Project Management Process

8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) Chapter 8. (Project Project Quality Management) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Project Quality Overview)) 1. (Project Quality Planning) 2. (Project Perform Quality Assurance) 3. (Project Perform Quality Control) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8-2 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. (Project Quality), (Project Project Quality Management) (Project Definit ion) 2. Project Quality Management Processes (Project Quality Planni ng), (Project Perform Quality Assurance), (Project Perform Quality

Control) (Project Inputs), (Project Tools & Techniques), (Project Output s) (Project Project Management Process) 3. (Project Quality Improvement) (Project Tools & Techniques) , Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8-3 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) 8.0.1 (Quality Management)Definitions of Quality Terms) (Quality Management)Quality) : (The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements) Stated and implied needs are the inputs to developing project requirements A critical element of quality management in the project context is to turn stakeholder needs, wants, and expectations into requirements through Stakeholder Analysis True Quality mean value-added to the customer Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8-4

8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) (Quality Management)Project Quality Management) , (Project Quality Management processes include all the activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities) , , , , (It implements the quality management system through the policy, procedures, and processes of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control, with continuous process improvement activities conducted throughout, as appropriate) QM = QP + QA + QC + QI (Quality Improvement) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected]turetiger.com 8-5 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) (Project Project Quality Management) (Project quality management must address both the management of the project and the product of the project)

- Management of the project : Cost, Time, etc - Product of the Project : Goods and services While Project Quality Management applies to all projects, regardless of the nature of their product, product quality measures and techniques are specific to the particular type of product produced by the project Failure to meet quality requirements in either dimension can have serious negative consequences for any or all of project stakeholders - Meeting customer requirements by overworking the project team - Meeting project schedule objectives by rushing planned quality inspections Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8-6 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 8.0.2 Basic Approach to Quality Management Generalized approach : ISO 9000/10000 ISO 9000 and 10000 series - Standards for Quality System

- ISO 9000 is not a set of standards for product or services specific to any one industry, instead, it is a quality system applicable to any product, services anywhere in the world. Proprietary approach : Deming / Juran / Crosby Nonproprietary approach : Total Quality Management (TQM) / Six Sigma / Failure Mode and Effect Analysis / Design Reviews / Voice of the Customer / Cost of Quality (COQ), and Continuous Improvement. Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8-7 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) (Quality Management)Quality and Grade) (Quality Management)Grade) category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics Low quality is always a problem; low grade may not be - Low quality : Many bugs, poorly organized user documentation - Low Grade : A limited number of features The responsibility of Project Manager and Project Management Team Determining and delivering the required levels of both quality and grade. Gold Plating (X) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8-8

8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) (Quality Management)Precision) (Quality Management)Accuracy) Precision and accuracy are not equivalent. - Precision is consistency that the value of repeated measurements are clustered and have little scatter. - Accuracy is correctness that the measured value is very close to the true value. - Precise measurements are not necessarily accurate. - A very accurate measurement is not necessarily precise. The project management team must determine how much accuracy or precision or both are required Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8-9 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) 8.0.3 Modern Quality Management Complementing Project Management (Quality Management)Customer Satisfaction) Understanding, evaluating, defining, and managing expectations so that customer requirements are met. This requires a combination of conformance to requirements (the project must produce what it said it would produce) and fitness for use (the product or service must satisfy real needs )

(Quality Management)Prevention over Inspection) The cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less than the cost of correcting them, as revealed by inspection. (Quality Management)Management Responsibility) Success requires the participation of all members of the team, but it remains the responsibility of management to provide the resources needed to succeed. Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected].com 8 - 10 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) (Quality Management)Continuous Improvement) The plan-do-check-act cycle is the basis for quality improvement (as defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming) Quality improvement initiatives undertaken by the performing organization, such as TQM and Six Sigma, can improve the quality of the projects management as well as the quality of the projects product. Process improvement models include Malcolm Baldrige, CMM, and CMMI

