Radio Frequency Bands - Chipps

Radio Frequency Bands Last Update 2010.05.01 1.12.0 Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is used to describe radiation or energy that spreads out as it travels Visible light and radio waves are two

examples of electromagnetic radiation This spectrum covers a wide range Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum The radio part of the spectrum is a small part of this from under 3 kHz to 300 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 3

Bands Radio frequencies are commonly organized into bands of frequencies that have similar characteristics There are several different ways to classify them The most used is the ITU International Telecommunications Union Radio Sector method as detailed next Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 4 Bands The frequencies of interest here are all at

the top end of the radio frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the UHF, SHF, and EHF bands The lengths of the waves that carry the information over wireless data networks are from about 400 mm to 3 mm, in other words very short Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 5 Bands ELF Extremely Low Frequency Frequency 0 kHz to 3 KHz Wavelength 0 to 100,000 m

VLF - Very Low Frequency Frequency - 3 kHz to 30 kHz Wavelength 100,000 m to 10,000 m Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 6 Bands LF - Low Frequency Frequency - 30 kHz to 300 kHz Wavelength 10,000 m to 1,000 m MF - Medium Frequency

Frequency - 300 kHz to 3 MHz Wavelength 1,000 m to 100 m Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 7 Bands HF - High Frequency Frequency - 3 MHz to 30 MHz Wavelength - 100 m to 10 m VHF - Very High Frequency Frequency 30 MHz to 300 MHz Wavelength - 10 m to 1 m

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 8 Bands UHF - Ultra High Frequency Frequency 300 MHz to 3 GHz Wavelength - 1 m to 100 mm SHF - Super High Frequency Frequency - 3 GHz to 30 GHz Wavelength - 100 mm to 10 mm Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 9 Bands EHF - Extremely High Frequency Frequency - 30 GHz to 300 GHz Wavelength 10 mm to 1 mm Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 10 Bands After the radio frequencies come

Infrared Visible light UV X Ray and so on Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 11 Licensed v Unlicensed Some of these frequencies require a license issued by a national governmental authority before transmission may be undertaken These are the licensed bands

Others may be used by anyone at anytime These are the unlicensed bands Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 12 Licensed v Unlicensed Very strict rules apply to both sets of frequencies, making their use problematic in many cases The frequencies that are licensed or unlicensed depend on the individual country Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 13 Licensed v Unlicensed Deploying a system using an unlicensed band is quicker and less expensive, but keep in mind the rules covering unlicensed spectrum commonly state As the FCC in the United States of America says As a general condition, Part 15 devices may not cause harmful interference to authorized radio services and must accept any interference that they receive Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 14 Licensed v Unlicensed In most cases the use of unlicensed radio frequency spectrum for data networks is a secondary use Primary users, which often includes amateur radio hobbyists, may interfere at will This also includes any competitors who may offer service in the same area There is no legal recourse to address this Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

15 Licensed Frequencies Common licensed frequencies include 900 MHz United States 2.3 GHz United States 2.5 to 2.6 GHz United States and other countries, such as Europe, South America, Canada, Far East Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 16 Licensed Frequencies 3.5 GHz Europe, South America, Canada, Far East 6 GHz United States 10.5 GHz Europe, South America, Canada, Far East 11 GHz United States

18 GHz United States Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 17 Licensed Frequencies 23 GHz United States 24 GHz United States 26 GHz

Europe, South America, Canada, Far East 28 GHz United States and Europe Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 18 Licensed Frequencies 39 GHz United States 40 GHz Europe

Potential licensed bands are 700 MHz United States 1700 MHz United States Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 19 Licensed Frequencies 2100 MHz United States

12 GHz United States Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 20 Unlicensed Frequencies Common unlicensed bands include 900 MHz United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, most of the Pacific Rim countries, and most of Latin America 2.4 GHz

Everywhere one way or the other 5 GHz United States, Canada, and Europe Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 21 Unlicensed Frequencies 24 GHz United States 60 GHz United States

