DIRECT-EFFECT Solutions, LLC Targeting Success Through Optimal Measures

DIRECT-EFFECT Solutions, LLC Targeting Success Through Optimal Measures Human Resource Management Training NAVSUP Fleet Logistics Center Norfolk, Virginia 3-6 April 2017 Day 1 Human Resource Management Training Human Resource Overview

Knowledge and skills needed Motivated to work efficiently Complete their work efficiently Contribute to the success of the business/organization Human Resource Management Training Human Resource Goals

Understand that each employee is different in bringing knowledge, skills, experience, and motivation to their jobs. Direct the work of others and make long-term plans that affect the entire company. Must be able to work the vast differencies and unique capabilities of each employee and develop a workforce that is productive and efficient. Human Resource Management Training Planning and Staffing Job analysis

Recruitment and selection Job placement Human Resource Activities Performance Compensation & Management Benefits Performance Wage and assessment salary

planning Performance improvement Benefits planning Managing promotions, Payroll, transfers, and benefits, and terminations personnel records management

Employee Relations Health and safety planning Labor relations

Employment law and policy enforcement Organizational development Human Resource Management Training Career Altering Workforce Decisions Principles of the Human Resource Management System

There are nine Merit System Principles, which can be found in Section 230l(b) of title 5, U.S.C Recruit, select, and advance on merit after fair and open competition

Treat employees and applicants fairly and equitably Provide equal pay for equal work and reward excellent performance Maintain high standards of integrity, conduct, and concern for the public interest Manage employees efficiently and effectively Retain or separate employees on the basis of their performance Educate and train employees if it will result in better organizational or individual performance Protect employees from improper political influence Protect employees against reprisal for the lawful disclosure of information in "whistleblower" situations Principles of the Human Resource

Management System The Prohibited Personnel Practices (PPPs) are codified at 5 U.S.C. 2302(b), officials are not permitted to: discriminate consider improper recommendations coerce political activity obstruct competition encourage a candidate to withdraw from competition grant a preference not authorized by law engage in nepotism retaliate for whistleblowing obstruct the exercise of a grievance appeal right

knowingly violate the preference rights of a veteran engage actions that violate implements of the merit system principles. Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Discrimination Definition of Discrimination Don't DISCRIMINATE on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicapping condition, marital status, or political affiliation. Indicators of Discrimination in the workforce

Training Vignette: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/4/11/1200971/-BlackWoman-Poses-As-White-Woman-Suddenly-Job-Offers-ComeTumbling-In-Video Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Proper considerations when making Personnel Considerations Definition of Improper Considerations Don't SOLICIT or CONSIDER any personnel recommendation or statement not based on personal knowledge or records of performance, ability, aptitude, general qualifications, character, loyalty, or suitability.

Indicators of Improper considerations Training Vignette: http://deadline.com/2016/05/hulk-hogan-wins-gawker-laws uit-1201722976/ Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Coerce Political Activity Definition of Coerce Political Activity Don't COERCE an employee's political activity.

Indicators of Coerce Political Activity Training Vignette: http://prospect.org/article/employer-political-coercion-gro wing-threat Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Obstruct Competition Definition: Obstruct of Competition Don't DECEIVE or OBSTRUCT any person with respect to such person's right to compete for employment.

Indicators: Obstruct of Competition Training Vignette: http://www.fedsmith.com/2010/08/02/office-special-couns el-prosecutes-hr-specialists/ Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Influencing Withdrawal from Competition Definition: Influencing Withdrawal from Competition Don't INFLUENCE a person to withdraw from competition for the purpose of improving or injuring the prospects of another person for

employment. Indicators: Influencing Withdrawal from Competition Training Vignette: http://openjurist.org/804/f2d/1504/filiberti-v-merit-systems -protection-board-j-filiberti Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Grant a Preference Definition: Grant Preferences Don't GRANT any preference or advantage not authorized by law,

regulation, or rule to any [employee or applicant for the purpose of improving or injuring the prospects of another person for employment]. Indicators: Grant Preferences Training Vignette: https://www.doioig.gov/sites/doioig.gov/files/AllegedImpro perHiring_OS_Public.pdf Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Engage in Nepotism

Definition: Nepotism Don't EMPLOY or ADVOCATE a relative. Indicators: Nepotism Training Vignette: http://www.fedsmith.com/2016/06/28/mama-bears-efforts -to-save-her-sons-job-added-up-to-nepotism/ Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Retaliate for Whistle Blowing Definition: Retaliate for Whistle Blowing

Don't RETALIATE against a Whistleblower, whether an employee or an applicant. Indicators: Retaliate for Whistle Blowing Training Vignette: http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/Federal-Whistlebl ower-Investigator-Fired-After-Blowing-the-Whistle-on-His-O wn-Agency-332240782.html Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices Enabling Learning Objective: Protection Against Retaliation

Definition: Protection Against Retaliation Don't RETALIATE against employees or applicants who exercise their appeal rights, testify, or cooperate with an Inspector General or the Special Counsel, or refuse to break the law. Indicators: Protection Against Retaliation Training Vignette: http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F3/2/1 137/616206/ Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices

Enabling Learning Objective: Conduct not Adversely Affecting Performance Definition: Conduct not Adversely Affecting Performance Don't DISCRIMINATE based on actions not adversely affecting performance Indicators: Conduct not Adversely Affecting Performance Training Vignette: http://www.mspb.gov/mspbsearch/viewdocs.aspx?docnum ber=253955&version=254242&application=ACROBAT Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices

Enabling Learning Objective: Violating Veteran Preferences Definition: Violating Veteran Preferences Don't VIOLATE any law, rule, or regulation implementing or directly concerning the merit principles. Indicators: Violating Veteran Preferences Training Vignette: http://www.fedsmith.com/2010/01/13/federal-circuit-sayshhs-denied-veteran/ Terminal Learning Objective Prohibited Personnel Practices

Enabling Learning Objective: Violating Merit System Principles Definition: Violating Merit System Principles Don't VIOLATE any law, rule, or regulation implementing or directly concerning the merit principles. Indicators: Violating Merit System Principles Training Vignette: http://www.mspb.gov/meritsystemsprinciples.htm Human Resource Management Training The Federal Labor-Management

Relations Statute (Employees, Union, Management Rights) The Federal Labor-Management Relations Statute (Employees) Each employee shall have the right to form, join, or assist any labor organization, or to refrain from any such activity, freely and without fear of penalty or reprisal, and each employee shall be protected in the exercise of such right. Except as otherwise provided under this chapter, such right includes the right-(1) to act for a labor organization in the capacity of a representative and the right, in that capacity, to present the views of the labor organization to heads of agencies and other officials of the executive branch of the Government, the Congress, or other appropriate authorities, and

(2) to engage in collective bargaining with respect to conditions of employment through representatives chosen by employees under this chapter. The Federal Labor-Management Relations Statute (Managers) (a) Subject to subsection (b) of this section, nothing in this chapter shall affect the authority of any management official of any agency-(1) to determine the mission, budget, organization, number of employees, and internal security practices of the agency; and (2) in accordance with applicable laws--

(A) to hire, assign, direct, layoff, and retain employees in the agency, or to suspend, remove, reduce in grade or pay, or take other disciplinary action against such employees; (B) to assign work, to make determinations with respect to contracting out, and to determine the personnel by which agency operations shall be conducted; The Federal Labor-Management Relations Statute (Managers) (B) to assign work, to make determinations with respect to contracting out, and to determine the personnel by which agency operations shall be conducted; (C) with respect to filling positions, to make selections for appointments

from-(i) among properly ranked and certified candidates for promotion; or (ii) any other appropriate source; and (D) to take whatever actions may be necessary to carry out the agency mission during emergencies. Human Resource Management Training The Management of Grievances & Unfair labor Practices (What the Law Says)

