CHAPTER 6 TERRESTRIAL BIOMES Biome a major regional

CHAPTER 6 TERRESTRIAL BIOMES Biome a major regional terrestrial community with its own type of climate, vegetation, and animal life

Q. What determines biomes? A. Mainly climate Q. What determines climate? A. Many things, including tilt of earths axis, proximity to oceans, presence of mountains, wind currents

Tilt of earths axis affects climate in different parts of the world Zones of the earth Arctic Temperate Tropic of cancer

Tropical Tropic of Capricorn Temperate Antarctic Equator

Q. Which two aspects of climate determine biomes most? A. Temperature and precipitation Whittaker Biome Diagram shows relationship between precipitation and temperature Tropical Rain Forest

Tropical Rain Forest -found near the equator (between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) -temperature varies little from approximately 23C -the length of daylight varies

from 12 hours by less than one hour -highest rainfall of all biomes Tropical Rain Forest - highest biodiversity of all biomes

-soils are generally unfertile - canopy trees up to 150 feet tall (tall tree in AL would be 50 feet) - largest biome, on an area basis -nutrients and carbon stored in plant biomass, not soils

-rapid decomposition Layers of rainforest emergent layer- top, most light canopy 90% of species live in this layer

understory filtered light, epiphytes grow on trees (type of commensalism) forest floor little light, many fungi Adaptations of plants

and animals Buttresses provide support for trees in thin soil Large leaves provide advantage in

competition for light Epiphytes grow on tall trees to reach light Many animals have evolved as

specialists to occupy a certain niche (reduces Threats to biomes Tropical Rainforest deforestation, urbanization, pollution, collection of species to sell, slash and burn agriculture

Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest -distinct winter season, frost a defining feature -summer usually moist

Temperate Deciduous Forest -relatively large tree biomass -called the deciduous forest, but contains evergreen trees as well Temperate Deciduous Forest Adaptations of plants and animals

Trees are deciduous Many animals hibernate or migrate to avoid winter temps Temperate Deciduous Forest Sweet Home Alabama this is our biome! Threats to biomes

Temperate Deciduous Forest deforestation, acid rain, logging, urbanization, mountain top mining Temperate Rain Forest Pacific Northwest, New Zealand

Temperate Rain Forest

Located in temperate zones in North America (Pacific northwest), Australia and New Zealand near oceans High precipitation (>1400mm) , high humidity and moderate temperatures (mean 4-12C) Lush growth of conifers, ferns, epiphytes Low instance of fires due to high moisture

Scenes of Planet Endor of Star Wars filmed in temperate rainforest of Pacific Northwest Threats to biomes Temperate Rainforest logging, loss of old

growth forests (spotted owl controversy) Boreal Forest or Taiga Boreal Forest or Taiga -severe winters, Mean average temp can be < 0 deg C

-low rainfall -short growing season Boreal Forest or Taiga -10-20 m trees evergreen needle and deciduous

-second largest biome, on an area basis -fire dominated, but on longer timescale than grassland -more nutrients and carbon stored in soils than plants -slow decomposition

Boreal Forest or Taiga Adaptations of plants needle shaped leaves with thick cuticle retain water, can survive cold cone-shaped trees can shed snow without losing branches

Boreal Forest or Taiga Adaptations of animals Thick fur to withstand cold Migration, hibernation Caribou migration

Threats to biomes Boreal Forest acid rain Grasslands Tropical and temperate locations Characterized by

vast seas of grass with some small trees and shrubs extremely fertile soil grazers little precipitation

may have wet and dry seasons maintained by fire Grasslands (Color both onto one map) Tropical grasslands (= savanna)

Temperate grasslands (= prairie, steppes, pampas) Grassland (Color both onto one diagram) Tropical Savanna

-found in the tropics (but > 10 latitude) -pronounced dry season with <5 cm rainfall in some months Tropical Savanna

-scattered trees and grass -fire an important natural part of the biome that keeps trees from moving in - grazing by animals also contributes to predominance of grasses

as they crop plants close to the ground Temperate Grassland -similar to tropical savanna, but with cold winter -relatively hot summer

-potential evapotranspiration > ppt Temperate Grassland -scattered trees and shrubs -trees are short statured

-fire & grazing by animals also contribute to predominance of grasses Temperate grasslands Prairies of North America Texas, where more than

98% of the prairie is now gone Temperate grasslands Steppes of Mongolia Temperate grasslands Steppes of Russia

Grasslands (Tropical and Temperate) Adaptations of plants Grasses have extensive root system for efficient

water absorption and to allow quick regrowth after fire or grazing Grasslands (Tropical and Temperate) Adaptations of

animals Grazing adaptations (teeth, digestive system) Migrate to avoid dry periods

Wildebeest migration Threats to biomes Grasslands (tropical and temperate) encroachment of agriculture due to extremely fertile soil, fire suppression

Former grasslands in Colorado now fields of circular crops due to irrigation systems (pivot irrigation) Desert Desert

-hot or cold deserts exist -characterized by low precipitation <25cm, sporadic Desert Desert

Adaptations of plants Succulents term for plants such as cactuses with thick fleshy stems and leaves that store water

Thick cuticle, roots spread out near surface help conserve water Thorns prevent animals from eating plants Desert

Adaptations of animals Many are nocturnal to avoid heat of day Estivation similar

to hibernating, but during dry season Spadefoot toad burrows in mud Threats to biomes Desert

urbanization (more people choose to live there now that we can irrigate) recreation damages fragile ecosystems (desert crust interwoven mats of lichens, fungi, and algae anchor and protect desert soils; can take centuries to form and a few minutes to destroy)

Chaparral (=Mediterranean or woodland shrubland) Note how it is along coasts Color in this red section

Chapparal -mild winters -seasonal rainfall: winter rain, summer drought -located along coasts, effect of ocean is to moderate climate

Chaparral/Mediterranean Biome Desirable place to live! Chaparral Adaptations of plants and animals

Plants contain oils that encourage fires, maintains shrubby community Plants can regrow quickly from small

remains after fire Many animals camouflaged rosemary Threats to biomes

Chaparral fire suppression, urbanization, recreation Tundra Tundra -severe winters -short growing season,

cool summer -arctic or alpine Tundra Tundra Permafrost layer of permanently frozen

soil under the topsoil, limits plant growth Tundra Adaptations of plants and animals

Small size of plants allows absorption of limited heat from soil, reduces exposure to wind Migration and hibernation of

animals common Caribou eating willow Camouflage changes with the seasons Arctic hare winter summer

Arctic fox winter summer Threats to biomes Tundra oil exploration threatens fragile ecosystems, oil spills Effect of Altitude Increasing altitude has the same effect as

increasing latitude (see p. 145) Alpine refers to community above the treeline (comes from Alps)

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