Reentry Task Force Meeting January 15, 2010 Create a Comprehensive Reentry Model for Texas 1 out of 22 Texans are behind bars, on probation, or parole 254 Counties and 1,208 Incorporated cities 268,601 Sq. miles (larger than New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and North Carolina combined) House Bill (HB) 1711 Requires TDCJ to establish a comprehensive reentry and reintegration plan for offenders released or discharged from a correctional facility. Requires TDCJ to adopt and implement policies that
encourage family unity while an offender is confined, as well as to participate in the offender's post-release or post-discharge transition back to the community. The bill also requires TDCJ to enter into a memorandum of understanding with multiple entities to create a reentry task force. HB 1711 The reentry task force may identify service gaps for released offenders in areas of employment, housing, substance abuse treatment, medical care and other areas offenders need services. The reentry task force may coordinate with providers of reentry programs to make recommendations regarding the provision of comprehensive services to offenders following their release or discharge. Texas Department of Criminal Justice
Fiscal Year 2009 Releases Release Type Discharge Parole / Mandatory Supervision Probation Total Prison State Jail SAFP Total 8,699 24,006 N/A 32,705
72,218 Primary Counties for Release Harris 15,287 (21%) Dallas 7,432 (10%) All Other Counties 52% Bexar Travis 4,681 (6%) 2,872 (4%) Total Releases = 72,218 Tarrant 5,132 (7%) Offenses for Released Offenders 80,000 60,000
40,000 20,000 0 Violent Other 19% Violent Property Drug Other Total Female 1,047 3,414
4,702 1,832 10,995 Male 12,023 17,031 20,604 11,565 61,223 Total 13,070 20,445
25,306 13,397 72,218 18% Drug 35% Property 28% Recidivism Rates for Released Offenders State Jail Prison Offenders 0 Recidivism Rate
Total Re-Incarcerated Total Released 10,000 20,000 30,000 Prison Offenders State Jail 27.2% 10,503 38,559 32.8% 8,061 24,599 40,000
Recidivism is defined as percent re-incarcerated after 3 years. On Hand Offender Population Offender Type Female Male Total Prison 8,349 130,137 138,486 State Jail 2,636
9,846 12,482 SAFP 765 2,450 3,215 Total 11,750 142,433 154,183 Sentence Lengths for On Hand Offenders
41 to 59 Years 3% 60 Years + 4% Life 6% Death & Life w/o Parole 0% 2 Years & Less 16% 3 to 5 Years 18% 31 to 40 Years 5% 21 to 30 Years 9%
16 to 20 Years 9% 11 to 15 Years 10% 6 to 10 Years 20% 54.1% have a sentence of 10 years or less. The National Institute of Corrections Transition from Prison to the Community (TPC) Initiative Administered by the Center for Effective Public Policy in partnership with the Urban Institute Becki Ney and Richard Stroker Site Coordinators for Texas TPCs Primary Goal To enhance the successful transition of offenders from
prison to the community in order to enhance public safety and reduce future victimization through recidivism reduction. The TPC Model Transition From Prison to Community Release Authority Community Supervision Prison Human Services Agencies Sentencing Supervision Admission Assessment Behavior Release Release/ and and and to Preparation Revocation
Services ClassificationProgramming Prison Discharge Violation Prevention Community Diversion Institutional Phase Re-Entry Phase TPC Integrated Case Management Transition from Prison to Community Initiative Community
Phase Aftercare Law Abiding Citizen TPC First round Implemented in 8 states: GA, IN, MI, MO, ND, NY, OR, RI Duration: from 3 years 5 years NICthrough CEPPprovided technical assistance and guidance regarding the TPC Model Distinctive aspects of TPC
Its goal is public safety through offender success Leadership Change agentscollaborative teams Focused on system change Based on evidence Targets by risk and need to reduce recidivism Demands measurable outcomes Recidivism reduction System change reentry indicatorsemployment, education, reduced drug use, access to services, etc. Driven by a rational implementation process based on good information about current practice and what works
Seeks to move fromto FROM Custody/monitoring Silos Agency isolation Unproven methods Measuring inputs TO Behavior change Coherent process Collaboration Using what works Measuring outcomes Offender failure Offender success and public safety A Roadmap for Implementing the TPC
Model Target and Implement Change Form and Charter Teams Expand Partnerships Clarify and Affirm Vision and Mission Assessment and Classification Behavior and Programming Release Preparation Release/Revocation Supervision/Services Identify Opportunities To Introduce Evidence-Based Practice Understand