Unfair Labor Practice (ULP) What is an Unfair Labor Practice (ULP) The Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute (the Statute) protects federal employees rights to organize, bargain collectively, and participate in labor organizations of their choosing and to refrain from doing so. A ULP is conduct by agencies or unions that violates rights that the Statute protects or the rules that it establishes Unfair Labor Practice (ULP) Employee Rights Employees covered by the Statute have the right to form, join, or assist a union, or to refrain from such activity, without reprisal, including the right to:

Organize, or attempt to organize, a union in the workplace Act as a union representative Seek union assistance File or pursue a grievance Refuse to form, join, or assist a union Be fairly represented by their union Unfair Labor Practice (ULP) Agency ULPs An agency commits a ULP when it violates rights that the Statute protects. Examples include: Threatening an employee that her career would not go much further if she proceeded with her grievance

Transferring an employee to an undesirable job because she filed a ULP charge Eliminating employees compressed work schedules without giving their union notice and an opportunity to bargain over the change Refusing to grant an employees request for a union representative during an investigatory (Weingarten) interview, when the employee reasonably fears discipline Unfair Labor Practice (ULP) Union ULPs A union commits a ULP when it violates rights that the Statute protects. Examples include: Refusing to process a grievance because an employee is not a union

member Threatening an employee for filing a ULP charge Refusing to negotiate in good faith with an agency Calling, participating in, or supporting a strike, work stoppage, or slowdown Human Resource Management Training ULP Workshop Human Resource Management Training

Fair labor Standards Act (Exempt vs NonExempt) Fair Labor Standards Act Exempt or Nonexempt. Employees whose jobs are governed by the FLSA are either "exempt" or "nonexempt." Nonexempt employees are entitled to overtime pay. Exempt employees are not. Most employees covered by the FLSA are nonexempt. Some are not. Some jobs are classified as exempt by definition. For example, "outside sales" employees are exempt ("inside sales" employees are nonexempt). For most employees, however, whether they are exempt or nonexempt depends on (a) how much they are paid, (b) how they are paid, and (c) what kind of work they do.

With few exceptions, to be exempt an employee must (a) be paid at least $23,600 per year ($455 per week), and (b) be paid on a salary basis, and also (c) perform exempt job duties. These requirements are outlined in the FLSA Regulations (promulgated by the U.S. Department of Labor). Most employees must meet all three "tests" to be exempt. Human Resource Management Training Code of Ethics for Government Service Code of Ethics for Government Service

Employees: 1. Put loyalty to the highest moral principles to self and Country; 2. Uphold the Constitution, laws and legal regulations of the United States; 3. Give a full days labor for a full days pay; 4. Find and employ efficient and economical ways to accomplish tasks; 5. Never discriminate unfairly by giving special favors or privileges to anyone; 6. Make no promises of any kind binding upon the duties of the office they hold; 7. Engage in business with the Government, directly or indirectly; 8. Never use confidential information gained in the performance of duties to make a private profit; 9. Expose corruption; and,

10. Uphold these principles and be conscious that their position is one of public trust Code of Ethics for Government Service When the Agency is able to prove off-duty behavior conflicts with its mission, a nexus may be found even if there was no publicity surrounding the incident and/or the employees job performance was not affected. While there are notable exceptions, off-duty misconduct of this nature sufficiently diminish the employees ability to properly model the values required of Federal employees and probably constitute just cause for discipline up to and including termination. A presumption of nexus can be made if the off-duty conduct was so egregious, that the nexus speaks for itself.

Code of Ethics for Government Service To establish a nexus the Agency must: (1) be able to prove that there is a connection between the seriousness of the off-duty misconduct and the continued efficiency of the service; (2) (2) show how the misconduct itself affected the employees performance and/or trust and the Agencys confidence in the employees performance; (3) (3) show that the misconduct interfered with its mission. Human Resource Management Training

Determining Reasonableness in Penalty Selection Douglas Factor In Depth The Merit Systems Protection Board in its landmark decision, Douglas vs. Veterans Administration, 5 MSPR 280, established criteria that supervisors must consider in determining an appropriate penalty to impose for an act of employee misconduct. These twelve factors are commonly referred to as Douglas Factors and have been incorporated into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Personnel Management System and various FAA Labor Agreements.

1) The nature and seriousness of the offense, and its relation to the employees duties, position, and responsibilities, including whether the offense was intentional or technical or inadvertent, or was committed maliciously or for gain, or was frequently repeated; (2) The employees job level and type of employment, including supervisory or fiduciary role, contacts with the public, and prominence of the position; Douglas Factor In Depth

(3) The employees past disciplinary record; (4) The employees past work record, including length of service, performance on the job, ability to get along with fellow workers, and dependability; (5) The effect of the offense upon the employees ability to perform at a

satisfactory level and its effect upon supervisors confidence in the employees work ability to perform assigned duties; (6) Consistency of the penalty with those imposed upon other employees for the same or similar offenses; (7) Consistency of the penalty with any applicable agency table of penalties;

Douglas Factor In Depth 8) The notoriety of the offense or its impact upon the reputation of the agency; (9) The clarity with which the employee was on notice of any rules that were violated in committing the offense, or had been warned about the conduct in question;

(10) The potential for the employees rehabilitation; (11) mitigating circumstances surrounding the offense such as unusual job tensions, personality problems, mental impairment, harassment, or bad faith, malice or provocation on the part of others involved in the matter; (12) The adequacy and effectiveness of alternative sanctions to deter such conduct in the future by the employee or others.

Human Resource Management Training Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights Excepted Service vs Competitive Service Federal Government civilian positions are generally in the competitive civil service. To obtain a competitive service job, you must compete with other applicants in open competition. Office of Personnel Management provides excepted service

hiring authorities to fill special jobs or to fill any job in unusual or special circumstances. These excepted service authorities enable agencies to hire when it is not feasible or not practical to use traditional competitive hiring procedures, and can streamline hiring. Most Excepted service positions are not required to be posted on USAJOBS.gov (external link). As a result, it is important to look at individual agency Web sites for job announcements. Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights Do probationary employees have a right to appeal their termination to the Board? Probationary employees do not have a statutory right to appeal their termination to the Board.

If you are a preference eligible in the excepted service and you have not completed 1 year or more of current, continuous service in the same or similar position, you may not appeal your termination to the Board. If you are a non-preference eligible in the excepted service and you have not completed 2 years or more of current, continuous service, in most circumstances you may not appeal your termination to the Board.

Probationary employees in the competitive service or serving under a Veterans Recruitment Appointment (VRA) do have limited appeal rights to the Board by regulation. 5 C.F.R. 315.806. Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights Do all probationary employees in the competitive service have the same regulatory rights? No. Those rights will depend on whether you are terminated for conditions

arising prior to, or subsequent to, your appointment. Employees serving a probationary period on initial appointment to a supervisory or managerial position are subject to 5 C.F.R. Part 315, Subpart I. Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights What are my due process rights if I am terminated during my probationary period in the competitive service?

If the agency proposes to terminate you in whole or in part for conditions arising before your appointment, you are entitled to notice of the reasons for the proposed termination, a reasonable time to answer the proposal notice and to furnish supporting affidavits, and written notice of the agencys decision. That decision will include the reasons for the action and notice of your right to file an appeal with the Board. 5 C.F.R. 315.805 and .806. You may appeal on the ground that your termination was not effected in accordance with the procedural requirements of 315.805. Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights What are my due process rights if I am terminated during my probationary

period in the competitive service? If the agency terminates you for unsatisfactory performance or conduct during your probationary period, you are entitled to a written notice why you are being separated and the effective date of the separation. The agency must, at a minimum, state its conclusions as to the inadequacies in your performance or conduct. 5 C.F.R. 315.804. You may appeal your termination (if it was not required by statute) only if you allege it was based on partisan political reasons or marital status. 5 C.F.R. 315.806(b). Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights

What are my due process rights if I am terminated during my probationary period in the competitive service? If you were terminated for pre-appointment reasons and you raise a denial of procedures, or if you were terminated for post-appointment reasons and you allege marital status or partisan political discrimination, you may also raise discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability. 5 C.F.R. 315.806(d). In all probationer appeals under 5 C.F.R. 315.806, the Board may

consider only these issues, but may not decide whether the reason the agency terminated your appointment was correct. Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights Does every Federal employee have a right to appeal his removal to the Board? No. Congress granted appeal rights to the Board to only certain employees and over certain personnel actions, and the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has provided appeal rights in other limited situations.

