these laws place limits on the traditional principles of academic freedom and publications and dissemination of research findings and results. It is important to know what an Export is and when Export Controls are triggered. What TCU research-related activities may be impacted by Export Controls? Multi-national research collaborations (e.g. research with U.S. sanctioned countries) Scholars and researchers who are foreign nationals International shipment of research equipment and transmission of technological information

Traveling overseas with high tech equipment, laptop computers, web-enabled cell phones and other personal equipment Traveling overseas with confidential, unpublished, or proprietary information or data Sponsored research containing contractual restrictions on publication or dissemination International consulting (e.g. reviewing articles from scholars in sanctioned countries) 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls and TCU (contd) What do TCU personnel need to do? Be able to identify when Export Controls issues may exist. When Export Controls are triggered, obtain necessary licenses, monitor and control access to restricted information, and safeguard all controlled materials. Ensure that the fundamental research exemption (or other available exemptions) is not lost due to inadvertent acceptance of contractual imposed restrictions on access to, dissemination of, or participation in research. Ask: What is being exported?

Where is it going? Who is receiving it? How will it be used? Remember: Shipping equipment abroad and teaching or training foreign students on campus or foreign colleagues abroad on how to use equipment, triggers Export Controls issues! 2015 Texas Christian University Export Controls Penalties Violations can result in severe monetary and criminal penalties and the loss of research contracts, governmental funding, and the ability to export items. Violations can be found not only against TCU, but against an individual (and sometimes instead of the university). While the penalties vary depending on the circumstances, penalties for even lesser violations can include jail time and/or fines. If you violate export control laws, there's a very good chance that you, and not TCU, could face fines and jail time. ITAR Penalties Criminal: up to $1 million per violation and up to 10 years in prison Civil: seizure and forfeiture of articles, revocation of exporting privileges, fines of up to $500,000 per violation.

EAR Penalties Criminal: $50,000-$1 million or five times the value of export, whichever is greater, per violation, up to 10 years in prison. Civil: loss of export privileges, fines $10,000-$120,000 per violation OFAC Penalties Criminal: Up to $1 million and 10 years in prison 2015 Texas Christian University Civil: $12,000 -$55,000 per violation Export Controls Recent Violations In May 2013, associate professor of radiology Zhu Yudong, research engineer Yang Xing, and postdoctoral fellow Li Ye at the New York University School of Medicine were charged with commercial bribery conspiracy after the three allegedly accepted bribes from Chinese companies in exchange for medical research funded with NIH funds. Mr. Yudong also was charged with falsifying records. If found guilty, each researcher could face up to five years in federal prison. January 18, 2012, Dr. John Reece Roth, a retired professor of electrical engineering at the University of

Tennessee (UT) in Knoxville, began serving a four-year prison sentence for his September 2008 convictions, after an unsuccessful appeal. As a UT professor, Roth obtained an U.S. Air Force contract to develop plasma actuators to control the flight of small, subsonic, unmanned, military drone aircraft. During the course of that contract, he allowed two foreign national students to access export controlled data and equipment, and he illegally carried the information on his laptop computer and disclosed some of it in lectures in China. In 2004, Dr. Thomas Campbell Butler, M.D., a professor of Texas Tech University received a 2 year prison sentence for illegally exported the Yersinia pestis (human plague). Dr. T. C. Butler had to resign from Texas Tech and accepted a denial of his export privileges for a period of ten years. IT CAN HAPPEN TO YOU! 2015 Texas Christian University 2015 Texas Christian University Contracts In addition to grants that govern the conduct of sponsored research, other

agreements may be required in association with research involving one or more external parties. All such agreements must be reviewed and accepted through the Office of Research. Confidentiality/Nondisclosure Agreements Cooperative Agreements Material Transfer Agreements Memorandums of Understanding 2015 Texas Christian University Policies and Procedures Research Misconduct Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects Animal Care and Use Research Involving Recombinant DNA Objectivity in Research

