Presentation Title - AIM Satellite Mission

CIPS Calibration Review Aimee Merkel Bill McClintock Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 1 CIPS Science Measurement Requirements CDR Science Requirements Document Summary Instrument Requirement (Goal) Expected Performance (CDR) Ge op hysi c al Measured Performance (PER) Obs erva ble Parame ter Horizo ntal Abs olute Precis io n (SN R) Re s ol ution Ac c urac y PMC Pre s e nce 50 (10) km N/A SNR=2 for AR=11 ( AR=2)* 2.5 km

N: SNR= 4.7 for AR=2 a nd R=2.5 km 2.5 km N: SNR= 5.2 for AR=2 a nd R=2.5 km Sca ttere d PMC 50 (10) km 15 % SNR=20 for AR=5 ( AR=2) Sun lig ht @ Mo rpho log y 2.5 km 10 % N: SNR= 19 for AR=2 an d R=10 km @ 26 5 nm 2.5 km 10 % N: SNR= 21 for AR=2 an d R=10 km PMC Partic le 7 nm 20 0 (50) km 50 % SNR=10 for AR=5 ( AR=2) Size 5 km 10 % F/A: SNR= 12 for AR=3 and R=10 km 2.5 km 10 % F/A: SNR= 13 for AR=3 and R=10 km Inferred 3 (2) km N//A SN/R=10=10 (20) forAR=10 =11 Gravity Wave 2.5 km N/: SN/R=10=21 for AR=10 =11 an d R=10 =2.5 km Effe cts 2.5 km N/: SN/R=10=23 for AR=10 =11 an d R=10 =2.5 km Albedo R=10 atio (AR=10)=(Cloud Albe do +Background Albe do)/Background Albedo

PMC Prese nce Precision: R=10 e quire m e nt:2-sigma dete ction clouds with Alb e do=10 -4 in the com mon vol um e whe re th e cl e arAlbe do=10 -5 (AR=10=11). G oal:2-sigm a de tection clouds with A= 10 -5 against an A= 10 -5 background (AR=10=2) Pixel Footprint incre ase d to 2.25 km at CDR=10 Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 2 CIPS Ground Calibration Summary Calibration Activities Unit level tests (detector components, assembled detector units, filters, lens systems) Camera level tests Preenvironmental instrument calibrations Environmental test Postenvironmental instrument calibrations Post spacecraft I&T calibrations Instrument Calibrations

Point Spread Function CCD characterization (read noise, dark current ) Absolute sensitivity TDI (Time Delayed Integration: Nadir Cameras only) Focus Wavelength Range Out of band rejection Flat Field Light leaks Field of View Camera to camera alignment Linearity Camera to reference optical surface (ROS) Distortion Polarization Off-axis response (Stray and scattered light performance) Spacecraft I&T calibrations Absolute sensitivity Postenvironmental Instrument checks (dark field) Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 3 Calibration Measurement Summary Requirement Measurement

Camera Field of View Minimum of 44 x 44 44 x 44 (1426 Pixels) Linearity Measure to 95% full well Linear to 3x103 DN Point Spread Function 3 mrad (~0.075mm) FWHM 0.077mm FWHM Polarization <10% (15% relative knowledge) Max 3% in corners 1% Accuracy Scattered Sunlight <10% of a cloud with A=10-5 Declines 103 in 2 deg No Stray-light issues Sensitivity SNR=2 a=10-5 and AR=11 SNR=5.2 a=10-5 and AR=2

Distortion Measure to 1% over field <1% Negligible Camera-to-Camera Alignment 1 per camera 1 per camera On orbit re-calculation Flat Field 1 accuracy 1% or better Cameras meet or exceed all performance requirements Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 4

Raw Image to Calibrated Image Process of converting raw image in data numbers (DN) to calibrated image (Level 1A data product) in units of Gary. (1 Gary= 1 x 10-6 Albedo) DN(i, j) N lin Dark(i, j) Stray(i, j) A(i, j) = t FF [RInst (i, j, ,T,HV ) FSun ( )]d Raw Image DN(i,j) Correct for non-linearity Nlin Divide out Flat Field FF Subtract Dark Dark (i,j) Account for integration Period t Subtract stray light Stray (i,j)Place Account for Sensitivity of Camera. Rinst(I,j,l,T,HV)*Fsun Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your

Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS holder (no evidence of Stray light issues CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 5 Dark Image Dependence on CCD Temperature Offset (set by electronics) Electrical offset added to image to provide a baseline signal to avoid negative reado Applied after analog amplifier but before digitization. Has no non-linearity issues. Dark Current Thermal noise that accumulates with image read out time (accumulates over rows). High Quality CCDs! Typical characteristics: Offset: ~90DN Dark Current: ~0.1 DN/sec or 3.2 e/sec Electrical Offset and Dark Current vary differently with temperature. Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock

GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 6 CIPS CCD Temperature Ranges CCD Temp only varies by 1C over orbit Last image one orbit one orbit 1st image Last image 1st image Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 7

Dark Image Dependence on CCD Temperature DN(i, j) N lin Dark(i, j) Stray(i, j) A(i, j) = t FF [RInst (i, j, ,T,HV ) FSun ( )]d Dark(i, j) Dark off = Dark _ curr(i, j) [ DN(i, j)Obs DarkOff ] N lin Dark(i, j) Dark off DN(i, j) Stray DN corr (i, j) = t image t dark t image Interpolated over orbit Temperature Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 8

Linearity (N) DN True DN Observed = 2 1+ DN Observed This relationship is valid for DNObserved < 1.5 x 104 DN Linearity Coefficients for 4 x 8 binning Camera 0 -4.65 x 10-12 Camera 1 -6.28 x 10-12 Camera 2 -6.67 x 10-12 Camera 3 -6.14 x 10-12 Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 9 Camera Flat Field

Integrating Sphere used to uniformly illuminate Camera FOV Variation from Pixel to Pixel due to: Photocathode variation Lens System: Cos4 Flat Field Requirement: 1% Accuracy Measured: Relative sensitivity across the 44 FOV~ 1% or bett Repeatability of Flat images to ~ 0.1% In-flight Image Calibration: Divide out normalized Flat Field from each ima Normalized Flat Field Percentage of Max Signal Pixel Camera 0 Flat Field Pixel Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 10 Radiometric Sensitivity of Camera

R(i, j) = [R Inst (i, j, ,T,HV ) FSun ( )]d = RInst (i, j, ) F Sun ( ) Table 1. Camera Radiometric Sensitivi ty (DN/s/G) Camera 1 x 1 binning 4 x 8 binning Px (Camera 0) 8.03 257.0 Mx (Camera 2) 14.07 450.2 Py (Camera 1) 6.69 214.1 My (Camera 3) 6.45 206.4 Table 1 lists camera radi ometric sensitivity for intensifier voltage, V=700 in units of DN/sec per Gary (1 Gary is the radiance of an atmosphere with albedo=10-6). R(i,j) in units of DN/sec/Gary need to account for sensitivity dependence on Temperature (T) and High Volta Your Position,

CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 11 Correct Camera Sensitivity for T and HV C(HV,T) = (a3 + a4 T) e a1 ( HV 700)+a 2 ( HV 700)2 Table 1 MCP Gain Coefficients Camera a1 a2 0 0.0161378 -9.61494e-06 1 0.0153218 -1.02052e-05 2 0.0163646 -9.77719e-06 3 0.0149232 -9.55688e-06

. Table 2 Temperature Gain Coefficients Camera a3 a4 0 1.02859 -0.00418869 1 1.01431 -0.00450727 2 1.02406 -0.00441509 3 1.03924 -0.00477110 Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 12 Calibrated Image A(i, j) =

Raw Image Data Number DN DN(i, j) corrected FF RInst (i, j, ) C(T,HV ) Calibrated Image (Albedo) Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 13 Calibrated Image DN(i, j) corrected A(i, j) = FF RInst (i, j, ) C(T,HV ) Calibrated Image in Units of Garys Level 1A data product ocessing test up to Level 1A data product successfu Ready for Launch!!!

Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 14 Post Launch CIPS Calibration Overview In-Flight Calibration Task List: Absolute pointing knowledge established by viewing UV stars (0.2 knowledge requirement) Detector characterization Dark field Intensifier characterization Camera to camera alignment (science images) Absolute sensitivity by viewing UV stars. Flat Field images and Relative sensitivity over the FOV (clear field images) Stray and scattered light performance (shadow images) Light leaks (shutter test) Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience

AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 15 Extra Slides EXTRA SLIDES Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 16 CCD Acceptance Test Each flight CCD went through extensive acceptance testing with the flight electronics. At 3 different temperatures (25C, -10C, -40C) analyzed dark field Number of Hot Pixels Read Noise Number of electrons introduced (noise) when reading out of device. Effects all pixel values uniformly. Dark Current Thermal noise that accumulates with image read out time.

CIPS CCD has a 17 sec readout time, the dark current accumulates over rows. For example: First row read out has less dark current than the last row read out. Reported as electrons/second Offset (set by electronics) Signal readout from CCD when not exposed to light. Accommodates temporal shifts in electronics, temperature stability and read noise. Avoids negative readout. Photon Transfer Checks the full well, offset, gain, linearity of the CCD. Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 17 CCD Acceptance Test Each CCD is 2048 X 2048 pixels. Only 1360 x 1360 pixels are used. Dark images are used to characterize the CCDs. &T calibration: Built up instrument Read Noise: ~ 45 Electrons CCD 01 in Camera 0

Integration Period (s) Quality CCDs! al characteristics: Hot Pixels: < 0.07% Read Noise: ~38 Electrons Offset: ~90DN Dark Current: ~0.1 DN/sec or 3.2 e/sec Data Number (DN) Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 18 Camera Field of View ield of View: 44 square for all cameras 1447 pixels equirement: Minimum of 44 square 44 = 1426 Pixels Camera 0

1 2 3 X 1032 1021 1043 1028 FOV (Labsphere) Center Y 1059 1050 1053 1048 Width1 X 1447 1458 1455 1457 Y 1456 1458 1455 1461 These values are for edges that are 40% of the central value in each row and column. Full widths decrease by ~ 20 pixels for each 10% increase in cutoff level. Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS

CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 19 Linearity nearity measured using the integrating sphere. tegration period incremented until saturation achieved. amera Linearity: Linear ~ 3x103 DN Completely nonlinear by 104 DN equirement: Measure linearity to 95% full well Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 20 Camera Distortion

Camera Distortion Measure: Took image of grid in clean room Positioned 10 feet away to fill the 44 FOV Looked at linearity of lines across FOV Requirement: Measure to 1% over the field Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 21 Camera Polarization polarization: asured both Perp and Para response using a star source and Glan-Taylor linear pol sponse measured at 21 discrete points on the detector as displayed below. larization: Max 3% in Corners Accuracy ~ 1% Polarization effects are negligible Percent Polarization quirement:

Less than 10% 5% Accuracy Polarization = Perp Para Perp + Para Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 22 Camera Composite MY SUN MX PX PY Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review,

NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 23 UV Bandpass Ultraviolet Bandpass: 265nm 10nm In-band Transmission: 30% Transmission Measured Filter Wavelength (nm) Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 24 Near Field Off Axis Response

Near Field Off Axis Response Declines ~ 103 in 2 Degrees Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 25 Radiometric Calibration Radiometric sensitivity is measured using a NISTtraceable 1-KW quartz-halogen standard lamp and a reflectance screen Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007

26 Radiometric Calibration Measurement sequence repeated 20 Times at 4 high voltages Illuminated Screen+Room Blocked Screen Difference Signal ~ exponential function of HV SNR varies by ~ 10% for HV> 700 volts Your Position, CIPS Calibration Your Review, NameAimee Merkel, Bill McClintock GATSGATS CDEScience AIM CDR, September Team Meeting 14, 2004 January 23-24, 2007 27

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