You meet the definition of an employee under the law (5 U.S.C. 7511(a)(1)) and whether you meet the requirements of any OPM regulation that grants additional appeal rights. Probationary Employees and Appeal Rights What other review rights do I have? You may have the right to file an Equal Employment Opportunity

complaint, a grievance, or a request for corrective action with the Office of Special Counsel. You should quickly attempt to determine whether such options exist before you file an appeal, because frequently the type of review you seek first constitutes an election of remedy that may limit or preclude other review options. Human Resource Management Training EEO Complaint Process & Administrative Grievance Procedure EEO Complaint Processing

Procedures Contact EEO Counselor: Aggrieved persons who believe they have been discriminated against must contact an agency EEO counselor prior to filing a formal complaint. The person must initiate counselor contact within 45 days of the matter alleged to be discriminatory. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.105(a)(1). EEO Counseling: EEO counselors provide information to the aggrieved individual concerning how the federal sector EEO process works, including time frames and appeal procedures, and attempt to informally resolve the matter. Alternative Dispute Resolution: (ADR) Beginning January 1, 2000 all agencies were required to establish or make available an ADR program. Such program must be available for both the pre-complaint process and the formal complaint process. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.102(b)(2).

EEO Complaint Processing Procedures Complaints: A complaint must be filed with the agency that allegedly discriminated against the complainant within 15 days of receipt of the Notice of Final Interview. The complaint must be a signed statement from the complainant or the complainant's attorney, containing the complainant's (or representative's) telephone number and address, and must be sufficiently precise to identify the complainant and the agency, and describe generally the action or practice which forms the basis of the complaint. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.106. EEO Complaint Processing

Procedures Complaints: Class complaints of discrimination are processed differently than individual complaints. See 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.204. The employee or applicant who wishes to file a class complaint must first seek counseling and be counseled, just like an individual complaint. However, once counseling is completed the class complaint is not investigated by the respondent agency. Rather, the complaint is forwarded to the nearest EEOC Field or District Office, where an EEOC AJ is appointed to make decision as to whether to accept or dismiss the class complaint. The AJ examines the class to determine whether it meets the class certification requirements of numerosity, commonality, typicality and adequacy of representation. The AJ may issue a decision dismissing the class because it fails to meet any of these class certification requirements, as well as for any of the reasons for dismissal

discussed above for individual complaints EEO Complaint Processing Procedures Dismissals of Complaints: (1) failure to state a claim, or stating the same claim that is pending or has been decided by the agency or the EEOC; (2) failure to comply with the time limits; (3) filing a complaint on a matter that has not been brought to the attention of an EEO counselor and which is not like or related to the matters counseled; (4) filing a complaint which is the basis of a pending civil action, or which was the basis of a civil action already decided by a court;

(5) where the complainant has already elected to pursue the matter through either the negotiated grievance procedure or in an appeal to the Merit Systems Protection Board; (6) where the matter is moot or merely alleges a proposal to take a personnel action; EEO Complaint Processing Procedures Dismissals of Complaints: (7) where the complainant cannot be located; (8) where the complainant fails to respond to a request to provide relevant information; (9) where the complaint alleges dissatisfaction with the processing of a

previously filed complaint; (10) where the complaint is part of a clear pattern of misuse of the EEO process for a purpose other than the prevention and elimination of employment discrimination. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.107. EEO Complaint Processing Procedures Investigations: Investigations are conducted by the respondent agency. The agency must develop an impartial and appropriate factual record upon which to make findings on the claims raised by the complaint. An appropriate factual record is defined in the regulations as one that allows a reasonable fact finder to draw conclusions as to whether discrimination occurred. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.108(b).

Hearings: Requests for hearing must be sent by the complainant to the EEOC office indicated in the agency's acknowledgment letter, with a copy to the agency's EEO office. Within 15 days of receipt of the request for a hearing, the agency must provide a copy of the complaint file to EEOC. The EEOC will then appoint an AJ to conduct a hearing. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.108(g). EEO Complaint Processing Procedures Final Action: by Agencies When an AJ has issued a decision (either a dismissal, a summary judgment decision or a decision following a hearing), the agency must take final action on the complaint by issuing a final order within 40 days of receipt of the hearing file and the AJ's decision. The final order must notify the complainant whether or not the agency will fully

implement the decision of the AJ, and shall contain notice of the complainant's right to appeal to EEOC or to file a civil action. If the final order does not fully implement the decision of the AJ, the agency must simultaneously file an appeal with EEOC and attach a copy of the appeal to the final order. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.110(a). EEO Complaint Processing Procedures Appeals: to the EEOC Several types of appeals may be brought to the EEOC. A complainant may appeal an agency's final action or dismissal of a complaint within 30 days of receipt. 29 C.F.R. Sections 1614.401(a), 1614.402(a). A grievant may appeal the final decision of the agency, arbitrator or the FLRA on a grievance when an issue of employment discrimination was raised in the

grievance procedure. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.401(d). If the agency's final action and order do not fully implement the AJ's decision, the agency must appeal to the EEOC. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.110(a); 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.401(b). A complainant may appeal to the EEOC for a determination as to whether the agency has complied with the terms of a settlement agreement or decision. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.504(b). EEO Complaint Processing Procedures Civil Actions: Prior to filing a civil action under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 or the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, a federal sector complainant must first exhaust the administrative process set out at 29 C.F.R. Part 1614.

"Exhaustion" for the purposes of filing a civil action may occur at different stages of the process. The regulations provide that civil actions may be filed in an appropriate federal court: (1) within 90 days of receipt of the final action where no administrative appeal has been filed; (2) after 180 days from the date of filing a complaint if an administrative appeal has not been filed and final action has not been taken; (3) within 90 days of receipt of EEOC's final decision on an appeal; or (4) after 180 days from the filing of an appeal with EEOC if there has been no final decision by the EEOC. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.408. EEO Complaint Processing Procedures

Grievances: Persons covered by collective bargaining agreements which permit allegations of discrimination to be raised in the grievance procedure, and who wish to file a complaint or grievance on an allegation of employment discrimination, must elect to proceed either under the procedures of 29 C.F.R. Part 1614 or the negotiated grievance procedures, but not both. 29 C.F.R. Section 1614.301(a). An election to proceed under Part 1614 is made by the filing of a complaint, and an election to proceed under the negotiated grievance procedures is made by filing a grievance. Participation in the precomplaint procedures of Part 1614 is not an election of the 1614 procedures. The election requirement does not apply to employees of agencies not covered by 5 U.S.C. Section 7121(d), notably employees of the United States Postal Service. EEO Complaint Processing

Procedures DIRECT-EFFECT Solutions, LLC Targeting Success Through Optimal Measures Human Resource Management Training NAVSUP Fleet Logistics Center Norfolk, Virginia 3-6 April 2017 Day 2 Human Resource Management

Training What is Position Management/Why is it Important Position Management Position management is the process of assuring that your organization and positions are structured efficiently and economically. A carefully designed position structure is one which blends the skills and assignments of employees with the goal of successfully carrying out the organizations mission. The primary objective in assigning duties and responsibilities to individual positions is to provide the basis for orderly, efficient, and economical accomplishment of the work of your organization.