Potential unlicensed bands are 3560 to 3700 MHz United States 71 to 95 GHz United States Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 22 2.4 GHz in Relation Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

23 5 GHz in Relation Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 24 Unlicensed Frequencies In the United States of America the FCC Federal Communications Commission controls the radio frequency spectrum The FCC first authorized unlicensed use of the airwaves for broadband wireless transmission in 1985

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 25 Unlicensed Frequencies The basic requirements for any unlicensed system are Low power output Spread spectrum modulation Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 26

Unlicensed Frequencies In Use There are three unlicensed frequency bands currently in use in the United States 900 to 928 MHz 2.4000 to 2.4835 GHz 5.1500 to 5.825 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 27 Unlicensed Frequencies There are several potential bands as well 60 GHz

71 GHz to 76 GHz 81 GHz to 86 GHz 92 GHz to 95 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 28 Unlicensed Frequencies Bands In the United States the unlicensed frequencies are covered by two bands ISM Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Covered by FCC rules in Part 15.247, 15.203, and 1.1307

UNII Unlicensed National Infrastructure Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 29 PTP v PTMP Frequencies can be categorized by how they are used When a link connects only two points, this is a PTP or point-to-point connection When the connection is from a single central point out to several other points, at varying distances and in varying directions, this is a PTMP or point-to-multipoint network

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 30 PTP v PTMP Different frequencies are typically used for these two types of network layouts The choice depends on Licensing issues Carrying capacity Length of the link Equipment cost Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 31 PTP Frequencies Unlicensed 2.4 GHz 5.x GHz 24 GHz Licensed 6 GHz 11 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 32 PTMP Frequencies Unlicensed 900 MHz 2.4 GHz 5.x GHz 60 GHz Licensed 2.5 GHz 3.5 GHz 10.5 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 33 PTMP Frequencies 26 GHz 28 GHz 40 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 34 Distances In general systems that use the range

from 2 to 10 GHz have maximum path length of 30 to 60 kilometers or 20 to 40 miles Those frequencies above 10 GHz are limited to less than 15 kilometers or 10 miles as rain fade becomes an issue Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 35 Radio Frequency Safety Cisco wrote a white paper to address the concerns about RF safety Concerns about health effects of cellular

phones and wireless LAN radio systems are continuously increasing Although radio frequency (RF) energy is a form of radiation, the public holds a misconception between the safe and potentially damaging forms Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 36 Radio Frequency Safety This misconception often raises concerns about possible problems caused by RF devices Modern homes and offices are filled with RF

producing devicesfrom computers and fax machines, to cordless phones, pagers, microwave ovens and wireless LAN (WLAN) devices Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 37 Radio Frequency Safety The level of RF produced by these devices is extremely low Today's devices however, operate at higher frequency levels than earlier devices The higher frequencies produce shorter

wavelengths and shorter wavelengths have the potential for greater interaction with the human body tissue Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 38 Radio Frequency Safety With the increase in frequencies, the potential for interference with medical life support devices also increases In the first case, most forms of radio energy pass through the human body without any harmful or residual effects

This is because most energy that is absorbed is extremely low, and has no effect on the human body Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 39 Radio Frequency Safety The second is now being addressed by makers of medical devices working with the manufacturers of RF devices at places like the University of Oklahoma's Wireless Device Center RF experts at the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) have developed

a guide for safe usage to prevent harmful effects of RF energy Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 40 Radio Frequency Safety The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) under publication C-95.1-1991 publishes this guide, which covers nonionizing RF energy As of January 1, 1997, RF devices from amateur radio stations, cellular phones, Spread Spectrum data radios, and other RF devices are required to meet the RF safety limits set forth by the FCC in Docket 96-362

(NPRM 93-62) Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 41 Radio Frequency Safety This OET Bulletin number 65 is entitled Evaluating Compliance with the FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields All Cisco radio-based products comply with both the ANSI C95.1-1991 IEEE Standards for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure as well as the FCC Office of Engineering and Technology Bulletin 65