And Evaluate The NOW Committed Leadership--Shared Vision across Traditional Boundaries Within and Outside the Criminal Justice System Good Information for Decisions Evidence-Based Practice Commitment to System Change; Identifying Common Interests and Mutual Benefits Collaboration Preliminary indications: Disciplinary incidents lower in reentry units Decreases in returns to prison Increases in successful completion of parole
Bed day cost savings Increases in employment Decreases in drug use Decreases in technical and criminal violations after release LessonsKey Ingredients of Success
Commitment of key leadership of critical partners Ability to assign reasonable staff support Infrastructurecapacity for planning, analysis Balancing pressure for change with distractions We must maintain a clear focus on whats important, not the urgent, daily crises. Richard Stroker Barriers
This is about system changethe major barrier is the system itself The current system is designed to punish and incapacitatenot to change behavior Inertia Ingrained ways of doing business Lack of skills, tools, for mid-level and line staff Silos Population pressures that make access to programs difficult KEY ASSETS
Realization that successful transition is about public safety Collaborative change teamswithin the system and with external partners Community interest has been stimulated.should be a significant source of resources Cross-trainingexamining together the current situationproblems, resources, possible solutions GEORGIA Georgia Reentry Impact Projectstate level collaborative team of stakeholders Electronic sharing of reentry plans between institutions and the field OUTCOMES:
Upward trend in successful completions of parole 2005-2007 (66% up to 71%) Better recidivism outcomes for those who received reentry services 3-6 months prior to release versus those who did not MISSOURI Transitional Housing Units operate in 11 institutions statewide Missouri Reentry Process (MRP) Steering Teams now serve every county in the State of Missouri Executive Order mandating MRP (see attached) Service Excellence Award at the 2007 Governors Conference on Economic Development from Governor Outcomes: Decreasing rates of recidivism at 6 and 12 month follow-ups (23% down to 15%, 37% down to 30%) Recidivism indicators on 8 dimensions (education, employment, etc.) support treatment in these areas
NEW YORK Established a dedicated Offender Reentry Unit within DCJS Implementing dynamic assessment for probation and parole (COMPAS) Implemented and funded 13 county reentry task forces (CRTF) Outcomes: Prison commitments were 15,811 in 2008 (down 8% since 2007; lowest since 1987) 85% of offenders completed transitional services program prior to release in 2008 (vs. 48% in 2004) Referrals to CRTFs increased to 2,137 (48%) in 2008 representing 6,500+ services referrals KANSAS
How will we know we are doing a good job? No New Victims - The number of offenders convicted of new crimes will decline. The percentage of offenders returning to Kansas prisons will decrease because they were better prepared prior to release; entered the community with a real job, safe housing, effective relapse prevention plans; and they received active parole supervision targeted at their specific risks and needs. Likewise, individual plans are constructed that are as responsive as possible to victims needs. Jail days expressed as a ratio to the parole population will decline because they will not be required. Kansas (continued)
There will be more interaction and meaningful partnerships between KDOC and other state agencies, local agencies, victims groups, advocacy groups, and families. It is a statistical certainty that some offenders supervised in the community will commit new crimes, and some of those crimes will be very serious. Field Services effectiveness should be evaluated on the changes in the trends listed previously, rather than on specific events. Roger Werholtz, KDOC Secretary KDOC Success with Risk Reduction We reduced annual jail per diem expenditures by $220,000.00 Monthly Revocation Rates:
KDOC Success with Risk Reduction Parole absconders end of year (KDOC Statistical Profile, 2007) FY 1996 459 FY 1997 503
FY 1998 530 FY 1999 587 FY 2000 739 FY 2001 446 FY 2002 491 FY 2003 467 FY 2004 389 FY 2005 396 FY 2006 351 FY 2007 303 MICHIGAN VISION: Every prisoner released to the community will have the tools needed to succeed. MISSION of the Michigan Prisoner Reentry Initiative (MPRI): Implement a seamless plan of services and supervision for EVERY offender; Through state and local collaborations; That starts at entry to prison through transition, reintegration and aftercare in the community.