Quality Activities in PDCA Cycle (Project Deming) > Act Plan > Corrective Action Improvement Review Audit Inspection Policy Training Quality System Design Procurement Construction > > Check Do Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected]

8 - 11 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) 8. (Project Quality Management) 8.1 (Quality Planning) Inputs 8.2 (Perform Quality Assurance) 8.3 (Perform Quality Control) Tools and Techniques Outputs Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 12

8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 0. (Quality Overview)Quality Overview)) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 13 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning 8.1.1 (Inputs) .1 .2 .3 .4 Enterprise Environment Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement Project Management Plan 8.1.2 (Tools & Techniques) 8.1 (Quality Planning)Quality Planning)) .1 .2 .3 .4

.5 Cost-Benefit Analysis Benchmarking Design of Experiment Cost of Quality (COQ) Additional Quality Planning Tools 8.1.3 (Outputs) .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 Quality Management Plan Quality Metrics Quality Checklists Process Improvement Plan Quality Baseline Project Management Plan (updates) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 14 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning

8.1 (Quality Management)Quality Planning) (Quality Management)Definition) : (Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them) One of the key processes When doing the Planning Process Group (Section 3.3) When during development of the project management plan (Sections 4.3) Should be performed in parallel with the other project planning processes. For example, the required changes in the product to meet identified quality standards Require cost or schedule adjustments Require a detailed risk analysis of an identified problem. , , (Quality is planned, designed, and built in, not inspected in) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 15 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning 8.1.1 : (Quality Management)Quality Planning: Inputs) .1 (Quality Management)Enterprise Environmental Factors) Governmental agency regulations, rules, standards, and guidelines specific to the application area may affect the project (Section 4.1.1.3)

.2 (Quality Management)Organizational Process Assets) Organizational quality policies, procedures and guidelines, historical databases and lessons learned from previous projects specific to the application area may affect the project (Section 4.1.1.4). (Quality Policy) - As endorsed by senior management, is the intended direction of a performing organization with regard to quality. Quality policy can be adopted - As-is policy : Using the quality policy of the performing organization - New policy : If the performing organization lacks a formal quality policy, or if the project involves multiple performing organizations Project Management Team is responsible for ensuring that the project stakeholders are fully aware of it (e.g., through appropriate information distribution (10.2.3.1)) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 16 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning .3 (Quality Management)Project Scope Statement) (described in Section 5.2.3.1) A key input to quality planning since it documents major project deliverables, as well as the project objectives that serve to define requirements, thresholds, and acceptance criteria - Requirements were derived from stakeholder needs, wants, and expectations - Thresholds, which are defined as cost, time, or resource values used as parameters, can be part of the project scope statement - Acceptance criteria include performance requirements and essential conditions that must be achieved before project deliverables are accepted

- The definition of acceptance criteria can significantly increase or decrease project quality costs .4 (Quality Management)Project Management Plan) (described in Section 4.3) Defines how the project is executed, monitored and controlled, and closed. Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 17 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning 8.1.2 : (Quality Management)Quality Planning: Tools and Techniques) .1 - (Quality Management)Cost-Benefit Analysis) Consider benefit / cost tradeoffs Primary benefit of meeting quality requirements Less rework, which means higher productivity Lower cost, increased stakeholder satisfaction Primary cost of meeting quality requirements is the expense associated with project quality management activities Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 18 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management)

1. Quality Planning .2 (Quality Management)Benchmarking) Comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects Generating ideas for improvement and providing a standard by which to measure performance Performing organization or outside of it, and same application area or in another Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] ,

8 - 19 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning .3 (Quality Management)Design of Experiments) Statistical method that helps identify which factors might influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production Playing a role in the optimization of products or processes Providing a statistical framework for systematically changing all of the important factors, instead of changing the factors one at a time . Ronald Fisher , . , , ( )

Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 20 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning .4 (Quality Management)COQ : Cost of quality) Total costs incurred by Investment in Preventing nonconformance to requirements Appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements Failing to meet requirements (rework) . Failure costs are often categorized into internal and external. (Cost of Conformance) Category Elements Preventive Cost ( ) Training Process capability studies Survey of vendor/supplies Appraisal Cost ( )