Evaluating Compliance with the FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure 42 Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com Radio Frequency Safety Cisco radios are evaluated for RF Safety Compliance per the requirements of FCC Part 2.1091 and 2.1093 of the FCC rules as well as RSS-102 requirements from Industry Canada The compliance is based on the results of the Maximum Permissible Exposure Studies for mobile or fixed devices and per Specific Absorption Rate Tests for portable devices

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 43 Radio Frequency Safety By definition, portable devices are devices that are designed to operate with the antenna less than 20cm from the user or bystander An example would be a radio installed in a Palmtop device, which could be belt worn and used or some laptop installations Mobile and fixed devices are designed to be used at distances greater than 20 cm from the user

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 44 Radio Frequency Safety This includes systems mounted in desktops, ceiling mounted systems, or systems with the antenna mounted on the roof or tower When the devices are installed and operated with in the parameters set forth in the instruction manual, the user or general public will not be subjected to any levels of RF greater than the recommended standards. Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 45 Radio Frequency Safety Cisco wireless devices generally operate at power levels 5 or 6 times lower than that of standard cell phones and at lower duty cycles The lower power and duty cycle decrease's the user's exposure to RF fields, thus reducing the exposure level For portable devices, the spread spectrum radios operate at one-tenth of the recommend exposure requirements for this type of device Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

46 Radio Frequency Safety The results showed that the Cisco Systems 2.4 GHz radios did not interfere or degrade the performance of heart pacemakers when operated at close proximity to such a device. Additional studies are currently on going with Cisco WLAN radios and medical implant devices The various Cisco radio products do not produce any harmful ionization Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

47 Radio Frequency Safety The bottom line is that Cisco Systems products are safe, provided that they are not used in a manner inconsistent with intended use Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 48 Frequency Details Next we will look at the details of some of the commonly used and considered for

use frequencies This is presented in order of increasing frequency Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 49 700 MHz Details 700 MHz is a potential set of frequencies in the licensed area in the US It may be usable to provide up to 20 Mbps of throughput A range of 11 to 27 kilometers or 7 to 17 miles of obstructed line of sight is said to

be possible So far the licenses have been purchased through auctions mostly by competitive telephone companies Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 50 700 MHz Details The purpose of these licenses is as the FCC says One 20 megahertz license - consisting of paired 10 MHz blocks - and one 10 megahertz license - consisting of paired 5 MHz blocks - will be offered in six regions to

be known as 700 MHz band economic area groupings These economic area groups are Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 51 700 MHz Details Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 52

700 MHz Details These frequencies are arranged into two blocks Block C 742 752 MHz 777 782 MHz Block D 752 762 MHz 782 792 MHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 53

700 MHz Details Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 54 700 MHz Details Permissible uses of these frequencies are according to the FCC By Congressional direction the Commission has reallocated thirty-six megahertz for commercial use including fixed, mobile, and broadcasting services Six of the thirty- six megahertz have been identified as Guard Bands to provide

protection to public safety users, and have been licensed in a separate proceeding Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 55 700 MHz Details This spectrum offers potential to deploy new methods of providing high speed internet access, and is suitable for new fixed wireless in underserved areas, as well as next generation high speed mobile services One problem with these frequencies is that they are currently being used

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 56 700 MHz Details As explained by the FCC The spectrum is presently encumbered by approximately 100 existing television stations, and it may remain so, to some extent, until the end of 2006 or later No part of the country is totally unencumbered in this band, and in some metropolitan areas, very little of this band is presently available

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 57 700 MHz Details There is also activity in the lower portion of the 700 MHz range for the same purpose, but the territory is divided up differently into smaller areas Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 58