Position Management An effective position description is used for many purposes, including: Defining expectations Evaluating performance Developing performance plans and setting goals and objectives Defending employment decisions Recruiting and evaluating candidates Human Resource Management Training The importance of Critical Elements in

the Rating Process Critical Elements in the Rating Process Employees are encouraged to: Participate in development of critical elements Identify and record their accomplishments Participate in interim reviews and the end-of-year assessments, including the self-assessment Understand the link between their performance expectations and conduct, and organization mission and goals Critical Elements in the Rating

Process Raters Responsibilities: Ensure employees attend performance management training Develop critical elements aligned to mission objectives Communicate performance expectations to employees and hold them accountable for achieving them Provide employee feedbackat least one interim review Foster and reward excellent performance Address poor performance Make meaningful performance distinctions among employees Critical Elements in the Rating Process

Raters Responsibilities: Ensure employees attend performance management training Develop critical elements aligned to mission objectives Communicate performance expectations to employees and hold them accountable for achieving them Provide employee feedbackat least one interim review Foster and reward excellent performance Address poor performance Make meaningful performance distinctions among employees Critical Elements in the Rating Process Reviewers Responsibility:

Be involved in the performance management process throughout the rating period Ensure organizational goals are communicated to subordinate supervisors and employees Ensure equitable and consistent application of, and compliance with, performance management requirements by all subordinate Critical Elements in the Rating Process Requirements for Critical Elements: Critical elements must be linked to the mission Minimum of 2 critical elements; key responsibilities must be captured as critical elements to define performance expectations

Mandatory Supervisory Critical Element Critical elements must be in either the SMART or MARST format Critical elements may be weighted Critical Elements in the Rating Process CRITICAL ELEMENTS ARE NOT TASK DESCRIPTIONS Critical Elements Focus on the results and contribution Describe what "the person will accomplish Task Descriptions

Focus on the tasks or activities completed Describe how the person will do the work Employee responsible for outcome Manager ultimately responsible for the outcome Critical Elements in the Rating Process Additional Considerations for Writing Critical Elements Articulate Expected Results

Absolute Standards Totality Approach Length of critical elements Critical Elements in the Rating Process SMART is a framework for developing (and evaluating) Critical Elements Specific Define an observable action, behavior, or achievement Link to a level of performance, frequency, percentage, or other number Are specific regarding the description of the result (not the activities to achieve that result)

Critical Elements in the Rating Process SMART is a framework for developing (and evaluating) Critical Elements Measurable Provide a method to allow tracking, recording, and validation of quality of a specific behavior, action, or outcome Define: Quantity (how many) Time (how long) Quality (how good) Resources (how much) Aligned Realistic/Relevant

Timed Critical Elements in the Rating Process SMART is a framework for developing (and evaluating) Critical Elements Aligned Line of sight is drawn between the employees work, units goal, and the organizations mission Critical Elements ensure all are working toward shared goals All critical elements in the organization pull in the same direction Managers/supervisors need understanding of their own goals, objectives and critical elements before they can work with their employees to establish theirs

Critical Elements in the Rating Process SMART is a framework for developing (and evaluating) Critical Elements Realistic/Relevant Goals and objectives achievable with the resources and personnel available, and within the available time Goals and objectives are important to the employee & organization Responsibility must be appropriate to employee grade Critical Elements in the Rating Process SMART is a framework for developing (and evaluating) Critical Elements

Timed Established start and/or end dates are defined Specific dates (e.g., March 15) are preferred over relative descriptions of time (e.g., 6 months) Milestones can be included Human Resource Management Training Distinguishing between Performance and Conduct Performance vs Conduct

A general rule of thumb for assisting you with determining whether you are dealing with a conduct problem or a performance problem is two words: Cant vs. Wont. If the employee is attempting to perform his/her job to the best of his/her ability and just cant do the work, it is more than likely a performance related problem. If the employee can do the work, but just wont because he/she chooses not to, it is more than likely a conduct problem. Performance vs Conduct 1. Work Performance (Incapacity) Work performance is about how the employee fulfills his or her job requirements. The level of performance is determined by an employee's knowledge, skills, behaviors, qualifications, abilities. An employee who under

performs as a result of his/her lack of knowledge, skills, behaviors, abilities, qualifications etc. cannot be said to be "guilty" of non performance. Any termination arising from non performance is always a no-fault dismissal, unlike a situation where the employee does not perform because he/she intentionally does not perform or does so negligently. Such situations would be treated as misconduct. Performance vs Conduct 2. Ill-health (Incapacity) Incapacity arising from ill-health or disablement, mental or physical illnesses. 3. Misconduct Conduct is about how the employee behaves or conducts himself at work or in relation to the rules of the Company and primarily relates to the

employee's value system (honesty, integrity, subordination, self control etc.). Misconduct arises out of an employee's failure to abide by or adhere to the standards of conduct expected of him by his Manager. Misconduct usually implies some form of culpability (guilt) on the part of the employee which may be either due to the employee's negligence (culpa) or intent (dolus). Human Resource Management Training Progressive Corrective Action (Agency Table of Offenses & penalties) Progressive Corrective Action

Progressive Corrective Action Corrective Counseling Corrective counseling should be done as soon as the supervisor or manager becomes aware of an employees work performance or behavior problems. While it may be natural to want to allow an employee the opportunity to correct deficiencies on his or her own without interference by an autocratic or hovering supervisor, problems left to self-correct rarely do. Verbal Reprimand / Warning Again, depending on the seriousness of the infraction, if corrective counseling on at least one or two occasions fails to bring about the desired change in the employees work behavior or performance, a supervisor or manager would generally proceed to a verbal warning/reprimand.

Progressive Corrective Action Written Reprimand / Warning Generally, if there is insufficient or no improvement in the employees work performance/behavior within one to two months, or if new or more serious problems surface, a written reprimand/warning may be the appropriate next step. A brief history of the corrective counseling sessions and verbal warning(s) should be included in the document to the employee which may be in memorandum or letter form. Suspension Without Pay An appointing authority may suspend any employee without pay for cause or to conduct an investigation regarding an employees conduct which has a reasonable connection to the employees performance of his or her job. The

suspension shall be for a specific period of time, except where an employee is the subject of an indictment or other criminal proceeding. Progressive Corrective Action Demotion There are two types of demotion, demotion with prejudice and demotion without prejudice. A demotion with prejudice is a reduction in pay and/or a change in job class to a lower job class due to the inability of an employee to perform the duties of a position or for improper conduct. A demotion without prejudice is a change in job class of an employee to a lower job class, a transfer of an employee to a lower job class, or a reduction in the employees pay due to business necessity.

Progressive Corrective Action Dismissal An appointing authority may dismiss any employee for cause. Prior to the effective date of the dismissal, the appointing authority or his or her designee shall: Meet with the employee in a predetermination conference and advise the employee of the contemplated dismissal Give the employee oral notice confirmed in writing within three (3) working days, or written notice of the specific reason or reasons for the dismissal Give the employee a minimum of fifteen (15) calendar days advance notice of the dismissal to allow the employee a reasonable time to reply to the dismissal in writing, or upon request to appear personally and reply to

the appointing authority or his or her designee. Human Resource Management Training Correcting Misconduct at the Lowest Level Correcting Misconduct at the Lowest Level Verbal Counseling Letter of Counseling (LOC) Letter of Admonition (LOA)

Letter of Reprimand (LOR) Correcting Misconduct at the Lowest Level Any supervisor can issue Letters of Counseling, Admonition, and Reprimand. These actions are intended to correct improper behavior exhibited on or offduty. It's preferred by all concerned that misconduct be addressed at the lowest possible level for three reasons. First, this makes it possible to address the infraction as soon as it occurs because all the coordination is in-house. Second, addressing discipline issues at the lowest level allows the supervisor to maintain control of the situation. And third, quickly addressing questionable behavior at the work center level will help the offender realize that his actions are serious and objectionable. If conduct doesn't improve, it can then be escalated to higher levels.