Inspection and testing Maintenance of inspection and test equipment Cost to process and report inspection data Design review Internal Design review and walk-through Expense review Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 21 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning (Cost of Nonconformance) Category Elements Internal Failure Cost ( )

Scrap and rework Charges related to late payment of bills Inventory costs for defects Engineering changes costs Infant mortality Correcting documentation External Failure Cost ( ) Warranty Cost Field service personnel training Product liability suits Complaint handling Future business losses Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected]

8 - 22 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning .5 (Quality Management)Additional Quality Planning Tools) Other quality planning tools are also often used to help better define the situation and help plan effective quality management activities. For Example : brainstorming, affinity diagrams, force field analysis, nominal group techniques, matrix diagrams, flowcharts, and prioritization matrices. Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 23 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning 8.1.3 (Quality Management)Quality Planning: Outputs) .1 (Quality Management)Quality Management Plan) Describes how the project management team will implement the performing organizations quality policy A component or a subsidiary plan of the project management plan (Section 4.3) Provides input to the overall project management plan and must address Quality Control (QC), Quality Assurance (QA), and continuous process improvement for the project should be performed through an independent peer review and not include individuals that

worked on the material being reviewed .2 (Quality Management)Quality Metrics) An operational definition that describes, in very specific terms, what something is and how the quality control process measures it The project management team must also indicate whether every activity must start on time or only finish on time Used in the QA and QC processes Some examples of quality metrics include defect density, failure rate, availability, reliability, and test coverage Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 24 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning .3 (Quality Management)Quality Checklists) A structured tool, usually component-specific, used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed Usually phrased as imperatives (Do this!) or interrogatories (Have you done this?) Many organizations have standardized checklists available to ensure consistency in frequently performed tasks Used in the quality control process CHECK ITEM 1) Does the drawing) conform to specification?

YES 2) Does the desig)n input conform to the calculation? 3) Has the desig)n information been verified? Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] NO N/A 8 - 25 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning .4 (Quality Management)Process Improvement Plan) Subsidiary of the project management plan (Section 4.3) Details the steps for analyzing processes that will facilitate the identification of waste and non-value added activity, thus increasing customer value, such as: Process boundaries : Describes the purpose, start, and end of processes, their inputs and outputs, data required, if any, and the owner and stakeholders of processes. Process configuration : A flowchart of processes to facilitate analysis with interfaces identified. Process metrics : Maintain control over status of processes.

Targets for improved performance : Guides the process improvement activities Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 26 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 1. Quality Planning .5 (Quality Management)Quality Baseline) Records the quality objectives of the project the basis for measuring and reporting quality performance as part of the performance measurement baseline .6 (Quality Management) ) (Quality Management)Project Management Plan (Quality Management)Updates)) Updated through the inclusion of a subsidiary quality management plan and process improvement plan (Section 4.3) Requested changes (additions, modifications, deletions) to the project management plan and its subsidiary plans are processed by review and disposition through the Integrated Change Control process (Section 4.6). Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 27 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 2. Perform Quality Assurance

8.2.1 (Inputs) .1 Quality Management Plan .2 Quality Metrics .3 Process Improvement Plan .4 Work Performance Information .5 Approved Change Requests .6 Quality Control Measurements .7 Implemented Change Requests .8 Implemented Corrective Actions .9 Implemented Defect Repair .10 Implemented Preventive Actions 8.2 (Quality Planning)Perform Quality Assurance) 8.2.2 (Tools & Techniques) .1 .2 .3 .4 Quality Planning Tools and Techniques Quality Audits Process Analysis Quality Control Tools and Techniques 8.2.3 (Outputs) .1 .2