700 MHz Details Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 59 700 MHz Details Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 60 900 MHz Details In many parts of the world the 900 MHz

frequencies are license free in the range from 902 928 MHz The total bandwidth is 26 MHz The nominal wavelength is 325 mm In comparison with other available frequencies used for wireless delivery systems, it is said to have good NLOS capabilities Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 61 900 MHz Details Because 900 MHz signals can pass through some obstructions without being

completely lost, such as light trees They will also bend or diffract over a low hill and still be strong enough to be received a few miles away Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 62 900 MHz Details When deployed outside with an outdoor antenna typical coverage areas are LOS Line of Sight 13 km or 8 miles

NLOS Non Line of Sight 3 to 5 km or 2 to 3 miles With an indoor antenna the range is half in the best conditions Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 63 900 MHz Details 900 MHz signals can typically go through 100 to 200 meters or about 500 feet of solid trees But this assumes the antennas are mounted on towers, so that you do not

have to punch through several kilometers or miles of trees, just a few around the site Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 64 900 MHz Details The base station antenna needs to be at least 10 meters or 30 feet above the average tree height The problem with the 900 MHz band has always been two things Low data rates due to restricted bandwidth 2 to 2.5 Mbps is available for all users, 128 Kbps

per end user Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 65 900 MHz Details High levels of use by other devices, which leads to considerable interference Low allowable transmission power Part of the 900 MHz range, in the middle part of the range, is also licensed for use as a point-to-point link However, it is not often used due to limited

bandwidth and licensing issues Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 66 1700 MHz Details A new licensed frequency being offered is in the 1710 to 1755 MHz range The FCC expects this to be used to offer voice, data, and broadband service to fixed or mobile networks There are few limits as to the services and technologies that can be offered It remains to be seen what this range will be used for and who will license it

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 67 2100 MHz Details Along with the 1700 MHz range a set of frequencies from 2110 to 2120 MHz is also being offered under the same terms The FCC expects both of these ranges to be used to offer voice, data, and broadband service to fixed or mobile networks There are few limits as to the services and technologies that can be offered Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 68 2.3 GHz Details The FCC the 2.3 GHz licensed frequencies called the WCS Wireless Communications Services can be used for The Wireless Communications Service (WCS) may be used for any fixed, mobile, radiolocation or broadcast-satellite (sound) use consistent with the international agreements concerning spectrum allocations, and subject to the technical rules of Part 27, Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 69 2.3 GHz Details This frequency is mentioned as one that is potentially suitable for PTP links But it is not deployed this way due to limited bandwidth and licensing issues Patrick Leary of Alvarion, who makes equipment for this type of application, says this about the 2.3 band WCS is a band with small channelization and is owned by folks like Verizon Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

70 2.4 GHz Details The 2.4 GHz frequency range is license free worldwide for the most part, although the channel details differ It ranges from 2.4000 2.5000 GHz in the FCC scheme and from 2.4000 to 2.4835 GHZ as defined by the IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, who create standards for the use of these frequencies Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

71 2.4 GHz Details The 2.4 GHz band provides 83.5 MHz of bandwidth These signals are around 125 mm This is a fairly long range solution, but it requires LOS, as it does not pass through obstructions well Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 72 2.4 GHz Details

Water attenuation is the major problem, especially outdoors, as the attenuation from trees is approximately .5 dB per meter of canopy With a tree with a canopy of 10 meters or 30 feet the attenuation would be about 5 dB Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 73 2.4 GHz Details As 6 dB of attenuation reduces the length of a wireless link by half, a few trees will

block the signal In the US Part 15 of the CFR Code of Federal Regulations covers the usage of this frequency In Europe regulation of this frequency range is covered by EN 300 328 and EN 300 826 from the ETSI Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 74 2.4 GHz Details Part 15 and EN 300 328 are similar Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 75 2.5 GHz Details 2.5 GHz licensed band is also called the MMDS band in the United States This stands for Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Sometimes it is called the ITFS Instructional Television Fixed Services band Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 76