Verbal counseling, LOCs, LOAs, and LORs at the work center level are a form of correction appropriate for correcting habits or shortcomings which are not necessarily criminal or illegal, but which can ultimately affect job performance, work center morale, and discipline. Human Resource Management Training Guide to Effective Documentation (Video: Facts, Objectives, Solutions & Actions) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Ab bgNLOm_U

Human Resource Management Training Performance Counseling Sessions (Case Study: Gathering Evidence) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bM0 14AHHt1Y Human Resource Management Training Workshop in Formal and Counseling

Human Resource Management Training Formal Counseling Vignette Your fleet operations manager has two months left under his probationary period. Within the last sixty days, his fleet readiness was well below the required 90% readiness rate. 17 of 35 fleet vehicles are well past their service requirements (39% above the standard) and some employees found ammunition inside a vehicle retrieved from the motor pool. In addition, your fleet operations manager was late for work 3 of 5 days last week. After an informal counseling, you decide to conduct a formal corrective actions counseling.

Human Resource Management Training Ten Critical Mistakes Made by Supervisors Dealing with Federal Employees in Trouble at Work

Failing to Set Clear Expectations or regularly Reinforce Them Letting Problems Youre Aware of Fester before Addressing Them Failure to Communicate With People with Problems Failure to Recognize the Importance of Due Process Taking the Matter Personally Moving Too Quickly to Formal Action Playing GOTCHA With Troublesome or Difficult People Waiting Too Long to Get Professional Help Unwillingness to See a Problem Through to a Resolution Worrying Too Much About Over-Touted Disincentives to Taking Action

DIRECT-EFFECT Solutions, LLC Targeting Success Through Optimal Measures Human Resource Management Training NAVSUP Fleet Logistics Center Norfolk, Virginia 3-6 April 2017 Day 3 Human Resource Management Training

Supervisory Tools to Manage the Workforce Supervisory Tools to Manage the Workforce Some people mistakenly assume that performance management is concerned only with following regulatory requirements to appraise and rate performance. Actually, assigning ratings of record is only one part of the overall process (and perhaps the least important part). Performance management is the systematic process of: planning work and setting expectations, continually monitoring performance, developing the capacity to perform,

periodically rating performance in a summary fashion, and rewarding good performance. Supervisory Tools to Manage the Workforce . SWOT Analysis https://www.mindtools.com/pages/articl e/newTMC_05.htm Supervisory Tools to Manage the Workforce

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STRENGTHS Subject Matter Experts Strong Leadership Good Teamwork Mission & Ship Focus Support Promote Excellence WEAKNESSES Compartmentalized Temp Workers

Indecisiveness Lack of Funding Multiple Bosses/Lack of Alignment Complexity of Policy Combersome Work Practice

OPPORTUNITIES Influence other Commands Leverage other Commands Increase Funding/Optempo

Maximize Capabilities Enable Internal Controls Path to Preserve Schedule THREATS Global Event Funding Contract Limitations Disjointed Vision Communication Escalation Second and Third Order Effects Human Resource Management

Training The Off Session Coffee Break (Understanding a Supervisors Liability) http://storage.googleapis.com/wzukusers /user-23123365/documents/57d97eac75956eF2CwXz/OFF%20 THE%20CLOCK%20AND%20OFF%20THE%20HOOK.pdf Human Resource Management Training How to Motivate Performance through Effective Coaching (Video: The Practical

Coach) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjioJ BtIffo Human Resource Management Training Communicating with Employees (Case Study: Whose In Charge) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OHs B-cjyhzY Human Resource Management

Training Communicating with Bargaining Unit Employees Communicating with Bargaining Unit Employees Meeting with Employees: As a supervisor or manager, you are probably in constant communication with bargaining unit employees on a range of subjects. In the majority of situations there is no obligation to involve union representatives in routine discussions with the employees you supervise. However, the law sets up two specific situations in which the union does have the right to become involved in

discussions you may have with unit employees. In these situations, you are required to make sure that the union is allowed to have a representative present. Therefore, it is important that you recognize these two situations and how to deal with them. They are called "formal discussions" and "investigative" or "Weingarten meetings." Communicating with Bargaining Unit Employees Formal discussions When a management representative, such as a manager, supervisor or personnel specialist, wants to have a substantive discussion with one or more bargaining unit employees about conditions of employment or a grievance, the union must be notified and given a chance to attend. The idea behind this

requirement is simple. Since the union is responsible for negotiating working conditions of employment with management, union representatives should be allowed to sit in when managers discuss such matters with the bargaining unit employees Communicating with Bargaining Unit Employees Investigative or Weingarten Meetings There are four requirements for a meeting to be considered an investigative meeting at which unit employees are entitled to union representation: 1. Attendance: The meeting must include both a management representative (such as a manager, supervisor, personnel specialist or security officer) and a bargaining unit employee.

2. Nature of the Meeting: The discussion must be investigative in nature. That is, questions are being asked of the employee. If the discussion is not investigative, it will not qualify. For example, routine work discussions or even a negative performance evaluation does not involve an investigation, and, therefore will not qualify as Weingarten discussions. Communicating with Bargaining Unit Employees Investigative or Weingarten Meetings 3. Reasonable Fear: The employee must be able to "reasonably fear" that discipline might result from the discussion. This means that, based on all the circumstances including what the employee may know that you may not - if a reasonable person could fairly conclude that answering questions likely to be

asked at the meeting might result in discipline, this requirement will be met. Note that this requirement is based on the employee's perceptions, not on whether you intend to discipline or not when the request for representation is made. 4. Request for Representation: The employee must request the assistance of a union representative. Unlike the situation involving formal discussions, employees must request the help of a representative to be entitled to one. Unless your labor agreement adds a requirement, you are not required to advise the employee of a right to representation before you ask questions. If those requirements are present, you must give the employee an opportunity to get a union representative before you proceed with the meeting. Human Resource Management

Training Managing the Bad Attitude https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5izb gOj_WvI Human Resource Management Training Managing Violent/Threaten Behavior & Crime Provision https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wtm puTZ3MKs

Human Resource Management Training Performance Based Interviewing (Appropriate Questions and the Importance of Documentation) Performance Based Interviewing Performance Based Interviewing (PBI) Performance Based Interviewing (PBI) is a method to increase the effectiveness of the interviewing process in selecting and promoting quality staff. With PBI, the interviewer carefully defines the skills needed for the job

and structures the interview process to elicit behavioral examples of past performance. Research findings show that the best predictor of future behavior is past behavior. The job-related questions help the interviewer better evaluate applicants fairly and improve the match between people and jobs. This method is also referred to as competency-based or behavioral interviewing. Performance Based Interviewing Developing PBI Interviews Performance Based Interviewing (PBI) emphasizes the accomplishment of four basic interview goals necessary for effective results. They are: 1. Understanding the behaviors that lead to success in the job. 2. Crafting questions that permit the interviewer to determine the degree to

which the applicant has exhibited the desired behaviors. 3. Conducting fair, legal and impartial interviews that elicit information on the applicants past behavior in the areas determined to be essential. 4. Ensuring the candidate understands the expectations of the supervisor and the organization. Human Resource Management Training More Than a Gut Feeling (Behavioral Based Interviews and the Selection Process)

Performance Based Interviewing Ten Steps to Better Selections Analyze the Position to be Filled to Identify Essential Qualities Determine What Additional Job Related Information is Needed Determine Sources of Information

Develop Behavioral Questions for the Position Review Questions/Applications and Resumes Determine Interview Format: Who & How

Interview Candidates Communicating with Bargaining Unit Employees Ten Steps to Better Selections Interview Supervisors Decide Which Candidate Best Meets the Established Criteria

Select the Best Candidate Human Resource Management Training Taking Misconduct Actions under Performance Taking Misconduct Actions under Performance First, show that the charged misconduct is directly related to the employees

performance of higher specific duties. Most disciplinary/adverse actions taken are based on acts of misconduct that directly affect the persons and/or fellow workers performance of duties and responsibilities. These actions may include an employees physical or mental inability to perform the duties of his/her position; failure to follow instructions; leave abuse; fighting on the job; or dishonesty in providing official information. Second, demonstrate that the conduct is so egregious that nexus is obvious. Certain types of misconduct (on or off duty) may be so serious that they cast doubt on the employees reliability and trustworthiness, diminish public respect for the Service, create compelling safety and/or security concerns, and/or adversely affect the employees ability to work with other employees.