.3 .4 Requested Changes Recommended Corrective Actions Organizational Process Assets (Updates) Project Management Plan (Updates) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 28 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 2. Perform Quality Assurance 8.2 (Quality Management)Perform Quality Assurance) (Quality Management)Definition) : (Application the of project Quality

planned, will assurance systematic employ all department, or quality processes similar

activities needed to to ensure meet organization, that requirements) often oversees quality assurance activities QA supports may be provided to the project team, the management of the performing

organization, the customer or sponsor QA provides an umbrella for another important quality activity, continuous process improvement. Continuous process improvement provides an iterative means for improving the quality of all processes. Reduces waste and non-value-added activities Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 29 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management)

2. Perform Quality Assurance 8.2.1 : (Quality Management)Perform Quality Assurance: Inputs) .1 (Quality Management)Quality Management Plan) The quality management plan describes how QA will be performed within the project (Section 8.1.3.1) .2 (Quality Management)Quality Metrics) Described in Section 8.1.3.2 .3 (Quality Management)Process Improvement Plan) Described in Section 8.1.3.4 .4 (Quality Management)Work Performance Information) Work performance information (Section 4.4.3.7), including technical performance measures, project deliverables status, required corrective actions, and performance reports (Section 10.3.3.1) are important inputs to QA used in areas such as audits, quality reviews, and process analyses Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 30 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 2. Perform Quality Assurance .5 (Quality Management)Approved Change Requests) (described in Section 4.4.1.4)

Include modifications to work methods, product requirements, quality requirements, scope, and schedule Need to be analyzed for any effects upon the quality management plan, quality metrics, or quality checklists. Documented in writing and any verbally discussed, but undocumented, changes should not be processed or implemented. .6 (Quality Management)Quality Control Measurements) Results of quality control activities that are fed back to the QA process for use in reevaluating and analyzing the quality standards and processes of the performing organization. .7 (Quality Management)Implemented Change Requests) (Described in Section 4.4.3.3) .8 (Quality Management)Implemented Corrective Actions) (Described in Section 4.4.3.4) .9 (Quality Management)Implemented Defect Repair) (Described in Section 4.4.3.6) .10 (Quality Management)Implemented Preventive Actions) (Described in Section 4.4.3.5) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 31 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 2. Perform Quality Assurance 8.2.2 (Quality Management)Perform Quality Assurance: Tools and Techniques)

.1 (Quality Management)Quality Planning Tools and Techniques) The quality planning tools and techniques (Section 8.1.2) also can be used for QA activities .2 (Quality Management)Quality Audits) Definition : structured, independent review to determine whether project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures The objective of a quality audit is to identify inefficient and ineffective policies, processes, and procedures in use on the project Quality audits may be Scheduled / Random Properly trained in-house auditors / Third parties (external organization) Quality audits confirm the implementation of approved change requests, corrective actions, defect repairs, and preventive actions. Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 32 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 2. Perform Quality Assurance .3 (Quality Management)Process Analysis) Follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements from an organizational and technical standpoint

Examines problems experienced, constraints experienced, and non-value-added activities identified during process operation Includes root cause analysis, a specific technique to analyze a problem/situation, determine the underlying causes and create preventive actions for similar problems .4 (Quality Management)Quality Control Tools and Techniques) (Described in Section 8.3.2) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 33 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 2. Perform Quality Assurance 8.2.3 : (Quality Management)Perform Quality Assurance: Outputs) .1 (Quality Management)Requested Changes) Quality improvement includes taking action to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the policies, processes, and procedures of the performing organization .2 (Quality Management)Recommended Corrective Actions) Quality improvement includes recommending actions to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the performing organization Corrective action is an action that is recommended immediately as a result of quality assurance activities, such as audits and process analyses

Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 34 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 2. Perform Quality Assurance .3 (Quality Management) ) (Quality Management)Organizational Process Assets (Quality Management)Updates)) Updated quality standards provide validation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the performing organizations quality standards and processes to meet requirements These quality standards are used during the Perform Quality Control process (Section 8.3) .4 (Quality Management) ) (Quality Management)Project Management Plan (Quality Management)Updates)) The project management plan (Section 4.3) will be updated from changes to the quality management plan that result from changes to the Perform Quality Assurance process Requested changes (additions, modifications, deletions) to the project management plan are processed by review and disposition through the Integrated Change Control process (Section 4.6). Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 35 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control