2.5 GHz Details And lately it is called the EBS Educational Broadband Service or BRS Broadband Radio Service This is a point-to-multipoint distribution method In that a central tower is used to transmit within a radius Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 77 2.5 GHz Details

All users within this pattern share the bandwidth MMDS operates in the 2.1 GHz to 2.7 GHz range, primarily at 2.500 GHz to 2.690 GHz Most deployments work best in a cellular arrangement so as to minimize terrain problems Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 78 2.5 GHz Details A typical radius of the cell is 18 kilometers or 11 miles

Downstream speeds range from 384 to 514 kbps and upstream from 256 to 384 kbps The FCC announced in March 2003 that they would be looking at changes to the use of the frequencies covered now by MMDS systems Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 79 2.5 GHz Details They will be looking to expand the use of these frequencies for last mile and other Internet access related services

Patrick Leary of Alvarion, who makes equipment for this type of application, says this about the 2.5 band Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 80 2.5 GHz Details Sprint/Nextel own licenses instead to about 80% of the BRS (broadband radio service) band, which is the commercial side of the BRS/EBS range of spectrum sitting between 2.5GHz-2.696GHz

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 81 2.5 GHz Details While this range of band used to be called the MMDS/ITFS bands, this is more than a name change, since the band has been completely restructured to remove interleaving with former ITFS (instructional fixed television service), which is now called EBS (educational broadband service) Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

82 3.5 GHz Details The 3.5 GHz frequency is very widely deployed outside of the United States These frequencies are available in Canada Asia Africa This is actually a range of frequencies from 3.4 to 3.7 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

83 3.5 GHz Details A cell radius of 10 km or 6 miles is common for this frequency For example, this is being auctioned as a fixed wireless frequency in the United Kingdom for providing services to small business and home users Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 84 3.5 GHz Details

This frequency is meant to provide always on, fast Internet access services that would be most suitable for small and medium sized businesses and the top end of the consumer market Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 85 5 GHz Details 5 GHz systems are deployed around the world, but the frequencies allowed to be used and for what use vary widely For example, in the US there are four

license-free subbands at 5 GHz, although two of these bands overlap each other There is one ISM band from 5.725 to 5.850 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 86 5 GHz Details There are three UNNI - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure bands 5150 to 5250 MHz 5250 to 5350 MHz 5725 to 5825 MHz

The ISM band is 125 MHz wide Every UNII band is 100 MHz wide The 5 GHz range wavelength is approximately 54 mm Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 87 5 GHz Details An important point for future development is that each 5 GHz subband is wider than the entire 2.4 GHz band It is possible to build 5 GHz wireless equipment that provides more bandwidth and more throughput than equipment for

any other unlicensed band The attenuation from trees at 5 GHz is about 1.2 dB per meter Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 88 5 GHz Details Therefore, each 10 meter or 30 foot diameter tree canopy reduces the path length by 75 percent A cell range of 13 kilometers or 8 miles is common for the upper end of this frequency range Part 15 covers the 5 GHz band in the US

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 89 5 GHz Details In Canada this is the RSS-210, Low Power License-Exempt Radiocommunication Devices regulation In Europe this group of frequencies is generally defined under EN 300 440 and EN 300 683, which is for all frequencies from 1 to 40 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 90 UNII Details UNII has been divided in three parts by the FCC Lower Indoor and Outdoor 5.150 5.250 GHz 50 mW maximum power FCC Middle Indoors and Outdoors with DFC and TPC 5.250 5.350 GHz This range is for indoor and outdoor use 250 mW maximum power FCC Upper - Outdoors

5.725 5.825 GHz This range is for indoor and outdoor use 1000 mW maximum power FCC Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 91 UNII Details Deployed speeds range from 128 kbps to 2 Mbps Being an unlicensed band, UNII is susceptible to interference from other users in the same bands In some cases radar units operating at

high power levels in this band can cause intermittent interference problems in the 5.725 to 5.825 range Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 92 UNII Details The presence of radar is the reason for the DFC and TPC requirements for UNII-2 This basically calls for the radio to shutdown and then move to another channel if they see radar emmissions Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 93 5 GHz Channel Use Details Country Channels Allowed 5180 5200 5220 Austria

