# KNOWLEDGE RGANISER ACTIVITIES 1. Spell it! 2. Learn

4. There are seven continents on Earth. Continents are mega-islands (mostly surrounded by ocean). 5. The largest continent in terms of size and population is Asia. 6. Your island home (Great Britain) is located in the continent of Europe. 7. Naughty Elephants Spray Water can be helpful when trying to remember the main compass points (NESW). 8. Different maps use different scales these have different levels have detail. 9. OS Maps are usually 1:25000 or 1:50000 this means 1cm on the map is 25000 centimetres in real life (250 metres). GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS 10. The distance between places is usually measured in kilometres (1000 metres) or miles (1609 metres). 11. Places can be located on maps using grid references. 12. Along the corridor and up the elevator useful advice to help with four figure references. 13. Six figure grid references are more accurate than four figure grid references. 14. Six figure grid references can be worked out by dividing one grid square into 100 small squares. 15. Maps often use symbols to identify different features e.g. a church with a spire, or a post office. 16. Contour lines on faint brown lines on OS maps which are used to show the height of the land (e.g. whether it is flat or hilly) 17. When contour lines on maps are close to each other, this indicates a steep slope or cliff. 18. The contour interval is usually 10 metres, but you should always use the map key to check. KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER 1. People are unevenly distributed (spread out) around the world. Population YEAR 8 GEOGRAPHY & 11. Migration - the movement of people in and out of Migration an area. 2. Population density is the number of people per square kilometre (km). 12. Immigration is the movement of people into a country, where emigration is the movement out of a country. 3. Population density = total population total land area in km 13. Push factors are negative factors which make people want to move away from a place. 4. Births - usually measured using the birth rate (number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year). 14. Pull factors are positive factors which make people want to move to a place. 5. Deaths - usually measured using the death rate (number of deaths per 1,000 of the population per year). 15. The demographic transition model show population change over time it tracks birth and death

rates. 6. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country or place is called the natural increase. 16. In stage 2 and stage 3 the total population is growing fast because birth rates are higher than death rates. 7. Natural Increase is calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate. 17. In stage 1 and stage 4 the total population remains about the same as birth rates and death rates are about equal. 8. Population structure means the 'make up' or composition of a population how it is divided up between males and females of different age groups. 18. A few countries, including Japan, have reached stage 5 where birth rates have fallen below death rates. 9 Population structure is usually shown using a population pyramid. 19. Developing countries tend to have a high number of young people, whilst many advanced countries have an ageing population. 10. The fertility rate is the average number of babies born to each woman. 20. Life expectancy is the average age a person can expect to live in a place or country KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER YEAR 8 GEOGRAPHY Settlements A settlement is a place where people live. The situation of a settlement is its position in relation to the surrounding human and physical features, A settlement may be as small as a single house in a remote area or as a large as a mega city (a city with over 10 million residents). Market town - Watford was originally a market town, and although it still holds a regular market, it is now a thriving multifunctional centre. A settlement may be permanent or temporary. An example of a temporary settlement is a refugee camp. Resort - Southport was a popular Victorian seaside resort, although it now has many functions and is a commuter settlement for Liverpool. The reason a settlement was developed or built can be thought of as its function. For example, the settlement of Southampton is a port. If we group and classify a number of settlements according to their size and shape, the result is settlement hierarchy. The piece of land upon which a settlement is built is the settlement site. The number and type of services that a settlement provides usually increases with settlement size. Wet point sites - these have a good water supply. Many settlements grew around wet point sites, eg villages in the South Downs. Geographers have put together models of land use to show how a

'typical' city is laid out. One of the most famous of these is the Burgess model. Dry point sites - these are away from the risk of flooding, eg Ely in Cambridgeshire. High-rise, high-density buildings being found near the Central Business District (CBD), Defensive sites - often found on higher ground so that in the past enemies could be seen from a distance, eg Corfe Castle, Dorset, or in the loop of a meander, eg Durham. The inner city is typically found next to the CBD and has mainly terraced houses in a grid like pattern. These were originally built to house factory workers who worked in the inner city factories. Many of these factories have now closed down. Aspect - settlements are often found on the sunny side of a deep valley. This is common in settlements in the Alps. Run down housing is often bought by investors and improved to sell to professionals who need access to the CBD. This is called gentrification. Shelter - from cold prevailing winds and rain. Suburban houses are usually larger than inner city terraces and most have a garden. Gap towns - Lincoln is found in a gap between two areas of higher ground. An urban area is a built-up area such as a town or city. A rural area is an area of countryside. Resources - important for industry, eg villages such as Aberfan in the Welsh valleys is close to coal reserves. Urbanisation is an urban trend which means an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas. Bridging point - settlements with 'ford' in their name often grew around a river e.g. Watford is found on the River Colne. More people are choosing to live on the edge of urban areas - with many relocating to the countryside. This trend is called counter- KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER YEAR 8 GEOGRAPHY Hot Deserts Deserts have extreme temperatures. During the day the temperature may reach 50C, when at night it may fall to below 0C. The Atacama in Chile is the most arid desert in the world. Deserts have less than 250 mm of rainfall per year. The rain can be unreliable. The Sahara is the largest desert, covering 9 million km2. Semi-arid deserts (often on the fringes of the desert) have between 250-500 mm of rainfall per year. Desert animals like camels are adapted to survive in hot deserts. For example, they have slit-like nostrils and two rows of eyelashes to help keep the sand out. They do not store water in their humps! Hyper-arid deserts (often found in the middle of a large areas of desert) are extremely dry they have under 100 mm of rainfall per year.