8.3.1 (Inputs) .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 Quality Management Plan Quality Metrics Quality Checklists Org)anizational Process Assets Work Performance Information Approved Chang)e Requests Deliverables 8.3.2 (Tools & Techniques) 8.3 (Quality Planning)Perform Quality Control) .1 Cause and Effect Diag)ram .2 Control Charts .3 Flowcharting) .4 Histog)ram .5 Pareto Chart .6 Run Chart .7 Scatter Diag)ram .8 Statistical Sampling)

.9 Inspection .10 Defect Repair Review 8.3.3 (Outputs) .1 .2 .3 .4 Quality Control Measurements Validated Defect Repair Quality Baseline (Quality Planning)Updates) Recommended Corrective Actions .5 Recommended Preventive Actions .6 Requested Chang)es .7 Recommended Defect Repair .8 Org)anization Process Assets (Quality Planning)Updates) .9 Validated Deliverables .10 Project Manag)ement Plan (Quality Planning)Updates) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 36 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control 8.3 (Quality Management)Perform Quality Control) (Definition) : (Monitoring specific project results to determine whether they comply with relevant

quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results) Project results include - Product results such as deliverables - Project management results such as cost and schedule performance Performed by a quality control department or similarly titled organizational unit Include taking action to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory project performance Project management team should have a working knowledge of statistical quality control, especially sampling and probability Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 37 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control Project team may find it useful to know the differences between the following pairs of terms: (Quality Planning)Prevention) : keeping) errors out of the process (Quality Planning)Process-oriented) (Quality Planning)Inspection) : keeping) errors out of the hands of the customer (Quality Planning)Product-oriented) (Quality Planning)Attribute sampling)) : the result conforms or it does not e. g).) on/off, black/white, yes/no (Quality Planning)Variables sampling)) : the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the deg)ree of conformity e. g).) leng)th, time periods, weig)ht

(Quality Planning)Special Causes) : Unusual events (Quality Planning)Random Causes) : Normal process variation (Quality Planning)Tolerances) : the result is acceptable if it falls within the rang)e specified by the tolerance (Quality Planning)Control limits) : the process is in control if the result falls within the control limits Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 38 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control 8.3.1 : (Quality Management)Perform Quality Control: Inputs) .1 (Quality Management)Quality Management Plan) The quality management plan describes how QA will be performed within the project (Section 8.1.3.1) .2 (Quality Management)Quality Metrics) Described in Section 8.1.3.2 .3 (Quality Management)Quality Checklists) Described in Section 8.1.3.3 .4 (Quality Management)Organizational Process Assets) Described in Section 4.1.1.4 Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected]

8 - 39 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .5 (Quality Management)Work Performance Information) Work performance information (Section 4.4.3.7), including technical performance measu res, project deliverables completion status, and the implementation of required correctiv e actions, are important inputs to QC. Information from the project management plan about the planned or expected results sh ould be available along with information about the actual results and implemented chan ge requests .6 (Quality Management)Approved Change Requests) Approved change requests (Section 4.4.1.4) can include modifications such as revised work methods and revised schedule. .7 (Quality Management)Deliverables) Described in Section 4.4.3.1 Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 40 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management)

3. Perform Quality Control 8.3.2 : (Quality Management)Perform Quality Control: Tools and Techniques) .1 (Quality Management)Cause and Effect Diagram) = Ishikawa diagrams or fishbone diagrams Illustrate how various factors might be linked to potential problems or effects Cause-and-Effect Diagram Time Machine Method Material Major Defect Energy Measurement Personnel Environment Potential Causes

Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] Effect 8 - 41 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .2 (Quality Management)Control Charts) A control chart's purpose is to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance Control charts may serve as a data gathering tool to show when a process is subject to special cause variation, which creates an out-of-control condition Control charts also illustrate how a process behaves over time Examination of the non-random pattern of data points on a control chart may reveal wildly fluctuating values, sudden process jumps or shifts, or a gradual trend in increased variation. Determining if the process is in control When a process is in control, the process should not be adjusted Out of control : Assignable / Special causes - Unusual events (Adjustment : Out of control -> In control) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 42