X X X Belgium X X X Denmark

X X X Finland X X X France

X X Germany X Ireland 5240 5 mW 12.5 mW EIRP

10 mW 25 mW EIRP 20 mW 50 mW EIRP X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

X X Netherlands X X X X X

X X Norway X X X X X

X Portugal X X X X X X

Sweden X X X X X X Switzerland

X X X X X X UK X

X X X X X X X X

X 5260 Power Levels Allowed X X X X 5280

X X X X 5300 X X X

X 5320 X X X X Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 40 mW

100 mW EIRP X X X 94 5 GHz Details The World Radiocommunication Conference held in 2003 harmonized and expanded the spectrum in the 5 GHz frequency range

Worldwide these ranges will track the US usage shown above In addition a range from 5.470 to 5.725 GHz will be added for use both inside and outside Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 95 5 GHz Details Depending on the ultimate use of these frequencies in actual products, this should increase the bandwidth for devices using these frequencies

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 96 6 GHz Details The frequencies around 6 GHz, 5.9 to 6.8 GHz, are licensed in the United States for use as point-to-point links This frequency has a long range for a microwave radio link at 75 kilometers or 45 miles A common speed is 155 Mbps Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

97 6 GHz Details Rather than being in based on data networking technologies, the systems deployed at these frequencies typically use circuit switching technologies Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 98 10.5 GHz Details The 10.5 GHz frequency is not a widely

used frequency for broadband wireless access at present If deployed, it would be similar to the systems using 3.5 MHz As a cell based system it should have a cell radius of 10 km or 6 miles Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 99 10.5 GHz Details The main concern with this frequency and all of those above this is attenuation from rain

This might require very small cell size and correspondingly more equipment for wide coverage Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 100 11 GHz Details 11 GHz is deployed in the same way and has basically the same characteristics as 6 and 10 GHz systems The actual range is 10.7 to 11.7 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 101 12 GHz Details The 12 GHz or MVDDS Multichannel Video Distribution and Data Services band is being considered by the FCC in the United States as a licensed band The frequency range is from 12.2 to 12.7 GHz MVDDS is seen as a way to deliver both Internet access and video over a wireless system Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

102 12 GHz Details This will provide an alternative to both wired cable systems and small dish satellite providers Naturally the satellite providers are opposing this as it will not only compete with them, but also use the same frequencies Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 103

18 GHz Details This frequency is similar to both 6 and 11 GHz The main differences being the shorter range of 23 km or 14 miles and a slightly slower speed of 100 Mbps Unlike 6 and 11 GHz, 18 GHz uses data based technologies This makes it deployable as a direct link to an Ethernet system Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 104

18 GHz Details This frequency is considered to be the best choice for PTP backhaul links The actual range is 17.7 to 19.7 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 105 23 GHz Details 23 GHz systems are similar to those that use the 18 GHz frequency The main difference being a shorter range of 15 km or 9 miles 21.2 to 23.6 GHz is the range covered

This is a good choice for PTP backhaul links that are shorter range It can take longer to license than other frequencies 106 Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 24 GHz Details 24 GHz range is both licensed and unlicensed The licensed part is from 24.25 to 24.45 GHz range It is commonly called DEMS Digital Electronic Message Service It is seen as a possible licensed band for

use to deliver data services over a wireless system Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 107 24 GHz Details The unlicensed portion of this frequency range is 24.00 to 24.25 GHz 24 GHz unlicensed is used for short range, under 3 miles, point-to-point connections Like all frequencies above 6 GHz rain is the limiting factor Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D.

www.chipps.com 108 26 GHz Details The 26 GHz frequency is used in a manner similar to the 3.5 and 10.5 GHz frequencies In some countries the military has primary use This frequency has similar problems to the 28 to 31 GHz range as discussed next Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