Tax-Free Alcohol Procurement, Use, and Storage Code of Conduct Intellectual Property Drug-Free Workplace Financial Conflict of Interest Use of Consultants Export Controls 2015 Texas Christian University For twenty-five years, the TCU Center For Writing has offered tutorials conducted by trained, experienced writing consultants, happy to assist with your writing needs, whether you are student, staff, or faculty. We can assist at any stage of your writing project, from topic generation through organizing your ideas and documenting your sources. We serve as a friendly audience to offer feedback and suggestions on essays; research papers; book reviews; reports; theses; dissertations; book manuscripts;

internship, graduate, medical, or law school application essays; and cover letters and resumes. We are an instructional service, not a proofreading or editing service, but we will provide suggestions on identifying and correcting common punctuation or grammatical errors. To encourage independence in undergraduate writers, we limit our input to three tutoring sessions on a particular project. MAIN CENTER MONDAY FRIDAY TOM BROWN ANNEX SUNDAY THURSDAY 8:00 am - 5:00 pm 6:00 pm - 9:00 pm 419 Reed Hall 2nd Floor Commons Phone: 817.257.7221 2015 Texas Christian University Sponsored Programs The Office of Sponsored Programs is dedicated to helping faculty, staff, and students continue building TCUs reputation as a nationally recognized scholarly institution. Our intention is to help open the doors to funded research for all who wish to recognize their full creative and intellectual potential.

Funding Searches & Opportunities Dissemination Proposal Development Guidance Budget Development Guidance Purplesheets Routing Award Negotiations Subaward Processing (incoming and outgoing) Modifications, Extensions and Reporting on existing awards 2015 Texas Christian University

Resources TCU Office of Research TCU Center for Writing TCU Sponsored Programs

National Institutes of Health National Science Foundation National Endowment for the Humanities

US Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Research Integrity (ORI) ORIs interactive movie on research misconduct, The Lab 2015 Texas Christian University Resources (contd) EXPORT CONTROLS Overview of U.S. Export Control System

U.S. Munitions List FAIR USE idx? Commerce Control List e-control-list-ccl/ Office of Foreign Assets Control List center/sanctions/ SDN-List/Pages/default.aspx Stanford University Libraries, Copyright and Fair Use

UT System Copyright Crash Course: Fair Use of Copyrighted Material U.S. Copyright Office The Research Exchange: Making Copyright Law Work for You 1/1_promote.html#fairuse 2015 Texas Christian University QUESTIONS 2015 Texas Christian University Remember Our goal is to promote, preserve, support, and

encourage research at TCU. We are here to help you! Study hard what interests you the most in the most undisciplined, irreverent and original manner possible. - Richard Feynman 2015 Texas Christian University Office of Research Bonnie Melhart, Ph.D. Tim Barth, Ph.D. Associate Provost for Research, Associate Dean, Research & Graduate Graduate Studies, Integrity Officer Studies (817) 257-7104 (817) 257-6427

[email protected] [email protected] Lorrie Branson, J.D. Linda Freed Director, Research Compliance and Training Director, Sponsored Programs (817) 257-4266 (817) 257- 4877 [email protected] [email protected] Steve Sherwood, Ph.D. Director, Center for Writing (817) 257- 6536 [email protected] 2015 Texas Christian University Dean of

Committees/Safety (2015-2016) Safety Officers Randy Cobb Safety Director [email protected] (817) 257-6363 Scott Dunkle Tristan Tayag Safety Coordinator; Radiation Officer Professor, Engineering; Laser Safety Officer [email protected] [email protected] (817) 257-5395 (817) 257-6276

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Anna Petursdottir Tim Barth Assoc. Professor, Psych Associate Dean, Research & Graduate Studies [email protected] [email protected] (817) 257-6426 (817) 257-6427 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Intellectual Property Review Committee (IPRC) Magnus Rittby Brenton Cooper Joel Timmer Professor, Physics and Astronomy Assoc. Professor, Psych

Assoc. Professor, Film, TV, and Media [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] (817) 257-7729 (817) 257-6462 (817) 257- 7635 Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) Giridhar R. Akkaraju Assoc. Professor, Biology [email protected] (817) 257-6125 2015 Texas Christian University

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