8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .2 (Quality Management)Control Charts) Control charts can be used for both project and product life cycle processes. - Determining whether cost variances or schedule variances are outside of acceptable limits - Evaluating whether the number of defects found during testing are acceptable or unacceptable Control charts can be used to monitor any type of output variable - Cost and schedule variances, volume and frequency of scope changes Control chart of project schedule performance Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 43 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control Control chart USL(Upper Specification Limit) UCL(Quality Management)Upper Control Limit) 3 2 1

-1 -2 68.26% 95.46% 99.73% LCL(Quality Management)Lower Control Limit) -3 LSL(Lower Specification Limit) Standard deviation( ) 1 (sigma) 68.26% 2 95.46% 3 99.73% USL USL&&LSL LSL , ,

UCL UCL&&LCL LCL Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 44 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .3 (Quality Management)Flowcharting) Help to analyze how problems occur Graphical representation of a process Show how various elements of a system interrelate Sample Process Flowchart Design Review OK?

Yes Proceed No Revise Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 45 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .4 (Quality Management)Histogram) Bar chart showing a distribution of variables Each column represents an attribute or characteristic of a problem/situation The height of each column represents the relative frequency of the characteristic This tool helps identify the cause of problems in a process by the shape and width of th e distribution. .5 (Quality Management)Pareto Diagram) A specific type of histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, which shows how ma ny defects were generated by type or category of identified cause The Pareto technique is used primarily to identify and evaluate nonconformities Ranking ordering is used to guide corrective action

Paretos Law : 80/20 principle, where 80 percent of the problems are due to 20 percent of the causes Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 46 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .6 (Quality Management)Run Chart) Shows the history and pattern of variation Line graph that shows data points plotted in the order in which they occur Show trends in a process over time, variation over time, or declines or improvements in a process over time. Trend analysis is performed using run charts and involves using mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes based on historical results Technical performance: How many errors or defects have been identified? How many remain uncorrected? Cost and schedule performance: How many activities per period were completed with significant variances? Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 47

8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .7 (Quality Management)Scatter Diagram) Shows the pattern of relationship between two variables Allows the quality team to study and identify the possible relationship between changes observed in two variables. Dependent variables versus independent variables are plotted .8 (Quality Management)Statistical Sampling) Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection Appropriate sampling can often reduce the cost of quality control the project management team to be familiar with a variety of sampling techniques Sample size Maximum allowable number of defects in the sample Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 48 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .9 (Quality Management)Inspection) Examination of a work product to determine whether it conforms to standards Called reviews, peer reviews, audits, and walkthroughs

Used to validate defect repairs .10 (Quality Management)Defect Repair Review) Action taken by the quality control department or similarly titled organization to ensure that product defects are repaired and brought into compliance with requirements or specifications Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 49 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control 8.3.3 : (Quality Management) Perform Quality Control: Outputs) .1 (Quality Management)Quality Control Measurements) Represent the results of QC activities that are fed back to QA (Section 8.2) to reevaluate and analyze the quality standards and processes of the performing organiz ation .2 (Quality Management)Validated Defect Repair) The repaired items are reinspected and will be either accepted or rejected before notificat ion of the decision is provided (Section 4.4) .3 (Quality Management) ) (Quality Management)Quality Baseline (Quality Management)Updates)) Described in Section 8.1.3.5 .4 (Quality Management)Recommended Corrective Actions)

Corrective action (Section 4.5.3.1) involves actions taken as a result of a QC measureme nt .5 (Quality Management)Recommended Preventive Actions) Preventive action (Section 4.5.3.2) involves action taken to forestall a condition that may exceed established parameters in a manufacturing or development process Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 50 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .6 (Quality Management)Requested Changes) If the recommended corrective or preventive actions require a change to the project, a change request (Section 4.4.3.2) should be initiated in accordance with the defined Integrated Change Control process .7 (Quality Management)Recommended Defect Repair) Defects are identified and recommended for repair by the QC department or similarly titled organization The project team should make every reasonable effort to minimize the errors that cause the need for defect repair Defect log can be used to collect the set of recommended repairs

