Problem-Based History - Miami-Dade County Public Schools

This power point presentation is for educational purposes. It may contain copyrighted material. Please do not post, redistribute or copy without the permission of the author or Dr. Kevin Brady at the American Institute for History Education. America and Great Britain: Reaching a Point of NoReturn? Problem-Based History 2010 AIHE The Plan Background

Information Introduce the Problem Avenues of Discussion Introduce Documents A.R.T.I.S.T. Document Conclusion Historical Result Impact(s) Conclusion 2010 AIHE What was unique about the British colonial experience that laid the foundations for

revolution? 2010 AIHE The Road to Independence There were key decisions that had to be made that could have changed the course of Americas history. 2010 AIHE As late as 1774, most colonists did not favor declaring independence from the British Crown. Far from rejecting monarchy, most Americans saw the king as their protector from oppressive acts of

Parliament. The delegates to the First Continental Congress, which had assembled in Philadelphia in September 1774, hoped for reconciliation with Britain. They asked Massachusetts colonists, who were the most radical in their opposition to British policies, to avoid involving "all America in the horrors of a civil war." What is the big picture/main idea of this passage? 2010 AIHE In February 1775,

Parliament declared Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. This declaration permitted soldiers to shoot suspected rebels on sight. In April, British General Thomas Gage received secret orders to arrest the ringleaders of colonial unrest. To avoid arrest, colonial leaders fled Boston. Gage decided to seize and destroy arms that the patriots had stored at Concord, 20 miles northwest of Boston. When Joseph Warren, a Boston patriot, discovered that British troops were on the march, he sent Paul Revere and William Dawes to warn the What is the big picture/main idea of this

people about the approaching forces. passage? 2010 AIHE At dawn on April 19, the troops reached the town of Lexington, five miles east of Concord. About 70 volunteer soldiers lined the Lexington Green to warn the red-coated British troops not to trespass on the property of freeborn English subjects. A shot rang out. The British troops fired. Eight minutemen were killed, and another ten were wounded. The British continued to Concord, where they searched for hidden arms. At North Bridge, a group

of redcoats and minutemen clashed, leaving 3 redcoats and 2 minutemen dead. The British then retreated to Boston, while citizen-soldiers fired at the redcoats from behind trees and stone fences. What is the big picture/main idea of this passage? 2010 AIHE Even after the battles of Lexington and Concord, the members of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress

described themselves as "loyal and dutiful subjects" of the king, who were ready to defend the crown with their "Lives and Fortunes." What is the big picture/main idea of this passage? 2010 AIHE

The American colonies were at a critical juncture in their history, a tipping point had been reached and the course for the future of the colonies was about to be set. 2010 AIHE Primary Sources Shedding some light on the issues of mid1775 2010 AIHE

American Reaction to Lexington & Concord The blow was sudden and unexpectedMen spoke in whispers, as if afraid of being overheard But this submission was shortlived. It soon gave way to indignation, resentment, and denunciations. - James Wilkinson, medical student in Philadelphia The whole city became one continued scene of tumult and confusion. Troops were enlisted for the service of the Rebellion, the Loyalists threatened with the gallows, and the property of the Crown plundered and seized upon wherever it could be found. - Thomas Jones, a Loyalist judge in New York

The maxim adopted by our enemies is Divide and conquer. We enjoin the command Unite and be invincible . It is considered infinitely important to encourage and promote a more perfect union among the colonies and harmony and unanimity among the people. - James Thatcher, doctor in Barnstable, Mass. 2010 AIHE A.R.T.I.S.T. Author Reason To Whom

Immediate Effects Subsequent Effects Time Period An AIHE Signature Strategy 2010 AIHE Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death A _____________ R _____________

T _____________ I _____________ S _____________ T _____________ 2010 AIHE Speech on Conciliation with America A _____________ R _____________ T _____________ I _____________ S _____________ T _____________

2010 AIHE The Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms A _____________ R _____________ T _____________ I _____________ S _____________ T _____________ 2010 AIHE Document Conclusion Do the quotes and three documents have a

general theme? What is the BIG picture that these sources represent? Is there anything between the lines that we should take note of? Do these documents seem to lead us down a particular path of thinking? 2010 AIHE If you were a member of the

Continental Congress what would How would you solve the you do? problem? 2010 AIHE Do Nothing One option would be to sit on the process and attempt to preserve the status quo prior to the shooting in Lexington and

Concord. What problems could arise from such a course of action? What could be the possible benefits of doing nothing? 2010 AIHE Actively Prosecute the War Ready the colonies for war, establish an army, seek allies abroad, and prepare for sustained conflict.

What problems could arise from such a course of action? What could be the possible benefits of setting about to fight a protracted war with Great Britain? 2010 AIHE Is there a middle ground? Would it be possible to play both sides of the issue? On one hand prepare for a war by gathering

forces and sending emissaries And on the other hand try to reconcile with the Crown Are there any dangers in trying to play both sides of such a volatile issue? Are there any advantages to playing both sides? 2010 AIHE What the Continental Congress actually did How they tried to solve the problem

2010 AIHE Olive Branch Petition A _____________ R _____________ T _____________ I _____________ S _____________ T _____________ 2010 AIHE Hedged their bet 1. Outward policy of resolves and reconciliation.

2. George Washington was appointed the commander of the newly christened Continental Army. 3. British forts such as Ticonderoga were captured and supplies and munitions confiscated. 4. Men were recruited for the Army from areas outside New England. 5. Opened secret negotiations with the French. 6. The word independence remained virtually unspoken except by King George III. 2010 AIHE King Georges Response Would not receive the Olive Branch Petition

at all On August 23, 1775 the King declared the colonies in open rebellion "Whereas many of our subjects in divers parts of our Colonies and Plantations in North America, misled by dangerous and ill designing men, and forgetting the allegiance which they owe to the power that has protected and supported them; after various disorderly acts committed in disturbance of the publick peace, to the obstruction of lawful commerce, and to the oppression of our loyal subjects carrying on the same; have at length proceeded to open and avowed

rebellionhereby declaring, that not only all our Officers, civil and military, are obliged to exert their 2010 AIHE utmost endeavors to suppress such rebellion, and to Short-Term Impact(s) 1. Tightened the siege of the Regulars in 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Boston The battle of Bunker Hill ensued, ending

with nearly 1,000 British casualties British beef up their military and hire Hessian mercenaries The Congress becomes a wartime central government for the colonies Fighting escalates on several fronts America unsuccessfully invades Canada 2010 AIHE Long-Term Impact(s) 1. The idea of independence hung in the air like a fog George had mentioned it as early as 1774

2. Blows must decide if they are to be subject to the Country or Independent. 1. 2. By spring of 1776 America opened its ports to foreign commerce 3. The Congress ordered the outfitting of privateers to prey on British shipping 4. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense 5. July 1776 Jefferson penned the Declaration 2010 AIHE

Conclusion The period immediately following the fighting at Lexington and Concord ushered in a turning in the history of the American colonies. The decisions made by the 2nd Continental Congress and the people themselves would result in a struggle for independence rather than for some perversion of home-rule. John Adams said that the revolution had begun in the hearts and minds of the people long before the war itself, a statement that seems to be born out by the actors, actions, and documents from the period. 2010 AIHE

Special Thanks to CICERO: History Beyond the Textbook Edward Countrymans The American Revolution Gordon Woods The American Revolution: A History John Ferlings A Leap in the Dark University of Houstons Digital History Textbook site University of Oklahomas Law School The Voices of 1776, Richard Wheeler Ed. 2010 AIHE

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