Statement to the Knesset Date of Speech: 20 November 1977 Composer of Speech: Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt Context Personal Context An Egyptian president from 1970 until his assassination on 6 October 1981 A radical leader who opened the door to private and foreign investment in Egypt, returned the country to a political system based on multiple parties, and succeeded in signing a peace treaty with Israel He earned a noble peace price but it made him enormously unpopular with Islamists, such that Egypt was expelled from the Arab League Sadats assassination was highly organised and carried out under a fatwah which occurred during the annual victory parade in Cairo Eleven others were killed in the attack, including some foreign dignitaries Context Speech Context The statement to the Knesset (the Israeli Parliament) is highly charged with the context of the events about Sadats life
Hes on a mission to establish peace with Israel and achieve a recognition by each of others territorial boundaries Speech was success in that the agreement with Israel was reached and a treaty signed in 1979, leading to his assassination two years later Speech was translated from Hebrew so it may well seem stilted, even somewhat awkward, to the ear of a native English speaker Arguments AUDIENCE/PURPOSE Draws on wider international appeal to move away from the telescopic focus of the arab-israeli conflict. Thus, appeals to the audience He focuses on the commonalities to unite them rather than focusing on regional and cultural differences Hes trying to break the divide down Anwar Sadat is a prophet of peace and beacon of knowledge. He presents himself as someone trustworthy to give an opinion on land issues by showing his neutrality Arguments ETHOS
Sadat doesnt speak as a humble supplicant, or from a position of weakness or hesitation but as an equal, a foe to be reckoned with- As stressed by him warning his audience not to presume that certain things are negotiable; alerts his audience that he is promoting real change Anwars shock value of taking initiative while we are still in the state of war is partly why his mission has such a diplomatic impact. He stresses that this is the real solution for lasting peace, rather than a temporary ceasefire. Peace must be based on justice and frank exchange Values Belief that all humanity is entitled to a homeland Religious belief (or uniting concern) that you should fight for your land Seeking a commonality for peaceful resolution(as Ghandi was seen as a symbol of peace) Peace is universal Value of equality He appeals to our basic human rights humanity Value of life Values
Unity It appeals to human needs of love (care and compassion)from our filial relationships Universal Concern that was is destructive Justice is the foundation of peace Structure Introduction: Beings speech by acknowledging God as the Gracious and Merciful and then Peace and Mercy of God Almighty be upon you and may peace be for us all, God Willing. Therefore positions himself as an equal who searches for peace and is an utter subject to the will of God. Body: Arguments for purpose of the speech which is to convince the Knesset that a peace based on mutual respect for each others sovereignty and boundaries is both possible and desirable. Towards the ending of the body, he uses Rhetoric very constantly as he uses the rhetoric technique of repetition to really convince and draw his audience to the idea of peace and happiness. Furthermore also repeating permanent peace based on justice for further emphasis to his ideas on peace. Conclusion: He ends the speech as he begins in terms of being an utter subject to Gods will. Techniques EXAMPLE/EVIDENCE
peace and the mercy of God Almighty be upon you and may peace be for us all, God willing TECHNIQUE Religious Allusions I come to you today on Appeals to universal values solid ground, to shape a Direct address new life, to establish peace. He asked me: Mr Hypophora President, what would be our reaction if Israel should actually extend an invitation to you? I replied calmly, I will accept it immediately.