.8 (Quality Management) ) (Quality Management)Organization Process Assets (Quality Management)Updates)) Completed checklists become part of the projects records (Section 4.1.1.4) Lessons learned documentation should be documented so that they become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and documented throughout the project life cycle Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 51 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) 3. Perform Quality Control .9 (Quality Management)Validated Deliverables) Goal of quality control is to determine the correctness of deliverables The results of the execution quality control processes are validated deliverables .10 (Quality Management) ) (Quality Management)Project Management Plan (Quality Management)Updates)) The project management plan is updated to reflect changes to the quality management plan that result from changes in performing the QC process. Requested changes (additions, modifications, or deletions) to the project management p lan and its subsidiary plans are processed by review and disposition through the Integra ted Change Control process (Section 4.6) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 52

8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) Project Management Functions & Processes Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 53 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) Project Quality Management Inputs, Tools & Techniques, Outputs Items Processes 8.1 (Project Quality Planning) (Project Inputs) 8.1.1 Inputs .1 Enterprise Environment Factors .2 Org)anizational Process Assets

.3 Project Scope Statement .4 Project Manag)ement Plan (Project Tools & Techniques) 8.1.2 Tools & Techniques .1 Cost-Benefit Analysis .2 Benchmarking) .3 Desig)n of Experiment .4 Cost of Quality (Quality Planning)COQ) .5 Additional Quality Planning) Tools 8.2.1 Inputs 8.2.2 Tools & Techniques .1 Quality Manag)ement Plan .1 Quality Planning) Tools and .2 Quality Metrics Techniques 8.2 .3 Process Improvement Plan .2 Quality Audits .4 Work Performance Information.3 Process Analysis .5 Approved Chang)e Requests .4 Quality Control Tools and (Project Perform .6 Quality Control Measurements Techniques .7 Implemented Chang)e Requests Quality .8 Implemented Corrective Actions Assurance) .9 Implemented Defect Repair

.10 Implemented Preventive Actions (Project Outputs) 8.1.3 Outputs .1 Quality Manag)ement Plan .2 Quality Metrics .3 Quality Checklists .4 Process Improvement Plan .5 Quality Baseline .6 Project Manag)ement Plan (Quality Planning)updates) 8.2.3 Outputs .1 Requested Chang)es .2 Recommended Corrective Actions .3 Org)anizational Process Assets (Quality Planning)Updates) .4 Project Manag)ement Plan (Quality Planning)Updates) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 54 8. (Quality Management)Quality Management) Project Quality Management Inputs, Tools & Techniques, Outputs

Items Processes 8.3 (Project Perform Quality Control) (Project Inputs) (Project Tools & Techniques) 8.3.1 Inputs 8.3.2 Tools & Techniques .1 Quality Manag)ement Plan .1 Cause and Effect Diag)ram .2 Quality Metrics .2 Control Charts .3 Quality Checklists .3 Flowcharting) .4 Org)anizational Process Assets .4 Histog)ram .5 Work Performance Information.5 Pareto Chart .6 Approved Chang)e Requests .6 Run Chart .7 Deliverables .7 Scatter Diag)ram .8 Statistical Sampling) .9 Inspection

.10 Defect Repair Review (Project Outputs) 8.3.3 Outputs .1 Quality Control Measurements .2 Validated Defect Repair .3 Quality Baseline (Quality Planning)Updates) .4 Recommended Corrective Actions .5 Recommended Preventive Actions .6 Requested Chang)es .7 Recommended Defect Repair .8 Org)anization Process Assets (Quality Planning)Updates) .9 Validated Deliverables .10 Project Manag)ement Plan (Quality Planning)Updates) Copyright 2005 VentureTiger All Rights Reserved / Mail to [email protected] 8 - 55

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