Taking Misconduct Actions under Performance Third, make it clear that the employees behavior directly affected mission accomplishment. Some misconduct, by its very nature, is so inconsistent with or opposed to an agencys basic mission, goals, or objectives that it results in a serious diminishing of public trust, confidence, or respect for the agency, and establishes the requisite nexus even though it may not directly affect the individuals performance of assigned duties and responsibilities. Examples of such misconduct might include a Forest Service employee engaging in arson, an Internal Revenue Agent evading taxes or VA hospital employee taking drugs from Agency stores. Human Resource Management

Training Case Studies in Dealing with Change and Past Practice Human Resource Management Training Case Studies on formalizing managements concerns & reasonable accommodation considerations Human Resource Management

Training Cultural Influence (Case Study: Collaboration & Consensus) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAsL ICK9vxc DIRECT-EFFECT Solutions, LLC Targeting Success Through Optimal Measures Human Resource Management Training NAVSUP Fleet Logistics Center

Norfolk, Virginia 3-6 April 2017 Day 4 Human Resource Management Training The Four Types of Leadership Styles Human Resource Management Training Pragmatist

Pragmatists have high standards; they expect themselves, and their people to meet those standards. They are driven, competitive, bold thinkers, and unafraid. Working for pragmatists are not for the faint-of-heart but the opportunities to learn and become expert are tremendous. It also offers the potential for exceptional intellectual growth, but also for burnout and criticism. This style accounts for 8-12% of leaders. Human Resource Management Training Idealist Idealists are high-energy achievers who believe in the positive potential of everyone around them. They want to learn and grow, and they want

everyone else on the team to do the same. They are charismatic, drawing others to them with their intuition and idealism & open-minded. Working for Idealists offers the chance to be creative and to express oneself. It provides a very democratic experience. This style accounts for 15-20% of leaders. Human Resource Management Training Steward Stewards are the rocks of organizations, dependable, loyal and helpful. They provide a stabilizing and calming force for their people. They value rules, process and cooperation. Working for Stewards offers the chance to be part

of a well-oiled machine. Under their leadership, one finds security, consistency and cohesion and provides great opportunities for team success. This style accounts for about 15-20% of leaders Human Resource Management Training Diplomats Diplomats prize interpersonal harmony. They are the social glue and affiliative force that keeps groups together. Theyre typically kind, social, and giving, and often have deep personal bonds with their employees. And theyre often known for being able to resolve conflicts peacefully (and avoid them in the first place). This style accounts for 50-60% of leaders

Human Resource Management Training The Four Styles of Decision Makers Human Resource Management Training Directive Rational and autocratic style that results in the employee using his knowledge, judgement and experience to choose the best alternative. When a manager spots the dirt on the window, and orders the cleaner to

clean the window now, that is a directive style decision-making. The cleaner has to follow the instruction, and does not need to ask for clarification. Human Resource Management Training Conceptual Long term results, brainstorming of alternatives, creative approaches to problem solving and taking higher risks. For example, after Singapore gained independence, the Singapore government decided on industrialization. That was a conceptual style decision-making. There was no guarantee of success. Human Resource Management

Training Analytical Analytic style decision-making has high tolerance for ambiguity and is rational. The decision-making style is due to uncertainty, and lack of information. For example, when the management is discussing about acquisition. They do not make decision fast. They want to have more information before they make the major acquisition. They have to find answers to many what if questions. Human Resource Management Training

Behavioral Behavioral style decision-making has low tolerance for ambiguity and is intuitive. The manager possesses behavioral style decision-making will engage in team discussion. He is responsive to the mood of the team members. He makes decision based on what feels right, and what will motivate the team members to perform. The decision is communicated clearly and leaves no room for doubt. Human Resource Management Training Root Cause Analysis

Human Resource Management Training Behavioral Human Resource Management Training PARETO ANALYSIS Pareto Analysis is a statistical technique in decision-making used for the selection of a limited number of tasks that produce significant overall effect. It uses the Pareto Principle (also known as the 80/20 rule) the idea that by doing 20% of the work you can generate 80% of the benefit of doing the

entire job. Take quality improvement, for example, a vast majority of problems (80%) are produced by a few key causes (20%). This technique is also called the vital few and the trivial many. Human Resource Management Training PARETO ANALYSIS 1. Create a vertical bar chart with causes on the x-axis and count (number of occurrences) on the y-axis. 2. Arrange the bar chart in descending order of cause importance that is, the cause with the highest count first. 3. Calculate the cumulative count for each cause in descending order.

4. Calculate the cumulative count percentage for each cause in descending order. Percentage calculation: {Individual Cause Count} / {Total Causes Count}*100 5. Create a second y-axis with percentages descending in increments of 10 from 100% to 0%. 6. Plot the cumulative count percentage of each cause on the x-axis. 7. Join the points to form a curve. 8. Draw a line at 80% on the y-axis running parallel to the x-axis. Then drop the line at the point of intersection with the curve on the x-axis. This point on the x-axis separates the important causes on the left (vital few) from the less important causes on the right (trivial many). Human Resource Management Training

PARETO ANALYSIS Human Resource Management Training FAULT TREE ANALYSIS Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed using Boolean logic to combine a series of lower-level events. The main purpose of the fault tree analysis is to help identify potential causes of system failures before the failures actually occur. It can also be used to evaluate the probability of the top event using analytical or statistical methods. These calculations involve system

quantitative reliability and maintainability information, such as failure probability, failure rate and repair rate. After completing an FTA, you can focus your efforts on improving system safety and reliability Human Resource Management Training FAULT TREE ANALYSIS Human Resource Management Training FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed using Boolean logic to combine a series of lower-level events. The main purpose of the fault tree analysis is to help identify potential causes of system failures before the failures actually occur. It can also be used to evaluate the probability of the top event using analytical or statistical methods. These calculations involve system quantitative reliability and maintainability information, such as failure probability, failure rate and repair rate. After completing an FTA, you can focus your efforts on improving system safety and reliability Human Resource Management Training

FAULT TREE ANALYSIS 1. Define the fault condition, and write down the top level failure. 2. Using technical information and professional judgments, determine the possible reasons for the failure to occur. Remember, these are level two elements because they fall just below the top level failure in the tree. 3. Continue to break down each element with additional gates to lower levels. Consider the relationships between the elements to help you decide whether to use an "and" or an "or" logic gate. 4. Finalize and review the complete diagram. The chain can only be terminated in a basic fault: human, hardware or software. 5. If possible, evaluate the probability of occurrence for each of the lowest level elements and calculate the statistical probabilities from the bottom up.

