LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane

LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 31 Fungi Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview: Mighty Mushrooms

Fungi are diverse and widespread They are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients About 100,000 species of fungi have been described It is estimated there are actually 1.5 million species of fungi 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.1 Concept 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs that

feed by absorption Despite their diversity, fungi share key traits, most importantly the way in which they derive nutrition 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition and Ecology Fungi are heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body Fungi use enzymes to break down a large variety of complex molecules into smaller organic compounds The versatility of these enzymes contributes to

fungis ecological success 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles Decomposers Parasites Mutualists 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Structure The most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts)

Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts; others grow as both Animation: Fungal Reproduction and Nutrition 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption A myceliums structure maximizes its surface area-to-volume ratio Fungal cell walls contain chitin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.2 Reproductive structure Hyphae Spore-producing structures 60 m Mycelium

Most fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa, with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles Coenocytic fungi lack septa and have a continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundreds or thousands of nuclei 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.3 Nuclei Cell wall

Cell wall Pore Septum (a) Septate hypha Nuclei (b) Coenocytic hypha Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.4 Nematode Hyphae 25 m (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Fungal hypha

Plant cell wall Plant cell Haustorium (b) Haustoria Plant cell plasma membrane

Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mycorrhizal fungi deliver phosphate ions and minerals to plants

Most vascular plants have mycorrhizae 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 31.2: Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually Fungi can produce spores from different types of life cycles 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.5-1

Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) Spore-producing structures Spores Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION GERMINATION

Figure 31.5-2 Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic PLASMOGAMY Heterokaryotic stage Diploid (2n) Spore-producing structures

Spores Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION GERMINATION KARYOGAMY SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Figure 31.5-3

Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic PLASMOGAMY Heterokaryotic stage Diploid (2n) Spore-producing structures

KARYOGAMY Spores Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION GERMINATION SEXUAL REPRODUCTION GERMINATION

Zygote MEIOSIS Spores Sexual Reproduction Fungal nuclei are normally haploid, with the exception of transient diploid stages formed during the sexual life cycles Sexual reproduction requires the fusion of hyphae from different mating types Fungi use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones to communicate their mating type

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Plasmogamy is the union of cytoplasm from two parent mycelia In most fungi, the haploid nuclei from each parent do not fuse right away; they coexist in the mycelium, called a heterokaryon In some fungi, the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell; such a mycelium is said to be dikaryotic 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hours, days, or even centuries may pass

before the occurrence of karyogamy, nuclear fusion During karyogamy, the haploid nuclei fuse, producing diploid cells The diploid phase is short-lived and undergoes meiosis, producing haploid spores The paired processes of karyogamy and meiosis produce genetic variation 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Asexual Reproduction In addition to sexual reproduction, many fungi can reproduce asexually

Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.6 1.5 m Other fungi that can reproduce asexually are yeasts, which are single cells Instead of producing spores, yeasts reproduce asexually by simple cell division and the pinching of bud cells from a parent cell

Some fungi can grow as yeasts and as filamentous mycelia 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.7 10 m Parent cell Bud Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual

stage Mycologists have traditionally called these deuteromycetes, or imperfect fungi This is not a sound taxonomic group; fungi are reclassified once their sexual stage is discovered 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 31.3: The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist Fungi and animals are more closely related to each other than they are to plants or other eukaryotes

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Origin of Fungi Fungi, animals, and their protistan relatives form the opisthokonts clade 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.8 Animals (and their close protistan relatives) Nucleariids

Fungi Chytrids Other fungi Opisthokonts UNICELLULAR, FLAGELLATED ANCESTOR DNA evidence suggests that Fungi are most closely related to unicellular

nucleariids Animals are most closely related to unicellular choanoflagellates This suggests that multicellularity arose separately in animals and fungi The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi are only about 460 million years old 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.9 50 m

Are Microsporidia Fungi? Microsporidia are unicellular parasites of animals and protists They have tiny organelles derived from mitochondria but not conventional mitochondria Molecular comparisons indicate they are fungi or are closely related to fungi 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 m Figure 31.10

Host cell nucleus Developing microsporidian Spore The Move to Land Fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land and probably formed mutualistic relationships with early land plants 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concept 31.4: Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages Molecular analyses have helped clarify evolutionary relationships among fungal groups, although areas of uncertainty remain 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.11 Hyphae 25 m

Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Fungal hypha 25 m Glomeromycetes (160 species) Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)

Chytrids Chytrids (phylum Chytridiomycota) are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats They can be decomposers, parasites, or mutualists Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that chytrids diverged early in fungal evolution Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, called zoospores Video: Allomyces Zoospore Release Video: Phlyctochytrium Zoospore Release 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.UN01