What have they done? Implementation and funding of 43 local transition teams that involve numerous entities working collaboratively on offender success that support returning offenders in 83 counties Implementation of risk and needs assessment (COMPAS), a unified case plan (TAP) drawn from assessment data, and collaborative case management All line staff trained in cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, evidence-based practices Redesign of institutional programs to include core programming to address top 4 criminogenic needs for all medium and high risk offenders Michigan (continued) Changes in policies and procedures
Implementation of evidence based practices at state and local levels Sweeping changes in philosophy Massive culture change in DOC, including probation and parole, other state agencies and local communities MPRI is not a program, it is our core mission and simply the way we must do business. Pat Caruso Impact in Michigan In 2007: Parole technical returns to prison decreased by 33% despite a 15% increase in parole population Prison population is at its lowest point since 2002 As of June 2009, recidivism rates
among highest risk offenders with more intensive supervision are still going down Impact in Michigan 48% of parolees fail within 2 years of release and are returned to prison at a cost of $117 million/year From 2005 through November 30, 2007: 11,925 offenders have received reentry services 9.388 (78%) of them have been released on parole or sentence expiration 65% of those released had history of parole failure (and were more serious offenders) and are 24% more likely to fail compared to 35% of baseline cohort (1998) 1,428 have been returned to prison 493 fewer returned representing 26% improvement Round 2 of TPC
6 STATES SELECTED IOWA KENTUCKY MINNESOTA TENNESSEE TEXAS WYOMING What you can expect from Richard and Becki
Regular offsite and onsite assistance Facilitation of planning process Training on key topics Coaching and mentoring Substantive expertise and knowledge of reentry efforts around the country The Framework of an Effective Offender Reentry Strategy Richard Stroker Center for Effective Public Policy Leadership and Organizational Change Offender Management Practices Rational Planning
Process Multi-Agency Collaboration Knowing Your Direction In undertaking any work, it certainly helps to have a clear idea of where we want to end up. As Alice learned in Wonderland, If you dont know where youre going, then any road will do. Without an appreciation of your intended destination, its hard to know whether or not your work is helping you to achieve your goals as even well intended work activities can become fragmented or disconnected. If you chase two rabbits, both will escape. Anon.
1. What is the Emerging Vision Regarding Offender Reentry? There is a growing consensus amongst state entities involved with SVORI, TPC, NGA and other reentry initiatives that their vision is to collaboratively develop strategies that will promote a greater likelihood of offender success after release to the community. Having a greater percentage of offenders successfully reintegrate into communities means a reduction of recidivism and enhanced public safety (fewer crimes, fewer victims). Offender Success and Public Safety
In creating a vision in which promoting the success of adult and juvenile offenders is a key to promoting public safety, jurisdictions are considering: Recent research in the areas of offender risk, needs, and responsivity The emergence of evidence based practice information The belief that agencies and entities can work together in order to create a more seamless and effective overall system for managing offenders An appreciation of the results that our current practices have on the allocation of existing resources
Examples of vision statements GA: Promoting public safety through collaborative partnerships which reflect a seamless system that ensures all returning offenders are law-abiding, productive community citizens. MI: Reduce crime by implementing a seamless plan of services and supervision developed with each offender, delivered through state and local collaboration, from the time of their entry into prison through their transition, reintegration and aftercare in the community. How Does This Relate to Your Vision? In order for these reentry efforts to be successful, the vision and beliefs of the
leaders of institutional and community supervision entities, state and local providers of various types of services or assistance, and community groups or other interested parties will be critical. To the person who does not know where he wants to go there is no favorable wind. Seneca, Roman Philosopher 2. The Critical Role of Leadership Leadership is, at least in part, the ability to help create meaningful change by: Setting the context: Start with the end in mind Communicate where you want the organization to go; Aligning work to fit the vision : Help people do the critical things that must be done in order for the organization to move in your intended direction such as prioritizing work activities; Encouraging and rewarding the outcomes that you seek: Consider the impacts that your hiring,