Human Resource Management Training CURRENT REALITY TREE This process is intended to help leaders gain understanding of cause and effect in a situation they want to improve. It treats multiple problems in a system as symptoms arising from one or a few ultimate root causes or systemic core problems. It describes, in a visual (cause-and-effect network) diagram, the main perceived symptoms (along with secondary or hidden ones that lead up to the perceived symptoms) of a problem scenario and ultimately the apparent root causes or core conflict. The benefit of building a CRT is that it identifies the connections or dependencies between perceived

symptoms (effects) and root causes (core problems or conflicts) explicitly. If core problems are identified, prioritized, and tackled well, multiple undesirable effects in the system will disappear. Leaders may then focus on solving the few core problems which would cause the biggest positive systemic changes. Human Resource Management Training CURRENT REALITY TREE Human Resource Management Training

CURRENT REALITY TREE 1. A CRT has more or less a V shape with the topmost and numerous UDEs on the top, other UDEs that are causes from topmost UDEs and their own causes, and so on down to the few critical root causes, usually located (near or) on the base of the CRT. 2. Once a tree is completed, it can be read either top-down or bottom-up. The construction is always top-down, from symptoms to causes to critical root causes. 3. A CRT is made of entities which are round-cornered boxes holding a brief description of a fact in present tense. Entities are either causes or consequences and most of them are both. 4. Entities which are linked have an arrow between them. The base of the

arrow reads if and the tip reads then. Human Resource Management Training CURRENT REALITY TREE 5. When reading a CRT top-down, the succession of linked entities reads entity B exists (tip of arrow points to it) because of entity A (arrow starts from it). 6. When two or more arrows point to an entity, the entities at the base of the arrows are possible causes. The different arrows are logical inclusive OR relationships. 7. When the arrows are encircled by an ellipse, it means logical AND

relationship: all the causes must exist simultaneously for the effect to exist. Human Resource Management Training CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM The Cause and Effect (a.k.a. Fishbone) Diagram. When utilizing a team approach to problem solving, there are often many opinions as to the problem's root cause. One way to capture these different ideas and stimulate the team's brainstorming on root causes is the cause and effect diagram, commonly called a fishbone.

Human Resource Management Training CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM Human Resource Management Training CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM 1. To construct a fishbone, start with stating the problem in the form of a question, such as Why is the help desks abandon rate so high? Framing it as a why question will help in brainstorming, as each root cause idea should answer the question.

2. The team should agree on the statement of the problem and then place this question in a box at the head of the fishbone. 3. The rest of the fishbone then consists of one line drawn across the page, attached to the problem statement, and several lines, or bones, coming out vertically from the main line. 4. These branches are labeled with different categories. The categories you use are up to you to decide. Human Resource Management Training The Art of Negotiation

Human Resource Management Training Four Negotiating Principles An attitude that prompts the negotiator to work for solutions that will benefit all or most of the participating parties; An orientation that views the other person as a potential partner rather than an adversary; A climate that stimulates both parties to realize that they are more likely to attain their objectives if they work together than if they battle one another; A set of strategies that facilitate the process of securing mutual advantages.

Human Resource Management Training Negotiation Principles Application Separate the people from the problem in other words, be kind to people, tough on issues; Focus on interests, not positions; Generate a variety of possibilities before making a decision and; Define objective standards as the criteria for making the decision. Human Resource Management

Training Conflict Management Human Resource Management Training Four Aspects of Conflict Management Forcing Also known as competing. An individual firmly pursues his or her own concerns despite the resistance of the other person. This may involve pushing one viewpoint at the expense of another or maintaining firm resistance to another persons actions. Examples of when forcing may be appropriate

In certain situations when all other, less forceful methods, dont work or are ineffective When you need to stand up for your own rights, resist aggression and pressure When a quick resolution is required and using force is justified (e.g. in a lifethreatening situation, to stop an aggression) As a last resort to resolve a long-lasting conflict Human Resource Management Training Four Aspects of Conflict Management Forcing Possible advantages of forcing: May provide a quick resolution to a conflict

Increases self-esteem and draws respect when firm resistance or actions were a response to an aggression or hostility Some caveats of forcing: May negatively affect your relationship with the opponent in the long run May cause the opponent to react in the same way, even if the opponent did not intend to be forceful originally Cannot take advantage of the strong sides of the other sides position Taking this approach may require a lot of energy and be exhausting to some individuals Human Resource Management Training Four Aspects of Conflict Management

Collaborating Also known as problem confronting or problem solving. Collaboration involves an attempt to work with the other person to find a win-win solution to the problem in hand - the one that most satisfies the concerns of both parties. The win-win approach sees conflict resolution as an opportunity to come to a mutually beneficial result. It includes identifying the underlying concerns of the opponents and finding an alternative which meets each party's concerns. Examples of when collaborating may be appropriate: When consensus and commitment of other parties is important In a collaborative environment When it is required to address the interests of multiple stakeholders When a high level of trust is present When a long-term relationship is important When you need to work through hard feelings, animosity, etc

When you don't want to have full responsibility Human Resource Management Training Four Aspects of Conflict Management Collaborating Possible advantages of collaborating: Leads to solving the actual problem Leads to a win-win outcome Reinforces mutual trust and respect Builds a foundation for effective collaboration in the future Shared responsibility of the outcome You earn the reputation of a good negotiator

For parties involved, the outcome of the conflict resolution is less stressful (however, the process of finding and establishing a win-win solution may be very involved see the caveats below) Some caveats of collaborating: Requires a commitment from all parties to look for a mutually acceptable solution May require more effort and more time than some other methods. A win-win solution may not be evident For the same reason, collaborating may not be practical when timing is crucial and a quick solution or fast response is required Once one or more parties lose their trust in an opponent, the relationship falls back to other methods of conflict resolution. Therefore, all involved parties must continue collaborative efforts to maintain a collaborative relationship Human Resource Management Training Four Aspects of Conflict Management

Compromising Compromising looks for an expedient and mutually acceptable solution which partially satisfies both parties. Examples of when compromise may be appropriate: When the goals are moderately important and not worth the use of more assertive or more involving approaches, such as forcing or collaborating To reach temporary settlement on complex issues To reach expedient solutions on important issues As a first step when the involved parties do not know each other well or havent yet developed a high level of mutual trust Human Resource Management

Training Four Aspects of Conflict Management Compromising When collaboration or forcing do not work Possible advantages of compromise: Faster issue resolution. Compromising may be more practical when time is a factor Can provide a temporary solution while still looking for a win-win solution Lowers the levels of tension and stress resulting from the conflict Some caveats of using compromise: May result in a situation when both parties are not satisfied with the outcome (a lose-lose situation) Does not contribute to building trust in the long run

Human Resource Management Training Four Aspects of Conflict Management Withdrawing Also known as avoiding. This is when a person does not pursue her/his own concerns or those of the opponent. He/she does not address the conflict, sidesteps, postpones or simply withdraws. Examples of when withdrawing may be appropriate: When the issue is trivial and not worth the effort When more important issues are pressing, and you don't have time to deal with it In situations where postponing the response is beneficial to you, for example When it is not the right time or place to confront the issue When you need time to think and collect information before you act (e.g. if you are unprepared or taken by surprise)

When you see no chance of getting your concerns met or you would have to put forth unreasonable efforts When you would have to deal with hostility When you are unable to handle the conflict (e.g. if you are too emotionally involved or others can handle it better) Possible advantages of withdrawing: When the opponent is forcing / attempts aggression, you may choose to withdraw and postpone your response until you are in a more favourable circumstance for you to push back Human Resource Management Training Four Aspects of Conflict Management Withdrawing Withdrawing is a low stress approach when the conflict is short

Gives the ability/time to focus on more important or more urgent issues instead Gives you time to better prepare and collect information before you act Some caveats of withdrawing: May lead to weakening or losing your position; not acting may be interpreted as an agreement. Using withdrawing strategies without negatively affecting your own position requires certain skill and experience When multiple parties are involved, withdrawing may negatively affect your relationship with a party that expects your action Human Resource Management Training

