Processes and Stages of Birth - Shelbye's CSON Notes Blog

Intrapartal Nursing Care: Labor and Birth Linda L. Franco RN MSN NE-BC Green = must know Red = Important to know Blue = history Factors Important to Birth Birth Passage Baby Relationship Between the Passage and the Baby Physiologic Forces of Labor Psychosocial Considerations

Birth Passage Consists of bony pelvis and soft tissues Bony Pelvis False pelvis above linea terminalis True pelvis below linea terminalis Types of pelvis Gynecoid female, most common Android male, usually not adequate Anthropoid narrow from side to side, usually adequate Platypelloid narrow from back to back, usually not

adequate Pelvic Types Fetal Head Composed of bony parts that can assist or hinder childbirth Bones involved in birth not fused 2 frontal bones 2 parietal bones occipital bones Sutures membranous spaces between cranial bones

Fetal Skull Fontanelles Intersections of the cranial sutures Used in identifying position of fetal head and assessing newborn after birth Anterior Fontanelle, diamond shaped, closes by 18 months Posterior Fontanelle, triangle shaped, closes by 2 3 months Landmarks of Fetal Skull

Mentum fetal chin Sinciput brow Bregma anterior fontanelle Vertex between anterior and posterior fontanelles Occiput occipital bone Diameters Biparietal major transverse diameter, average 9.25 cm

Anterior-Posterior varies with how much head is flexed, most favorable when head is fully flexed Fetal Attitude position of fetus Fetal Lie position of fetus compared to mother Longitudinal Transverse Fetal Presentation Cephalic (most common, what we want, occurs 97% of the time) Vertex occiput is presenting part (most common) Military head is in neutral position, top of head is presenting part

Brow head partially extended, brow is presenting part (tough on babys neck, could have neck or shoulder injuries during delivery) Face head hyperextended, face is presenting part Fetal Presentations con. Breech (occur in 3-4% of all births) Complete both knees are flexed, buttocks and feet present. Kind of sitting indian style Frank buttocks presents to pelvis, legs are usually up in front of the babys face Footling one or both feet present to pelvis

Shoulder Presentation Aka Transverse Lie, occurs in 0.3% of all births, shoulder, arm, back, abd, or side is presenting. In this case a C-section will be performed Transverse Lie External Version Where they have the mom lay on her back in the exam room and the dr tries to make the baby move just by pushing it and turning the baby. Usually doesnt work Cesarean Section They will usually do this on these babies

Assess FHR To make sure the baby isnt in distress Engagement When largest diameter of presenting part reaches or passes through pelvic inlet If the baby is engaged its starting to drop down the top part of the pelvis is adequate, but they may still have to have a c section Primigravida 2 weeks before term Multigravida several weeks or at onset of labor Station

Relationship of presenting part to an imaginary line drawn at the ischal spines (ischial spines mark the narrowest part thru which a baby must pass) Zero station at level of ischial spines Negative numbers above ischial spines Baby hasnt passed them yet Positive numbers below ischial spines After theyve reached the spines and the babys head is descending Station

Fetal Position Relationship of the landmark on the presenting part to the maternal pelvis Left (L) or Right (R) Vertex Occiput (O) (this is the one we want) Face Mentum (M)

Breech Sacrum (S) Shoulder Acromion process (A) Anterior(A), Posterior (P), or Transverse (T) Could say LOP for left occiput posterior Forces of Labor Primary - uterine contractions Increment building up to the contraction, longest phase Decrement the decline or letting up of the contraction Frequency time between the beginning of one to the beginning of the next Intensity refers to the strength of the contraction at the peak. Measured by palpating the fundus something or other

mild, moderate, and strong Duration from the beginning of a contraction to the end of that contraction Psychosocial Considerations

New role transition Self expectations Coping mechanisms Support systems Preparation for childbirth Cultural influences Fear Enhancing birth experience Psychosocial Factors Physiology of Labor Causes

Hormones Progesterone relaxes smooth muscle tissue Estrogen promotes uterine contractions, also helps soften connective tissue which leads to the opening of the cervix Oxytocin Prostaglandins Fetal Cortisol Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Uterine Distention Myometrial Activity Intraabdominal

Premonitory Signs of Labor Lightening when the fetus begins to setting into the pelvic inlet, the uterus moves

downward and the fundus no longer presses on the diaphragm, the mom can breathe easier. Also causes leg cramps, increased pelvic pressure and increased urine frequency, and increases venous stasis which causes swelling of their lower extremities. Increased vaginal secretions resulting from congestion of the vaginal mucosa Braxton Hicks irregular intermittent contractions that occur thru ought pregnancy. Can be uncomfortable and exhausting to the mom Cervical changes at beginning of pregnancy it is firm, and over time it stretches and dilates. The softening of the cervix is called ripening Bloody show the mucus plug is expelled and the result of that is small amount of blood loss from the exposed cervical capillaries. That blood tinged secretion is called the bloody show. Usually a sign that labor will begin in 24-48 hours Rupture of Membranes when the membranes do rupture the ambiotic fluid may be expelled in large amounts when youre water breaks. Sign of impending labor, once this happens the woman cant get up and walk around

Sudden burst of energy very common, approx 24-48 hours before labor, no one really knows why they have this. May experience nesting at this time. Other vague signs weight loss of 1-3 lbs may occur, diarrhea, indigestion, N/V may occur before labor, cause is unknown True and False Labor True Regular contractions Cervical changes Contractions start in back and radiate around to abdomen Pain not relieved with activity

