Psychomotor skill learning - A Private's Life... Finance 101
PSYCHOMOTOR SKILL LEARNING (AND LEARNING HOW TO THROW A GRENADE) EDAE 629-Fall 2010 By Dominique & Cindy What is Psychomotor Skill Learning?
Psychomotor skills are skills in which the processes involved are primarily muscular or are described in glandular or in muscular terms. Examples include typing skills and other motion derived skills Definitions Skill: completion of a task with ease and
precision Gagne characterized psychomotor skills as coordinated muscular movements that are typified by smoothness and precise timing. Example
Parts of a Psychomotor Skill There is a cognitive or thinking part to a psychomotor skill. This part becomes automatic and eventually were no longer conscious of it. Example: Learning to write an essay is not a
psychomotor skill, even though it does involve a physical movement which becomes automatic. Components of Psychomotor Skills Psychomotor learning involves the acquisition of Muscular movements
Procedural rule Closed vs. Open Closed Skills: are performed without active influence from the environment. Open Skills: are used when the environment causes the performer to make continuous adjustments.
Person and Object Motion: the person may perform the skill either at rest or in motion, and the object may either be at rest or in motion. Mass versus Spaced Practice Massed Practice: the learner engages in one or a few intensive, extended periods of
practice with little or no rest in between. Spaced Practice: is the form in which man relatively short practice sessions are distributed over time. Critical Factors Instruction of a psychomotor skill involves the following: demonstration and explanation that leads to
the verbal information and learning the procedural rule practice with feedback Introduction Deploy attention State purpose Stimulate
Provide overview EXAMPLE- INTRODUCTION The importance of properly gripping the hand grenade cannot be overemphasized. Soldiers must understand that a grenade not held properly is difficult to arm. Gripping procedures differ slightly for right- and lefthanded soldiers. Right handed pictured above, left handed pictured below.
Right-handed soldiers hold the grenade upright with the pull ring away from the palm of the throwing hand so that the pull ring can be easily removed by the index or middle finger of the free hand. Left-handed soldiers invert the grenade with the fingers and thumb of the throwing hand positioned in the same manner as by righthanded personnel. Body
Stimulate recall Present information Attention Learning strategy Practice Evaluate feedback EXAMPLE- BODY 1. Observe the target to mentally establish the distance between your throwing position and the target area. In observing the target,
minimize your exposure time to the enemy (no more than 3 seconds). 2. Remove the safety clip. 3. Grip the hand grenade in your throwing hand. 4. Grasp the pull ring with the index or middle finger of your nonthrowing hand. Remove the safety pin with a pulling and twisting motion. If the tactical situation permits, observe the safety pin's removal. 5. Look at the target and throw the grenade using the overhand method so that the grenade arcs, landing on or near the target. 6. Allow the motion of your throwing arm to continue naturally once you release the grenade. This follow-through improves distance and
accuracy and lessens the strain on your throwing arm. 7. Practice the necessary throws that are used in combat, such as the underhand and sidearm throws. Soldiers can practice these Phases Associative: Learner begins to learn how to physically perform the skill through the following:
practice rounds Phases Autonomous: Practice and feedback allow the learner to progress from the jerky or fumbling efforts of the novice to the smooth, controlled, apparently effortless actions that characterize the
expert performance of a psychomotor skill. Teaching Procedure Prior to practice: learners need to know what is being learned, why they must learn it and how they are going to go about learning the skill. Explanations and demonstrations are provided (cognitive
phase). Practice Makes Perfect Standing. The standing position is the most desirable and natural position from which to throw grenades. It allows you to obtain the greatest possible throwing distance. Soldiers normally use this position when occupying a fighting position or during operations in fortified positions or urban terrain.
Observe the target to mentally estimate the distance. Use the proper handgrip and arm the grenade while behind cover. Assume a natural stance with your weight balanced equally on both feet. Hold the grenade shoulder high and hold the non-throwing hand at a 45 angle with the fingers and thumb extended, joined, and pointing toward the intended target. Throw the grenade with a natural motion, using the procedures described above in THROWING.
Seek cover to avoid being hit by fragments or direct enemy fire. If no cover is available, drop to the prone position with your Kevlar facing the Alternate Practice Kneeling. The kneeling position reduces the distance a soldier can throw a grenade. It is used primarily when a soldier has only a low wall, a shallow ditch, or similar cover to protect him. Observe the target to mentally estimate the throwing distance. Using the proper grip, arm the grenade while behind cover.
Hold the grenade shoulder high and bend your non-throwing knee at a 90 angle, placing that knee on the ground. Keep your throwing leg straight and locked, with the side of your boot firmly on the ground. Move your body to face sideways toward the target position. Keep your non-throwing hand at a 45 angle with your fingers and thumb extended, joined, and pointing toward the enemy position. Throw the grenade with a natural throwing motion. Push off with your throwing foot to give added force to your throw. Follow through with your throwing arm. Drop to the prone position or behind available cover to
reduce exposure to fragmentation and direct enemy fire. Teaching Procedure During practice: decisions are made about the distribution (part/whole) and scheduling (massed/spaced) of practice are made, as well as sequencing.
After practice: evaluation and conclusion of the lesson Teaching by example. Alternate prone. The alternate prone position reduces both distance and accuracy. It is used only when an individual is pinned down by hostile fire and is unable to rise to engage his target. Use the following procedures when throwing from this position: Lie down on your back with your body parallel to the grenade's intended line of flight. Hold the grenade at chinchest level and remove the safety pins.
Cock your throwing leg at a 45 angle, maintaining knee-toknee contact and bracing the side of your boot firmly on the ground. Hold the grenade 4 to 6 inches behind your ear with your arm cocked for throwing. With your free hand, grasp any object that is capable of giving added leverage to increase your throwing distance. In throwing the grenade, push off with your rearward foot to give added force to your throw. Do not lift your head or body when attempting to throw a grenade as this exposes you to direct enemy fire. After throwing the grenade, roll over onto your stomach
Conclusion Summarize and reviewRecap steps that will help clarify Transfer knowledgenote that it is necessary to maintain skills Re-motivate and closedemonstrate how to apply in future and when to use. Assessment Assess performanceObserve performance and computerized
performance rating. Provide feedback and remediation Dispense suggestions on how to perform the skill and help learner understand what to do next.
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