promotional, training, and quality assurance efforts have on staff. 3. What Types of Changes Might Occur? Rather than simply responding to offender failure, we now see jurisdictions taking a more active role in trying to systematically promote more success (and thereby prevent failures) by offenders. There is no doubt that the best possible protection of the public occurs when no crime is committed. Prevention, rather than responding to failure, can become the focus for our work. How a Focus on Prevention Can Alter Our Approach to Work
Identifying offender success and prevention as our desired outcomes may cause us to rethink how certain aspects of our work are approached. For instance: Specific risk, needs, and transition issues must be appropriately identified and attended to by institutional staff long before the offenders release. Staff need to be armed with all of the pertinent information necessary to effectively manage or supervise the offender. Institutional and community corrections staff, along with community providers and others, will have to work in harmony to develop and carry out appropriate supervision plans. Staff may have to change the nature or substance of their interactions with offenders. Leadership and Organizational Change Rational Planning
Process Offender Management Practices Multi-Agency Collaboration Developing a Rational Approach to Making Organizational Changes As we contemplate moving forward in this area, we need to have a system or method that we can employ to rationally consider where we are, what we have, and how this compares to where we want to be. The objective identification of issues, gaps, problems, and opportunities will give us the ability to constructively move our
organizations in the desired directions. Why a Rational Planning Process? Even with the best of intentions, it is common for organizations to make changes prematurely in an attempt to achieve a specific goal or outcome: In a reactionary manner, in response to a critical incident Due to external pressures Because of a new and promising idea or popular trend Based on a suspicion, belief, or assumption that a problem, need, or gap exists
These attempts to promote system change may not produce the desired results. Why a Rational Planning Process? (cont.) Reasonable, effective, and lasting change is more likely to occur when we understand and agree upon: Precisely what we want to achieve or accomplish where we ultimately want to be (vision) Where we are currently in relation to that vision Existing strengths of the system upon which we can build
Needs or barriers in policies, procedures, or resources that hinder our ability to advance The most critical priorities The specific strategies that will be most effective for our agency to explore Planning for Change Agencies that are most successful in achieving identified goals or outcomes invest the time and resources needed to conduct a deliberate, thorough, and critical self-assessment and to plan for change accordingly.
Give me six hours to chop down a tree, and I will spend the first four hours sharpening the axe. - Abraham Lincoln Assessing the Strengths and Needs Within Your Agency Consider the following: The offender population flow within your state The activities and services available both within the agency and within the jurisdiction to manage this population
The policies and procedures within your organization that describe how offender management currently occurs The empirically-based research on offender management practices, as well as the lessons emerging from national experience on innovative approaches to offender management and reentry Facilitating Lasting and Impactful Change In light of this information: Critically assess the most significant needs those that, if addressed, are likely to result in the greatest impact
Identify detailed and specific strategies to address the prioritized needs Oversee the careful implementation of these strategies Monitor the results to determine the extent to which the desired change and movement toward your vision is occurring Use the results to inform continued efforts or potential changes to your strategies in order to ensure successful outcomes Rational planning in Texas
To move forward with this work, a structure will be in place to develop and implement effective reentry strategies. This structure will include: A Statewide Reentry Task Force Specific workgroups to tackle areas of interest The TDCJ/Parole Steering Committee The TDCJ/Parole Policy Team and workgroups Role of the Reentry Task Force
Develop an inter-agency vision for offender reentry efforts in Texas Provide oversight to inter-agency offender reentry work Study your system and understand how things currently work Identify gaps, issues, barriers to effective reentry Create work groups to explore specific areas Develop strategies for implementing necessary changes. Leadership and Organizational Change Offender Management Practices
Multi-Agency Collaboration Rational Planning Process Reentry Barriers are Multifaceted Limited housing Unemployment Educational needs Mental health difficulties
Healthcare needs Financial instability Family concerns Public sentiment Collaborative Partnerships are Essential The number and nature of reentry barriers extend far beyond the boundaries of the criminal and juvenile justice systems. Successful reentry cannot be achieved through