109 28 to 31 GHz Details LMDS - Local Multipoint Distribution Services is a licensed system commonly used in a point-to-point design It operates in the 28 GHz to 31 GHz range This is a line of sight technology so the range is from 2 to 5 km or 1 to 3 miles depending on terrain and obstructions These systems are capable of speeds in the 1.5 Mbps to 622 Mbps range Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 110

LMDS Details Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 111 LMDS Details Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 112 LMDS Details

Due to the higher frequencies used, LMDS is prone to weather related problems like heavy rain and fog Because the waves have high amplitudes; walls, hills, and leafy trees can block the signal as well In a dry area a longer range can be expected versus a shorter range in a heavy rain area Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 113 LMDS Details The main problem with LMDS is the cost

of manufacturing the components and the expense of the license for the spectrum The parts for the higher frequencies used are more exacting and therefore more expensive to produce Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 114 39 GHz Details This is a licensed band for use in the US It is available as a sublicense from a licensed provider This frequency ranges from 38.6 to 40.0

GHz According to the FCC this frequency can be used for fixed communications including point-to-point and point-tomultipoint designs Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 115 39 GHz Details The main problem with this frequency is range The useable range is about 5 km or 3 miles Attenuation from rain limits the useable link in heavy rain areas to around a

kilometer or so Speeds around 622 Mbps are common Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 116 40 GHz Details In Europe the 40.5 to 43.5 GHz band is seen by the governmental authorities as a key resource for developing the next generation of broadband services The band has been harmonized within Europe for MWS - Multimedia Wireless Systems

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 117 40 GHz Details This frequency is seen as having the capacity to handle very high bandwidth, which would be sufficient to support several broadcast services as well as high capacity two-way telecommunication links, such as video on demand and video communication The small to medium sized business market, home office users, and large corporations are the first targets

Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 118 60 GHz Details In 1995 in the United States an ISM band from 57 to 64 GHz was created The bandwidth is almost 5 GHz However, since the wavelength is only about 5 mm, signals at this frequency are attenuated by the very air in which they travel Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com

119 60 GHz Details In particular the oxygen in the air and especially any rain it encounters are attenuators Oxygen attenuates the signal at about 16 dB per kilometer The maximum wireless link possible is 1 km or half a mile in clear air Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 120

60 GHz Details Rainfall reduces the range to around 500 m Any obstruction completely blocks the signal But the advantage with this much attenuation is no interference from competing systems either This also allows this frequency to be unlicensed Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 121

71 to 95 GHz Details This range of frequencies is called the upper-millimeter wave band or W band These are the frequencies at 71 GHz to 76 GHz 81 GHz to 86 GHz 92 GHz to 95 GHz The wavelengths are 3.2 to 4.2 mm Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 122 71 to 95 GHz Details

This is being viewed as a last mile solution as systems will be able to be used in close proximity to each other Rather than be licensed to a specific user for a specific use, the use of a frequency in an area will be registered in a database by the FCC Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 123 71 to 95 GHz Details The registrant is then entitled to interference protection based on the date

of registration Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 124 71 to 95 GHz Details As two of the FCC Commissioners said in 2002 Kathleen Q. Abernathy As currently conceived the 70, 80 and 90 GHz bands will use pencil beams of radio energy to transmit data relatively short distances between fixed sites In many cases there could be thousands of these

hops in a relatively small geographic area because of the narrow beam it is believed multiple systems can co-exist without interference Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 125 71 to 95 GHz Details Kevin J. Martin "The 71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz, and 92-95 GHz bands - which have wavelengths of about three to five millimeters - have never before been used commercially, and it was previously unclear how these bands could be used this spectrum may ultimately be used commercially for high-speed wireless local area

networks, broadband access systems for the Internet, point-to-point communications, and pointto-multipoint communications Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 126 71 to 95 GHz Details In other words this would have to be a mesh network design, with the attendant cost and latency issues as are always present in this type of design These issues are discussed in more detail in the design chapter The FCC will also permit unlicensed inside

use of the 92.0 to 94.0 GHz and 94.1 to 95.0 GHz ranges Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 127 71 to 95 GHz Details This use is governed by Part 15 and is based on the rules for the 57 to 64 GHz band Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 128

