28-1 Introduction to Arthropods I. Form and Function

28-1 Introduction to Arthropods I. Form and Function in Arthropods A. All arthropods have 3 key features: 1.Tough exoskeleton 2.Jointed appendages 3.Segmented body B. Many arthropods have 3 additional

features: 1. Brain in the dorsal part of the head 2. Ventral nerve cord 3. Open circulatory system with a heart C.Arthropod body plan 1. Exoskeleton: A system of external supporting structures that are made of carbohydrate chitin a)

Function: i) Protection ii) Waterproof (prevents water loss) iii) Move efficiently b) Disadvantage: Skeleton cannot grow as the animal D. Feeding

1. List and give an example of each type of feeding method a) Herbivores locusts b) Carnivores - spiders, centipedes c) Parasites - ticks, fleas, lice d) Filter feeders - marine arthropods (barnacles) e) Detritus feeders - crayfish F. Internal E.

Respiration Transport 1. 3 basic types 1. Have a welldeveloped heart of respiratory pumping blood structures: through an open a) Gills circulatory system b) Book gills 2. Blood moves out of

and book vessels through lungs spaces called c) Tracheal tubes sinuses G. Excretion 1. Solid waste: Leaves through the anus

2. Metabolic waste eliminated by: a)Malphighian tubules - filter nitrogen based waste from blood b)Diffusion through the gills c) Green glands - filter blood at base of antennae H. Response 1. Nervous system composed of: a) Brain (with 2 ganglia in the head)

b) A pair of nerves that runs around the esophagus and connects the brain to a ventral nerve cord 2. Have sense organs such as: a) Statocysts b) Chemical receptors c) Compound eyes d) Taste receptors

e) Sensory hairs f) Ears 3. Defense against predators: a) Venomous stings and bites b) Attack with powerful claws, chemicals c) Create a diversion

(ex. Drop a body part) d) Visual trickery (ex. camouflage) 1. Fertilization is internal 2. Males transfer sperm directly or drop a packet of sperm that is picked up by the female

I. Reproduction Cockroaches II. Growth and Development in Arthropods A. What is a problem with exoskeletons? They must be replaced with larger ones in order to allow the body inside to increase in size as it matures B. Describe the steps that occur during molting: 1. The epidermis digests the inner part of the exoskeleton, absorbing the chitin to recycle it

2. Secretes a new exoskeleton inside the old one 3. Arthropod pulls completely out of its old exoskeleton (may eat whats left more recycling) 4. The animal then expands to its new, larger size, and the new exoskeleton stretches to cover it 5. Wait for the new exoskeleton to harden; during these few hours to a few days, the new shell is soft and the animal is quite vulnerable Giant Spider Crab Molt C.

Complete Metamorphosis involves VERY different What is the difference between complete metamorphosis and incomplete metamorphosis? physical appearances at the different stages of growth (usually: egg, larva, pupa, adult). Butterfly LifeCycle Incomplete Metamorphosis is involves stages with a physical appearance that more closely resembles one another (usually: egg, nymph, adult).

Preying Mantis Lifecycle 28-2 Spiders and Their Relatives I. Spiders and Their Relatives A. Subphylum Chelicerata has 3 main characteristics 1. Two-part body 2. Mouthparts called chelicerae 3. Lack sensory feelers (antennae) on the

head II. Arachnids A. Characteristics: 1. Four pairs of walking legs on their cephalothorax 2. Carnivores that have pedipalps adapted for capturing and holding prey and chelicerae adapted for biting and sucking out their soft parts

B.Some examples of Arachnids: 1. Spiders 2. Mites and ticks 3. Scorpions

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