the efforts of any single agency. Multi-agency, multi-disciplinary collaboration is vital to overcome these barriers. A combination of traditional and non-traditional partnerships is required. Examples of Key Stakeholders Criminal courts Adult corrections agencies Community supervision agencies Paroling authorities
Mental health agencies Public health departments and other healthcare agencies Veterans affairs officials Housing authorities Employment agencies Social services agencies
Faith-based partners A Shared Vision These diverse agencies and organizations often have individual visions and missions that may not complement or support one another Competing policies and practices may actually become barriers to successful reentry To ensure successful reentry, it is possible and essential to create a shared vision across agencies
Through a shared vision, key stakeholders are able to find common ground that can serve as a catalyst for promoting offender success and ensuring public safety Each stakeholder begins to recognize their unique role The cumulative energy and effort becomes powerful Leadership and Organizational Change Offender Management Practices Rational Planning Process Multi-Agency Collaboration
Evidence-Based vs. Promising Practices There is empirical support for several of the offender management practices (i.e., evidenced based approaches) Researchers have confirmed specific and defined outcomes (e.g., reductions in recidivism, increased employment rates, behavioral improvements) Other elements have not been empirically tested, but there is general agreement among experienced professionals that these offender management practices are important and beneficial (i.e., promising practices or emerging practices) Key Offender Management Practices Early and ongoing assessment to identify risk and criminogenic needs, both within the institutional/residential setting and the community
Evidence based interventions within the institutional/residential setting Proactive transition and release planning Informed release decisionmaking Key Offender Management Practices
Success-oriented supervision approaches that reinforce desired behaviors and include graduated responses to violations Evidence based interventions in the community Services and supports in the community Planning for ultimate release from the authority of the correctional, juvenile justice, or supervision agency Monitoring and evaluation of policies and practices Conclusions We must identify how we want to do business and what we want to accomplish. Do we want our work to be driven by a desire to promote offender success or by expectations for offender failure? We must recognize that working in isolation will not allow
us to effectuate successful reentry. As such, we must make a commitment to work closely with other key agencies, organizations, and individuals. We must challenge ourselves to ensure that our practices are state-of-the-art, empirically supported, and effective. As we identify what works (and what isnt working), we must be willing to adjust our strategies to ensure maximum impact. In other words It is best if we just chase one rabbit let us state our goals and objectives as simply and clearly as
possible. Our efforts will be more productive if we are truly prepared for the work ahead. But always move forward - dont wait on perfection. Work together like a team. It is the best route to our collective success. Always strive to employ the best methods and practices in your work. Final Thought We all have the capacity and ability to make meaningful and lasting changes. If we all did the things that we were capable of doing we would literally astound ourselves. -Thomas Edison REENTRY TASK FORCE GOALS Understand and appreciate the role of the Reentry Task Force relative to the TPC initiative;
Establish the structure and processes that will be utilized by the Reentry Task Force to assist with the accomplishment of its work under the TPC initiative; Reach consensus regarding the areas that will be focused upon by the Reentry Task Forces work groups and Develop recommendations to enhance the current reentry process at the local and state level for juvenile and adult offenders. 3. Reentry Task Force Work Groups Information Sharing/ Identifying Documents
Family Supports/ Faith Based Chair Carl Reynolds Vice Chair Community Reentry Rehabilitative and Support Services Special Needs TDCHA ChairVice Chair- Chair Vice Chair Chair Vice Chair
Housing Chair Vice Chair - Womens Issues Employment TBD ChairVice ChairTCOOMMI ChairVice Chair- Chair Vice Chair - REENTRY STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION IN TEXAS Reentry Task Force Brad Livingston, Chair
TPC Steering Committee Bryan Collier, Deputy Exec. Dir Rissie Owens, Board of Pardons & Paroles TDCJ Division Directors TPC Policy Team Workgroups Information Sharing/Identifying Documents Family Support/Faith based Community Reentry Employment Rehabilitative and Support Services Housing Special Needs Womens Issues Gerald Garrett, Deputy Dir. TDCJ Division representatives BOPP representatives
Workgroups Assessment Case Management Community Supervision Information Technology Programs Transition
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