False Irregular contractions No cervical changes Contractions primarily in abdomen Pain may be relieved with activity Stages of Labor Stage One Effacement and Dilatation Latent Phase 0-3 cm; able to cope, talkative, high excitement, uterine contractions become established. Effacement begins, but

little or no fetal descent Active Phase 4-7 cm; sense of helplessness, begins to fear loss of control, pain level is much worse at this level and you can see them kind of getting to the end of their rope. Contractions are usually 2-3 mins apart and last about 60 seconds and very strong in intensity Transition Phase 8-10 cm; significant anxiety, fears being left alone, feels she may be torn apart, contractions are 1.5-2 mins with duration of 60-90 seconds. As it approaches 10 there is increased pressure and a desire to bear down and maybe increase in bloody show. Sometimes these moms get the urge to push and we have to tell them not to because its too early. If they push and bear down it can cause the cervix to swell which slows the process because we have to wait for that swelling to go away

to birth the baby Stage Two Maternal Pushing Begins with complete cervical dilation and ends with the birth of the baby Maternal urge to push May feel relieved that birth is imminent Apologetic Primagravidas 2-3 hours Multigravidas 5-30 mins Cardinal Movements of Fetal Head Descent occurs because of 1 pressure of amniotic fluid, 2 direct pressure of the uterine fundus, 3 contractions of the abd muscles, 4

straightening of the fetal body Flexion- flexion of the babys head because of resistance from the soft tissue of the pelvis, the pelvis floor, and the cervix Internal Rotation the fetal head must rotate with the diameter of the pelvic cavity which is widest in the anterior posterior diameter Extension the resistance of the pelvic floor and the mechanical movement of the vulva opening anteriorly and forward with extension of the fetal head as it passes under the symphysis pubis Restitution the shoulders of the fetus enter the pelvis inlet something or other. Because of this rotation the pelvis the neck becomes twisted. Basically the babys head becomes twisted around External Rotation as the shoulders rotate the head turns further to one side Expulsion the shoulder moves under the symphysis pubis.

On pg 391 and shes reading it word for word Stage Three Delivery of Placenta Placental Separation Globular shaped uterus Rise in fundus in abdomen Sudden gush of blood Further protrusion of the umbilical cord Signs usually start after about 5 mins after the birth of the baby. When these signs start appearing the woman may feel the need to bear down again. Firm pressure may be applied to the fundus and gentle tugging on the cord to get it out Placental Delivery

Maternal pushing can assist delivery Retained if > 30 minutes Shiny Schultze inside out Dirty Duncan outer edge to inside If the placenta or a piece of it is still stuck inside the mom there will be tons of bleeding *placenta is only made correctly for about 40 weeks and after that its kind of shitty Stage Four - Recovery Recovery 1-4 hours Hemodynamic changes In the mom and in the baby, but really looking at mom

Blood loss of 250 500 mls Decreased blood pressure Along with increase in pulse pressure and moderate tachycardia, because of the blood loss mentioned above Fundus between symphysis and umbilicus Fatigued, thirsty and hungry Bladder hypotonic Check mom for bladder fullness if they arent able to void Maternal Systemic Response to Labor

Cardiovascular Stressed by Uterine Contractions Pain, anxiety, apprehension Increased cardiac output 300-500ml blood forced back into maternal circulation with each contraction BP increases with uterine contractions Position lowers cardiac output Supine cardiac output Left lateral BP Maternal Response con.

Respiratory Oxygen demand increases Hyperventilation may occur Because of stress and pushing and what not Fall in pH O2 and respiratory alkalosis may occur Pushing increases lactate levels S/S of hyperventilation Tingling/numbness in nose, lips, fingers or toes, might have them breathe into a paper bag Renal system maternal renin, plasma renin, and angiotensiogen important in uteroplacental blood flow

Trauma to bladder Blood and lymph drainage impaired from presenting part Maternal Response con. GI system Gastric motility and absorption Emptying time is causing risk of aspiration Glucose levels causing insulin levels More food in their stomach which sometimes comes up Immune system WBC 25 30,000 stress response

Pain Causes of pain Dilatation of cervix Hypoxia of uterine muscle This is what causes pain. When they are contracting as hard as they can contract theyre not getting oxygen which will cause pain

Stretching of lower uterine segment Pressure on adjacent structures Distention of vagina Uterine contractions Delivery of placenta Episiotomy repair Factors Affecting Response to Pain Preparation for birth childbirth classes Respond by what is acceptable to culture Some cultures its ok for woman to go nuts and yell, some cultures theyre supposed to be stoic and not express pain. Sign of weakness or whatever, but this doesnt mean that they arent feeling pain.

Fatigue and sleep deprivation Fatigued woman has less energy and it will be harder to get them to focus on what we need them to do. Previous experience Anxiety Fetal Response to Labor Heartrate changes Early decelerations intracranial pressure causes vagal response During labor

Late decelerations uteroplacental blood flow Variable decelerations Cord compression Acid-Base Status in Labor As uterine contractions increase, pH decreases slowly in response to hypoxia Blood flow is decreased to the baby during contractions Hemodynamic changes Fetal BP and placental reserves protective mechanism during anoxic periods

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