EXPLANATION He uses religious allusions to introduce the context behind this speech, which is that, religion is one of the main factor of this speech Engages the audiences attention as it addresses the worlds biggest issueto bring peace Dialogue brings a sense of realism and truth into speeches. He uses this to show his response to the situation. ` Techniques EXAMPLE/EVIDENCE biggest Arab state and heaviest burden TECHNIQUE Dramatic emphasises
showing utter suspicion and absolute lack of confidence Diction- Strong use of language families are still moaning under the cruel pains of widowhood and bereavement of sons, fathers and brothers Dramatic emphasises EXPLANATION He uses religious allusions to introduce the context behind this speech, which is that, religion is one of the main factor of this speech
Addresses the current situation and how its disappointing that these obstacles are preventing the change to a better and harmonic future To identify and acknowledge the pain of war Persuades the audience to sympathise and act upon it Techniques EXAMPLE/EVIDENCE Arab Nation the horrors of new, shocking and destructive wars, the dimensions of which are foreseen by no other than God himself we must all rise above all forms of fanaticism, self deception and obsolete
theories of superiority. The most important thing is never to forget that infallibility is the prerogative of God alone. innocent children and every child born on the land TECHNIQUE hyperbole EXPLANATION War is taking over the countrys reputation Inspiring and demanding tone Shows great leadership, by taking action and having the confidence in change the future for the better
Imagery descriptive Refers to new life symbol of innocence, which Sadat implies thats what he wants for the nation. A fresh start . Techniques EXAMPLE/EVIDENCE motivated by all these factors how can we achieve permanent peace based on justice? how can we achieve a durable peace based on justice? let us be frank TECHNIQUE
anaphora the first fact , the second fact, and so on... Diction of facts no one can build happiness at the expense of the misery of others Rhetorical question anaphora EXPLANATION Emphasises on the responsibility of a leader Questions the audience into thinking and take action Allows audience to
consider the arguments Illustrates the arguments into simple format to engage the audience Happiness can not be achieved if there is still others living in an injustice world EXAMPLE/EVIDENCE I tell you Techniques we do not want to encircle you or be encircled ourselves by destructive missiles ready for launching, nor by the shells of grudges and hatred as we really and truly seek peace, we really and truly welcome you to live among
us in peace and security. shoulder the burdens and responsibilities of a durable peace based on justice TECHNIQUE Repetition of direct language Metaphor Directly engaging with the audience metaphor EXPLANATION Shows the sincere and comfort tone that ensures the audience that Sadat knows what hes talking about Explains to the audience why justice should be
serve, and his point is that theres too much a person can take, not only physical pain but psychological Invites the audience to think and do likewise Encourages the audience that the only way to escape the hardship is by shaking hands into a truce Techniques EXAMPLE/EVIDENCE huge walls between us which you tried to build-up over a quarter of a century TECHNIQUE Extended metaphor it was a wall
Anaphora to tell you the truth And i sincerely tell you why dont we repeat together from the Psalms of David and Why dont we believe the wisdom of God conveyed to us by the Proverbs of Solomon Imperative tone Anaphora of rhetorical question Religious allusion EXPLANATION Acknowledges the hardship which takes for justice to serve. Sadat mentions these obstacles and tells them to tackle it through motivation and reasoning.
Repetition to emphasise and identify the obstacles/ barriers Emphasises on the genuine personality The religious allusion allows audience to remember the importance of peace which is a key element in their religious beliefs Other Speeches The speech links to Faith Bandlers speech, Faith, Hope and Reconciliation as both speeches address that they wish to see a change in society. As Sadat wishes to see the change of the countries becoming peaceful with each other, while Bandler wishes to see the change in society of Aboriginal people gaining land rights. In Aung San Suu Kyis speech links are shown through, both speeches being about bringing similar but different people together in peace rather than
through arguments and force, as well as everyone being treated properly by all. Other Speeches Sadats speech also links in with these speeches as they try to inspire the audience to do something about the issue and not to let things continue in the way they have before, as the speakers feel that there is a great concern for how people are going about the particular issues. Critical Commentary Around the time Anwar Sadat said his speech there were some who where a little hesitant and others who were opposed to Sadats stance on the matter and when it came to believing what his motive entailed, as they struggled to see how there could be such a try for peace in a time filled so much of hatred. However as time as gone on Sadats speech is seen to have more of an effect on the issue of bringing peace to the countries, some people even seeing Sadat as a martyr for taking on the task and risk of giving this
speech during such a time. Critical Commentary As well as the speech still maintains its relevance as it still is able to relate to the continuing strained relations of Middle Eastern countries and their struggle for peace.
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