Four Aspects of Conflict Management Smoothing Also known as accommodating. Smoothing is accommodating the concerns of other people first of all, rather than one's own concerns. Examples of when smoothing may be appropriate: When it is important to provide a temporary relief from the conflict or buy time until you are in a better position to respond/push back When the issue is not as important to you as it is to the other person When you accept that you are wrong Human Resource Management Training

Four Aspects of Conflict Management Smoothing Possible advantages of smoothing: In some cases smoothing will help to protect more important interests while giving up on some less important ones Gives an opportunity to reassess the situation from a different angle Some caveats of smoothing: There is a risk to be abused, i.e. the opponent may constantly try to take advantage of your tendency toward smoothing/accommodating. Therefore it is important to keep the right balance and this requires some skill. May negatively affect your confidence in your ability to respond to an aggressive opponent

Human Resource Management Training The Two Types of Feedback Human Resource Management Training Supportive and Constructive Feedback Supportive Feedback Identify the positive behavior. Explain why the behavior is beneficial. Thank the subordinate.

Constructive Feedback Identify some positive behaviors (Ice Breaker/Lead In). Identify the negative behavior. Provide a more positive behavior. Human Resource Management Training Leadership Theories in The Development of Leadership in the 21st Century Human Resource Management Training

Five Leadership Theories developed during the 21st Century Great Man Theory Trait Theory Contingency Theories Behavioral Theories Human Resource Management Training Organizational Stewardship Human Resource Management

Training Compensation Small businesses sometimes face a paradox: They require more effort from fewer employees but are not able to pay them as much as their larger competitors. In order to reward higher effort and results they must rely on other forms of compensation. Organizational stewardship is a way to improve the culture of an organization and to promote an environment of trust that will attract top talent independent of pay. Human Resource Management Training

Responsibility The decisions that small business managers make often carry more weight than those in a larger organization since a small business may have more to lose from any setback. In order to better cope with this situation it is beneficial for managers to have a stewardship approach, where they identify their own success with that of the organization and take on personal responsibility. Human Resource Management Training Society In addition to the duties that a manager has to the small business

organization he works for, both he and the organization have a duty to the society at large. One way an organization can encourage stewardship in its management is by focusing on the needs of greater society. For example, a small business can take greater care in how it manages its materials in order to have a more beneficial impact on the environment. Human Resource Management Training Families Many successful small businesses start out as family-run operations. Family members are more inclined to focus on the duties that they owe one another and see themselves as being a part of a greater whole and thereby

encourage stewardship. Small businesses that encourage this type of family environment benefit from the selflessness of their managers and their high level of motivation. Human Resource Management Training Dysfunction of a Team Human Resource Management Training Human Resource Management

Training Creating and Maintaining Partnerships Human Resource Management Training 1. Define the multiple organizations that have come together in common purpose. Who is represented in your group, including those most affected by the issue. 2. Assemble the coalition's (group's) membership, keeping your broad goals in mind: 3. Outline your partnership's vision and mission with the assistance of your newly assembled partners and community members affected by the

issue or problem. 4. State the objectives or goals, needed resources and relationships to accomplish your objectives, and key agents of change in the partnership. 5. Re-examine the group's membership in light of your vision, mission, and objectives. Who else needs to be at the table? How can they contribute to the collaborative partnership's success and help it reach its goals? Human Resource Management Training 6. Describe potential barriers to your partnership's success and how you would overcome them. 7. Identify what financial resources will be needed to support the group's activities and infrastructure.

8. Describe how the coalition will function as an organization and how responsibilities will be shared among partner organizations. 9. Describe the structure the collaborative partnership will use to do its work. 10. Describe how the group will maintain momentum and foster renewal. 11. If your coalition is beginning to lose momentum in achieving its goals or member numbers are diminishing, review current barriers to your success. Human Resource Management Training 12. If necessary, revisit your plan to identify and recruit new or additional members.

13. When maintaining the coalition at its current level is no longer appropriate or feasible, consider other alternatives. Human Resource Management Training D3A Targeting Human Resource Management Training D3A TERMS Indicator: a thing, especially a trend or fact, that indicates the state or level of something.

Operational Environment: is the combination of the conditions, circumstances, and influences which will determine the use of resources and help leaders make decisions. Operational Variable: A known constant that is a component of the operational Environment. Measure of Performance: time-phased resourced plan against which the accomplishment of authorized work can be measured. Measure of Effects: A measured analysis of the effectiveness from a singular or series courses of actions usually over a extended period of time. Human Resource Management Training Daily Log

0750 - Students came in with attitudes, they didnt speak, sleepy and acted (-) negative towards each other. 0830 - Mr. Turner has not logged into his computer. (-) 0832 - Mr. Hall is coloring in his book. (-) 0840 - Mr. James arrived to class. (-) 0841 - Mr. Harris is falling asleep at his work station. (-) 0856 - I talked to Mr. Harris about him sleeping in which he informed me he (/)

is on medication. 0925 - Ms. Stevens assisted Mr. Harris with understanding the concept of Human Resource Management Training Operational Environment Operational Environment Physical environment Psychological

Environment Time Human Resource Management Training Physical Operational Variables Psycological

Performance Management Operational Environment Time Percentage of Control 0-25% 26-50% 51-75% 76-100% Human Resource Management Training

Target No. (2) Assign # Indicator Detect (1) Operational Variable Performance Managment Targeting Matix Decide (4) SWOT Analysis/Root Cause Analysis/FOSA Desired Effects: Eliminate/Midigate/Sustain/Capitalize

Target No Block 000-199 (New target numbers are designated in the tens place. Refined targets are designated in the ones place.) Deliver (5) Task and Purpose Assess (3) Desired Effect Measure SWOT Analysis/Time Human Resource Management Training

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    ECAS . credentials. since national eIDsare not recognisedbythe EC applications. A . first. proof of concept . demonstrating the integration of ECAS with STORK project was funded by IDABC programme and executed in 2011. The. current situation. ECAS-STORK integrationalready in...
  • Gaming Addiction

    Gaming Addiction

    Which application of pneumatics did each clip show?. Office chair. Bus braking system. Bicycle pump. Bus door. Can crusher
  • Forensic Analysis of Glass HW: Read/Notes p127-139 Forensic

    Forensic Analysis of Glass HW: Read/Notes p127-139 Forensic

    The aim is to make a material with the appearance and clarity of standard glass but with effective protection from small arms. usually made from a combination of two or more types of glass, one hard and one soft. ......
  • Notre Dame Catholic Sixth Form College

    Notre Dame Catholic Sixth Form College

    Notre Dame Catholic Sixth Form College. Higher Education Information Evening . for Parents. ... local events are listed on Moodle Careers. All students should have a Plan B. ... Sheffield Hallam, Leeds Trinity, Northumbria and Newcastle.
  • Fun with Phonics: Using literature based activities to

    Fun with Phonics: Using literature based activities to

    Syllabification Activities:. Make a Syllable Group Share a story that mentions days of the week (e.g. Ziptales Easy Reader . Bob the Frog). Students clap or use instruments to count the number of syllables in each day of the week...
  • Reporting External Activities - Emory University

    Reporting External Activities - Emory University

    Faculty are required to obtain prior approval from their Department Chair and Dean in order to participate in external activities with industry or other entities. ... Serving on a government advisory panel or a government grant review body, such as...
  • Protocol T MSL deck

    Protocol T MSL deck

    Baseline CSF values were converted from the thickness value measured on a Spectralis or Cirrus OCT machine to a Stratus equivalent value for 583 scans. One-year CSF values were converted from a thickness value measured on a Spectralis or Cirrus...