Deserts landscapes are shaped by different geomorphological processes, including: weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition. The presence of high pressure creates cloudfree conditions Water erosion has helped to form different desert landforms, including mesas, buttes and inselbergs. Hot deserts are mostly located at the Tropic of Cancer & Tropic of Capricorn between 20 and 35 north and south of the Equator. Sand dunes are transported by the wind by suspension, saltation and creep. Some dunes move up to 100 metres per year! Hot deserts have limited numbers of plants and animals that are able to survive. There are different types of sand dune, including barchans, and star dunes. Plants with adaptations which allow them to live in hot and dry conditions are called xerophytic. Adaptations allow plants to survive A yardang is a ridge and furrow landscape. Wind abrasion concentrates on weak rock; leaving harder material upstanding. KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER YEAR 8 GEOGRAPHY COLD ENVIRONMENTS Ice covers about 10 per cent of the Earth's surface. This ice is in the form of glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. Most ice is found in Antarctica. Ice moves downhill due to the force of gravity. Most ice is found at extreme latitudes (closer to the Poles). In the northern hemisphere most ice is found within the Arctic circle (about 66.5 degrees north of the Equator) Near the end, or snout, of the glacier ice may melt. This is the zone of ablation and is more likely to occur in warm summer months. About 20,000 years ago, ice covered much of the continent of Europe, including most of the United Kingdom. Plucking - melted water at the base and sides of the glacier freeze onto the surrounding rock. As the glacier moves, the rock which is embedded in the ice is pulled away. A glacier is a large mass of ice often shaped like a river that flows very slowly, under the force of gravity. Abrasion - the bits of rock which are embedded in the ice from plucking and freeze-thaw weathering scrape and grind against the rock at the base and sides of the glacier, wearing it away. Glaciers grow and shrink with seasonal changes in temperature. Corries or Cirques are arm-chair-shaped hollows with a steep back wall. They occur in highland areas. They are also known as corries or cwms. Ice spreads out during glacial periods and gets smaller during warm inter-glacials. Artes are a jagged ridge, which is formed when two cirques lie side by side. Today, ice is found in highland areas such as the Alps, and in the far north and south, e.g. the Arctic and Antarctic.

A pyramidal peak is formed when three or more cirques are formed back to back. An ice sheet is a thick layer of ice that covers more than 50,000 sq km. It completely covers the landscape including mountains and valleys. As glaciers move downhill they change V-shaped valleys into Ushaped valleys or glacial troughs. A glacier is a system. There is a zone of accumulation where snow is added. This is normally at the start of a glacier in a highland area When ice starts to melt or retreat it leaves behind the rocks and sediment it has been carrying. This is called moraine. As more and more snow falls, it is compacted so the bottom layers become ice. Erratics - these are large boulders dumped by the melting ice. They may appear to be out of place because they have been transported from a different area. Antarctica remains the last pristine wilderness in the world. Locations include the South pole, Transantarctic ridge, Ross ice shelf McMurdo sound (bay), Waddell sea, Amundsen sea, and the Antarctic peninsular (nearest to the tip of S. America) Altitude - For every 150 metres the temperature falls by one degree celsius. The Halley research station is the UK science station based in Antarctica. It consists of pods which can be moved over the ice to different locations In 1839, Explorer Sir James Clark Ross became the first person to recognise that Antarctica was a continent. The snow petrel, Orca, Adelie penguin and Weddel seals are examples of animal species which can be found in Antarctica Today, there are 30,000 Evenki people living in Siberia. Some Evenki people live a traditional nomadic way of life, which is very much dependent on the reindeer for food, clothing and materials to build their chumm (tents) KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER Environmental Regions ASIA YEAR 8 GEOGRAPHY Physical Characteristics Human Characteristics Tundra is found in the far north of Russia trees cannot grow because it is too cold and the soil is frozen (permafrost) Russia is the largest country in the world it covers 17 million km 2. Russia has the 8th largest economy in the world. The potential value of Russias natural resources is estimated to be \$30 trillion. Taiga is coniferous forest. It covers 60% of Russia. Russias main river is the Volga, and the highest mountain is Mount Elbrus (5,642 m) in the Caucasus The population of Russia has declined from 149 million in 1991 to 142 million today. Steppe is a region of grassland that is dry, but fertile, and good for agriculture.

Russia has many natural resources including natural gas, oil, timber and gold. Russia has 15 cities with a population of one million or more. The capital city is Moscow which has a population of 11million people. The North China Plain is a large lowland area in eastern China which covers an area of 409,500 km. China is the 3rd largest country in the world. China has the largest population of any country in the world, with approximately 1.3 billion people. The North China Plain is a major agricultural area where wheat, cotton, tea and tobacco are grown. The longest river in China is the Yangtze it is over 6,000 km long, making it the 3rd longest river in the world. The largest city in China is Chongqing (28 million people). Shanghai has 23 million people. The Tibetan plateau is a huge area of alpine tundra in south-west China. It is 4,500 metres above sea level and covers 2.5 million km2. The Middle East is an area of mainly West Asian countries located in Africa, Europe and Central Asia. The Middle East has a population of approximately 350 million people. Most of the Middle East is hot desert, including the Arabian desert, which covers 2.3 million km 2. These countries include Qatar, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Oman. The largest cities in the Middle East are Istanbul in Turkey (14 million), Cairo in Egypt (9 million), and Tehran in Iran (8 million). The Rubal Khali or Empty Quarter which 650,000 km2, is the largest, with 250 metre high sand dunes. Rainfall here is less than 30mm a year. The three largest rivers in the Middle East are the Nile in Egypt; the Euphrates that flows through Turkey, Syria and Iraq; and the Tigris which flows through Turkey. 60% of the population of the Middle East are Arabs. Other important ethnic groups are Persians, Turks, Kurds & Jews.

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