Chytrids Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Figure 31.12 Flagellum 4 m Zygomycetes The zygomycetes (phylum Zygomycota) exhibit

great diversity of life histories They include fast-growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts The life cycle of black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) is fairly typical of the phylum Its hyphae are coenocytic Asexual sporangia produce haploid spores 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.UN02 Chytrids Zygomycetes

Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Figure 31.13 PLASMOGAMY Mating type () Mating type () Gametangia with

haploid nuclei Rhizopus growing on bread 100 m Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination

Zygosporangium KARYOGAMY Flagellum Sporangia Sporangium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid

nuclei MEIOSIS Key Dispersal and germination 50 m Mycelium Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n)

Figure 31.13a PLASMOGAMY Mating type () Mating type () Gametangia with haploid nuclei Young

zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination KARYOGAMY Sporangium MEIOSIS Diploid nuclei

Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n) Figure 31.13b Sporangium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Key Dispersal and

germination Mycelium Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n) Figure 31.13c Figure 31.13d Figure 31.13e

100 m Zygosporangium Figure 31.13f Sporangia 50 m The zygomycetes are named for their sexually produced zygosporangia Zygosporangia are the site of karyogamy and then meiosis

Zygosporangia, which are resistant to freezing and drying, can survive unfavorable conditions Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus, can actually aim their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.14 0.5 mm Glomeromycetes The glomeromycetes (phylum Glomeromycota)

were once considered zygomycetes They are now classified in a separate clade Glomeromycetes form arbuscular mycorrhizae 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.UN03 Chytrids Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes

Figure 31.15 2.5 m Ascomycetes Ascomycetes (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats Ascomycetes produce sexual spores in saclike asci contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps Ascomycetes are commonly called sac fungi Ascomycetes vary in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to elaborate cup fungi and morels

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.UN04 Chytrids Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Figure 31.16 Morchella esculenta,

the tasty morel Tuber melanosporum, a truffle Ascomycetes include plant pathogens, decomposers, and symbionts Ascomycetes reproduce asexually by enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia Conidia are not formed inside sporangia; they are produced asexually at the tips of specialized hyphae called conidiophores Neurospora crassa, a bread mold, is a model organism with a well-studied genome

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.17 Conidia; mating type () Key Dispersal Germination Mating type ()

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Hypha PLASMOGAMY Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n) Ascus (dikaryotic) Conidiophore

Mycelia Dikaryotic hyphae Mycelium Germination Dispersal Asci Ascocarp SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Eight ascospores KARYOGAMY Diploid nucleus (zygote) Four haploid nuclei MEIOSIS

Figure 31.17a Dispersal Germination ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Hypha Conidiophore Mycelium Germination

Key Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n) Figure 31.17b Conidia; mating type () Key Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n)

Mating type () PLASMOGAMY Mycelia Germination Ascocarp Asci Dikaryotic hyphae

Ascus (dikaryotic) SEXUAL KARYOGAMY Dispersal REPRODUCTION Eight ascospores Four haploid nuclei MEIOSIS Diploid nucleus (zygote)

Figure 31.17c Eight ascospores Basidiomycetes Basidomycetes (phylum Basidiomycota) include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi, mycorrhizae, and plant parasites The phylum is defined by a clublike structure called a basidium, a transient diploid stage in the life cycle The basidiomycetes are also called club fungi

Many basidiomycetes are decomposers of wood 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.UN05 Chytrids Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Figure 31.18

Shelf fungi Puffballs emitting spores Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora) The life cycle of a basidiomycete usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium In response to environmental stimuli, the mycelium reproduces sexually by producing elaborate fruiting bodies call basidiocarps Mushrooms are examples of basidiocarps

The numerous basidia in a basidiocarp are sources of sexual spores called basidiospores 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.19 Key Dikaryotic mycelium PLASMOGAMY Haploid (n)

Dikaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n) Mating type () Mating type () Haploid mycelia SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Gills lined with basidia

Dispersal and germination Basidiospores (n) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidium Basidia (n n)

Basidium containing four haploid nuclei KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS 1 m Basidiospore Diploid nuclei Basidiocarp (n n)

Figure 31.19a PLASMOGAMY Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type () Haploid mycelia

Mating type () SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Key Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n) Gills lined with basidia

Basidiocarp (n n) Figure 31.19b Basidiocarp (n n) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Gills lined with basidia Dispersal

and germination Basidiospores (n) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidium containing four haploid nuclei Basidia (n n) KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS

Key Diploid nuclei Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n n) Diploid (2n) Figure 31.19c Basidium 1 m

