Renewable Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean
SUMMIT IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW GROUP (SIRG) Sixth Regular Meeting of 2008 December 10-12, 2008 Hotel Royal Decameron Salinitas El Salvador OEA/Ser.E GRIC/O.6/doc.3/08 9 December 2008 Original: English PRESENTATIONS BY THE PARTNER INSTITUTIONS OF THE JOINT SUMMIT WORKING GROUP - JSWG INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (Energy Security) ENERGY SECURITY Vicepresidence for Sectors and
Knowledge . Infrastructure and Environment Sector . Energy Division German Cruz December 2008 Primary Energy Crude oil is the more accessible and commercial form of primary energy around the world Petroleum derivates can be used for transportation sector o thermal power generation Other fossil sources like gas, or coal are used fundamentally for thermal power generation. Other sources supply of primary energy, like hydro, wind, or solar, can be used only for electric power generation Primary Energy Supply Primary Energy Supply 100
80 60 % 40 20 0 Andean Region Caribbean Central America Fossil Fuel Source: OLADE SIEE, 2005 Southern Cone
Renewable Energy Mexico LAC Western Hemisphere- oil Hemisferio Occidental: Produccin y Consumo de Petrleo (mbd) 1965 - 2006 35000 Consumo (mbd) 30000 25000 Importacin (mbd) 20000 15000
10000 Fuente: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2007 Produccin (mbd) Western Hemisphere- oil 2020 Hemisferio Occidental: Produccin y Consumo de Petrleo (mbd) 1965 - 2020 40000 Consumo (mbd) 35000 30000 Importacin (mbd) 25000 20000 15000 10000 Fuente: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2007 y Clculos Propios
Produccin (mbd) Western Hemisphere Oil Stocks (Bb) 1985 1995 2005 Western Hemisphe re NorthAmerica SouthAmerica Non- % of total stocks 164 173
163 ~ 0% 102 89 59 36.5% 63 84 104 63.5% 5
10 16 9.9% Energy Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean Energy production and consumption in the region is comparatively low, although these are rising. The intensity of energy use and energy supply varies across the region. Much of the regions energy consumption is concentrated in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. Across the region, the sectors consuming the most
energy are: Industry (region-wide average of 38%) Transportation (32% on average) Evolution of Electricity Generation by source - Latin America - Energy supply LAC- 2004 Other nonUnsustainable Timber Other renew ables, 1.3% renewables, 0.5% 2.2% Nuclear,
Hydroenergy, 11.3% Vegetable coal, 1.5% Geothermal, 0.5% Natural gas, 24.5% Source: Altamonte, 2006. Renewable Energy Sources in LAC: 2 years after Bonn Renewable Energy in LAC* Today, renewable sources of energy generate 24.8% of LACs electricity. Studies indicate they could generate up to 47% of the electric demand estimated for 2030.
Biomass and biological wastes are another important source of renewable energy in the region Central America and the Caribbean could replace between 10% and 50% of their gasoline consumption through the production of ethanol generated from sugar cane. * LAC: Latin American and the Caribbean Hydropower The region as a whole relies heavily on hydroelectricity (Brazil, Colombia, etc.) The region holds 21 % of global hydro-generation capacity. Most countries in the region use already a good portion of their hydraulic potential to generate electricity. Most countries operate on the multi-megawatt range. However, small hydropower should be
exploited as a good alternative given the high rainfall indices and rough topography of many countries. Source: Huacuz, J., 2003 Br a Co z il lo m bi a Pe r M u ex i V en c o ez ue
A rg la en ti n a Bo li v ia Ch i Ec l e ua d Pa or ra gu a G y uy Co an sta a
Ri G ua ca te m a H on l a du ra Pa s na Su m a ri El nam e Sa l D vad om or .R
e U p. ru g N uay ica ra gu a Cu ba H ai Ja t i m a Ba ica rb ad Tr os
in G id ad rena da & To ba go Power (MW) Hydropower, cont. Hydropower Potential LAC 160,000.00 140,000.00 120,000.00
100,000.00 80,000.00 60,000.00 40,000.00 20,000.00 0.00 Source: OLADE, 2005. Energy Statistics Report 2005 Solar Energy Thanks to its low cost is becoming an attractive means of bringing electricity to isolated rural communities. The first solar cells cost around $200 dollars per watt. Today they cost less than $3 dollars per watt.
Peru- Sustainable Rural Electrification: Installation of 12,500 Photovoltaic systems in rural households ill-suited for grid extension in four regions of the country. Chile- Rural Electrification Program: IDB financed US$40 million. Nearly 1,000 one-house photovoltaic systems have been installed in isolated rural dwellings. Geothermal Energy Costa Rica generates 98 percent of its electricity through renewable sources, thanks in part to a growing reliance on geothermal energy. Mexico is now the worlds third largest producer of geothermal electricity. It generates 953 MW for around 6,600 GWh of geothermal energy per year, contributing 3.1% to the Mexicos electricity supply (global geothermal supply is 0.442%). Studies have shown a potential for 3,650 MW (20,460 GWh) that could provide more than 12% of total electricity generation. Source: Gawell & Greenberg, 2007. 2007 Interim Report, Update on World
Geothermal Dev. Wind Energy Most commercial RE alternative in the developed world. Estimated $71 billion invested in RE worldwide in 2007, of which 47% was for wind. Principal component for decarbonizing society since free of GHG emissions New materials, turbine designs and new technologies have slashed the cost per watt Wind Energy LAC Good experiences with pilot projects at different levels: Costa Rica (commercial), Colombia (technical cooperation). Brazil: Rapidly increasing its wind installed capacity: 2006: 28MW 2007: 237 MW Expected increase from new projects: 1400 MW
Mexico - La Venta II: total installed capacity of 83.3 MW and 307,728 MWh estimated yearly average generation. Expected increase 3000 MW for 2006-2014 according to the Mexican Wind Energy Association Biofuels Sustained Biofuels Certain importing markets will require biofuels that meet certain sustainability standards. LAC has the potential to be at the forefront of creating a sustainable biofuels industry. IDB partners with the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels to increase investment in sustainable biofuels. The IDB is currently : - Developing internal sustainability guidelines for
biofuels - Developing a scorecard to promote only the most sustainable biofuels What lies ahead Increase energy efficiency and reduce harmful pollution while also promoting economic development. Investment needed in Energy in LAC (20052030) The energy demand in LAC will increase 75% by 2030. Required investments: US$ 1,600 billion In the next decade alone, LAC will require a 50% increase in its installed capacity, more than 90GW Towards the future: Supply and Demand balance achieved through RE and EE Renewable Energy: Importance
Energy has important implications on Poverty forsecurity Poverty Alleviation Poverty is still higher than in 1980 in both relative and absolute terms Approx. 10% of total population (50 million people) does not have electricity Poverty relief linked to increased energy consumption For the 16 countries which are net importers of oil, the price increase of hydrocarbons poses an increasing challenge. Some of LACs major exporters are experiencing reduction in the productivity of their deposits Sustainable Energy: A priority for the IDB Challenges for the Region
Achieve sustainability of energy supply and rational use of resources Energy access for all the population Within the region some countries face: Energy security issues and high energy bills Urban pollution problems and extreme vulnerability to climate change Regulatory and institutional frameworks Pre-investment resources to support project preparation and development Conclusions The Western Hemisphere is an energy net importer The deficit originates from the energy gap of North America With declining stocks, this gap will tend to widen with time. Climate Change is likely to add extra strain to the energy deficit. Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency will
contribute to cover the energy deficit. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation are becoming part of Energy Security strategies.
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