With excess NH3: [Co(H2O)4(OH)2] (s)+ 6NH3(aq) Blue PPT [Co(NH3)6]2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) + 2 OH-(aq) Pale brown solution www.chemsheets.co.uk A2 042 20-Jul-12
Cobalt Small amount added: [Co(H2O)6]2+(aq)+2NH3(aq) [Co(H2O)4(OH)2] (aq) +2NH4+(aq) Pink Soln Blue PPT [Co(H2O)6]2+ + 6 NH3 [Co(NH3)6]2+ Pink Soln Brown soln air
[Co(NH3)6]3+ + 6 H 2O Why does this look darker than yellow? www.chemsheets.co.uk A2 042
20-Jul-12 SUBSTITUTION BY ClCharged Bigger than H2O Change in co-ordination number, shape and colour In general for M2+ complexes: [M(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + 4Cl- (aq) [MCl4]2- (aq) + 6H2O Substitution by Larger Ligands Cl- bigger than O of H2O only four Cl-s fit around Mn+
H Cl- O H [Co(H2O)6]2+ + 4 Cl- [CoCl4]2Pink soln Blue soln Octahedral Tetrahedral www.chemsheets.co.uk
Aqua ions (2+) + OHWith a few drops of OH-: [Fe(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) [Fe(OH)2 (H2O)4] (s) + 2 H2O (l) Green Soln (goes brown upon standing in air) Fe2+(aq) + Green Soln 2 OH-(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) Green PPT With excess OH-: No Change (Green PPT)
Acid Base Reaction www.chemsheets.co.uk A2 042 20-Jul-12 With a few drops of NH3: [Fe(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + 2 NH3 (aq) [Fe(H2O)4(OH)2](s) Green soln
Green PPT (goes brown upon standing in air) 2NH3(aq) Fe2+(aq) + + + 2 NH4+(aq) 2H+(aq)
2NH4+(aq) 2 OH-(aq) Fe(OH)2 With excess NH3: No Change (green PPT)
www.chemsheets.co.uk A2 042 20-Jul-12 With a few drops of OH-: [Fe(H2O)6]3+ + 3 OHBrown/Yellow Soln [Fe(H2O)3(OH)3] Brown PPT +
3 H2O Fe3+(aq) + 3 OH-(aq) Fe(OH)3(s) Brown/Yellow Soln Brown PPT With excess OH-: No Change (Brown PPT) Acid Base Reaction Fe2+ and Fe3+ exist in aqueous solution as octahedral
hexaaqua complexes. [Fe(H2O)6]2+ = pale green [Fe(H2O)6]3+ = pale brown Difficult to tell solutions apart. Simple test is to add dilute alkali precipitates the hydroxides colours different Fe(H2O)4(OH)2 = green Fe(H2O)3(OH)3 = brown With a few drops of NH3: [Fe(H2O)6]3+(aq) + 3NH3 (aq) [Fe(H2O)3(OH)3](s) + 3 NH4+(aq) Yellow/Brown Soln brown PPT
3NH3(aq) Fe3+(aq) + + 3H+(aq) 3NH4+(aq)
3 OH-(aq) Fe(OH)3 With excess NH3: No Change (Brown PPT) Exam Questions
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