Basidiospore Basidiomycetes can produce mushrooms quickly Some species may produce fairy rings 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.20 Concept 31.5: Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human welfare Fungi interact with other organisms as

decomposers, mutualists, and pathogens 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fungi as Decomposers Fungi are efficient decomposers of organic material including cellulose and lignin They perform essential recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving world Fungi are also used in bioremediation projects 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fungi as Mutualists

Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals All of these relationships have profound ecological effects 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fungus-Plant Mutualisms Mycorrhizae are enormously important in natural ecosystems and agriculture Plants harbor harmless symbiotic endophytes, fungi that live inside leaves or other plant parts Endophytes make toxins that deter herbivores and defend against pathogens

Most endophytes are ascomycetes 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.21 RESULTS Leaf area damaged (%) Leaf mortality (%) Endophyte not present; pathogen present (EP) Both endophyte and pathogen present (EP)

30 20 10 0 EP EP 15 10 5 0

EP EP Fungus-Animal Symbioses Some fungi share their digestive services with animals These fungi help break down plant material in the guts of cows and other grazing mammals Many species of ants use the digestive power of fungi by raising them in farms 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 31.22 Lichens A lichen is a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus Millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae The photosynthetic component is green algae of cyanobacteria The fungal component is most often an ascomycete 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 31.23 A foliose (leaflike) lichen Crustose (encrusting) lichens A fruticose (shrublike) lichen The symbioses are so complete that lichens are given scientific names Algae or cyanobacteria occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.24 Ascocarp of fungus 50 m Fungal hyphae Algal layer Fungal hyphae Algal cell

Soredia The algae provide carbon compounds, cyanobacteria also provide organic nitrogen, and fungi provide the environment for growth The fungi of lichens can reproduce sexually and asexually Asexual reproduction is by fragmentation or the formation of soredia, small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lichens are important pioneers on new rock and soil surfaces Lichens may have helped the colonization of land by plants 550600 million years ago Lichens are sensitive to pollution, and their death can be a warning that air quality is deteriorating 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fungi as Pathogens About 30% of known fungal species are parasites or pathogens, mostly on or in plants Each year, 10% to 50% of the worlds fruit harvest

is lost due to fungi Some fungi that attack food crops are toxic to humans 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.25 (b) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves (a) Corn smut on corn

(c) Ergots on rye Ergot of rye is caused by an ascomycete, and produces toxins More than 40,000 people died from an epidemic of ergotism during the middle ages Ergotism is characterized by gangrene, nervous spasms, burning sensations, hallucinations, and temporary insanity Ergots contain lysergic acid, the raw material for LSD 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Animals are much less susceptible to parasitic fungi than are plants The chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis might be the cause of the recent decline in amphibians worldwide 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.26 California Sixty Lake

Basin 200 4 N 2005 Yellow-legged frogs killed by B. dendrobatidis infection Key 2006

2007 Boundary of chytrid spread Lake status in 2009: Frog population extinct Treatment lake: frogs treated with fungicides 8 0 and released 20 The general term for a fungal infection in animals is

mycosis Ringworm and athletes foot are examples a human mycoses Systemic mycoses spread through the body For example, coccidioidomycosis produces tuberculosis-like symptoms Some mycoses are opportunistic For example, Candida albicans, which causes yeast infections 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Practical Uses of Fungi

Humans eat many fungi and use others to make cheeses, alcoholic beverages, and bread Some fungi are used to produce antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections For example, the ascomycete Penicillium 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.27 Staphylococcus Penicillium

Zone of inhibited growth Genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology For example, scientists are using Saccharomyces to study homologs of the genes involved in Parkinsons and Huntingtons diseases For example, insulin-like growth factor can be produced in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 31.UN06 Fungal Phylum Distinguishing Features of Morphology and Life Cycles Chytridiomycota (chytrids) Flagellated spores

Zygomycota (zygote fungi) Resistant zygosporangium as sexual stage Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) Arbuscular mycorrhizae formed with plants

Ascomycota (ascomycetes, or sac fungi) Sexual spores (ascospores) borne internally in sacs called asci; vast numbers of asexual spores (conidia) produced Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes, or club fungi)

Elaborate fruiting body (basidiocarp) containing many basidia that produce sexual spores (basidiospores) Figure 31.UN07 Soil Temp. Curvularia Presence

Plant Mass (g) Number of New Shoots 30C E 16.2 32

E 22.8 60 E 21.7 43 E

28.4 60 E 8.8 10 E 22.2

37 E 0 0 E 15.1 24

35C 40C 45C Source: R. S. Redman et al., Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis, Science 298:1581 (2002).

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