Which One to Use Which frequency to use depends For a wireless LAN the selection is somewhat simplified as one of the 802.11 standards are the only ones to consider This means either 802.11b at 2.4 GHz 802.11a at 5 GHz 802.1g at 2.4 GHz Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 129

Which One to Use In the wireless MAN, at least for unlicensed systems, most use 2.4, 5.3, or 5.8 GHz in the United States 2.4 GHz systems are widely deployed now as the systems are inexpensive, but these systems were designed for indoor short range use Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 130 Which One to Use In comparison 5 GHz frequencies have

More bandwidth More equipment designed for outdoor wireless use Often more power without amps Polling and other protocols better suited for the job Less congested band in many cases Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 131 Which One to Use Often more scalable since the band allows higher EIRP at the client end

Outside the United States the 3.5 GHz frequency is very widely used Copyright 2005-2010 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com 132

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • 802.11 WG Technical Editor Report

    802.11 WG Technical Editor Report

    802.11e Berlin Report September 17, 2004 TGe & Sponsor Ballot Report Sponsor Ballot recirculation and received 87% approval (95 yes, 14 no, 12 abstain) Received 181 comments 123 Technical, 47 Editorial, 11 not specified Provided resolutions to all comments and...
  • Dr. Lozanov - VOBS

    Dr. Lozanov - VOBS

    Dr. Lozanov from Sofia physician psychotherapist brain-researcher Psychotherapeutic work Lozanov studied people with hypermnesia: Yogi: could repeat 1000 phrases from memory after hearing them once. Maori Chief could recite the history of his tribes over 45 generations.
  • Introduction to Animals - Jefferson County Schools, TN

    Introduction to Animals - Jefferson County Schools, TN

    Introduction to Animals ... between mesoderm and endoderm roundworms and rotifers Coelomate cavity developed within the mesoderm most complex body plan mollusks, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates Animal Diversity Invertebrates 10 phyla 95% of animals Chordates Notochord Dorsal ...
  • Therapies Chapter 16 - Mrs. Short's AP Psychology Class

    Therapies Chapter 16 - Mrs. Short's AP Psychology Class

    Drug Therapy. antipsychotic drugs - powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with a severe psychological disorder, especially schizophrenia. small dosages over time, may combine with vocation,...
  • GW study of half-metallic electronic structure of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    GW study of half-metallic electronic structure of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    Matter 11,R489(1999) Ionization energy e.g. GW improves bandgaps LMTO-ASA virtual crystal approx. Mn eg Mn t2g Mn eg Mn t2g La Mn O Pm-3m Majority Mn eg <- Fermi level Minority Mn t2g <- Fermi level Spin moment=3.55mB La 4f...
  • Chapter 21 Ethnographic Research

    Chapter 21 Ethnographic Research

    The emphasis in ethnographic research is on documenting or portraying the everyday experiences of individuals by observing and interviewing them and relevant others."(Frankel & Wallen, 2006) What is Incorporated into the Ethnographic Process…Three Step Process Provides a detailed description of...
  • Comparative Judgment as a Novel Approach to Operational

    Comparative Judgment as a Novel Approach to Operational

    A time when i felt free was, when i finally got released from being in the hospital for four days. The reason i was in the hospital was because i had a kidney stones which hurted really bad that i...
  • Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Computational Biology

    Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Computational Biology

    Common microarray formats involve direct hybridization between labeled DNA/RNA sample and DNA probes attached to a glass slide SNP Genotyping Genome variation: 0.1% of the DNA different from one individual to another 80% of the variation is represented by Single...