921: Childhood Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for

921: Childhood Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents Learning Objectives Categorize mental health disorders such as emotional disorders, behavior disorders, and developmental disorders in children and adolescents. Recognize the cultural issues and symptoms of commonly diagnosed mental health disorders in children and adolescents. Identify the latest methods of treatment and assessment. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 2 Competencies

The foster parent knows how to assist in treatment of children with mental health or behavioral disorders, including discussion of feelings and concerns, problem solving, empathic listening, behavior management, deescalation, sanctioned physical restraint, and assault prevention. The foster parent understands the counseling process, including relationship building, assessment, diagnosis and treatment, and can work with the child's therapist. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 3 Statistics 11.3 percent of U.S. children ages 2-17 (13.4 percent in PA) are reported by their parents to have been diagnosed with emotional, behavioral, or developmental conditions

ADHD was the most prevalent diagnosis among children ages 3-17 Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, and Tourette Syndrome Girls were more likely to be diagnosed with depression Suicide is the second leading cause of death The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 4 among children ages 12-17 Categories of Child/Adolescent Mental Health Disorders

Neurodevelopmental Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder* Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder* Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Major Depressive Disorder* Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) Bipolar Disorder Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Anxiety Disorders Selective Mutism, Specific Phobia, Separation Anxiety*, Social Anxiety*, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, Generalized Anxiety The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 5

Categories of Child/Adolescent Mental Health Disorders Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders Oppositional Defiant Disorder* Intermittent Explosive Disorder Conduct Disorder* Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders Reactive Attachment Disorder Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Feeding and Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Binge-Eating Disorder The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 6 Diagnosing

Psychological and/or psychiatric evaluation Use Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-5) Disorders listed under main categories Arranged across the lifespan Take into consideration cultural context Identify frequency and intensity of emotions and behaviors Do emotions/behaviors impair functioning? Working, playing, loving, expecting well (Garmezy, 1991) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 7 Biopsychosocial Model Temperamental

Easy, difficult, slow to warm up (Chess & Thomas, 1991) Environmental Family dynamics, parenting styles, larger social systems, adverse life stressors Genetic and physiological Predispositions Physical health (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 8 Resilience Nature and nurture are intertwined

Internal and external risk and assets combine 40 developmental assets Search Institute http:// www.search-institute.org/developmental-assets/li sts Resilience is a dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity (Henderson, 2003) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 9 Childhood Mental Health and Treatment Results from National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) Half of children with mental health issues (50.6 percent) were not receiving treatment

View the video to learn about the results of the survey http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=hOrR6CpRLCw Children/adolescents with mental health issues need advocates to ensure that the right type of treatment is received, and that it is of sufficient frequency and duration to meet their needs! All team members must be advocates The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 10 Team Approach to Treatment

Resource parents Birth parents Caseworker Pediatrician Psychologist and/or psychiatrist Therapist Educators Speech and language therapist Occupational therapist Physical therapist The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents

11 Collaborating as a Team Member All members play an important role in gathering and sharing information on the strengths, challenges, needs, and underlying issues All members perspectives and voices need to be heard in the change process to meet common goals All members must be culturally aware and responsive to the child and family needs All members are treated with dignity and respect The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 12

New Ideas: Section I Statistics Categories Biopsychosocial model Resilience Teaming The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 13 Neurodevelopmental Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD)

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 14 ASD: Symptoms Social communication and social interaction deficits Social-emotional reciprocity Nonverbal communication behaviors used for social interaction Developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships Restricted, repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities Stereotyped or repetitive movements, use of objects, or speech Insistence on sameness Fixated interests Hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) 15 ASD: Rates and Risks 1 percent of child/adolescent population Male to female ration of 4:1 Environmental Advanced parental age Fetal exposure to toxins Genetic 15 percent of cases associated with genetic mutations Multiple genes most likely involved (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) 921: Child Mental Health Issues:

An Introduction for Resource Parents The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 16 ASD: Assessment and Treatment Pediatricians are now using screening tools for ASD as early as 9 months to 24 months No known standard of treatment Combination of behavioral therapy, educational interventions and, when warranted, medication to treat specific symptoms such as sleeping difficulties or anxiety The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents

17 ASD: Interventions Ensure that IFSP/IEP recommendations are followed Consult with occupational therapist for sensory integration issues Provide structure and routines Provide transition cues Use perseveration as a motivator Dont ask child to look and listen simultaneously Use visual icons; many children with ASD think in pictures Explain figures of speech; dont use sarcasm The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 18

ADHD: Symptoms Primary feature is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development Present before age 12 and manifests in two or more settings Three subtypes within the disorder Predominantly Inattentive Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive Combined (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) View the video and identify the signs of ADHD http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgCL79Jv0lc The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 19 ADHD: Prevalence and Risk

5 percent of children/adolescents diagnosed with ADHD Girls most commonly diagnosed with inattentive subtype Environmental Low birth weight History of maltreatment or multiple foster placements, drinking/smoking/toxin exposure (lead) during pregnancy Genetic Higher in first-degree relatives 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 20 ADHD: Assessment and Treatment

Psychologists and psychiatrists use a number of tools Parent or primary caregiver interview Child interview Connors Rating Scales completed by the primary caregiver(s) and teachers Treatment Individual/parent counseling Academic accommodations Cognitive behavioral therapy Social skills training Medication (stimulants, antidepressants) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 21 ADHD: Interventions I Inattention

Only give one direction at a time and only when in direct proximity with the child Develop self-talk messages (Get back on track!) Hyperactivity Provide structured physical activity Provide transition cues Cue to use calming techniques Soup breathing (inhale 3 seconds/exhale 6 seconds) Tactile objects (touch a soft object) The Pennsylvania Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents Child Centering (brings knees to chest)

22 ADHD: Interventions II Impulsive Create think and do plans (think aloud) Organization Use color, pictures and apps for routines Say, Youre off track! What do you need to be doing? Get dressed Eat breakfast Pack up for the bus The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 23 Affective Disorders and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Anxiety disorders Separation anxiety Social anxiety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 24 Depression: Symptoms Decreased interest in activities; or inability to enjoy previously favorite activities Hopelessness

Persistent boredom; low energy Social isolation, poor communication Low self-esteem and guilt Extreme sensitivity to rejection or failure Increased irritability, anger, or hostility The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center Difficulty with relationships Frequent complaints of physical illnesses Frequent absences from school or poor performance in school Poor concentration A major change in eating

and/or sleeping patterns Talk of or efforts to run away from home Thoughts or expressions of suicide or selfdestructive behavior 921: Child(AACAP Mental Health, Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 2013) 25 Depression: Recognize the Signs Please watch the video Day for Night and identify how the adolescents describe the signs of depression http:// www.youtube.com/ watch?v=QLxFSiKX

Yko The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 26 Depression: Prevalence and Risk Major depression strikes 8 percent of youth ages 12 and older More girls than boys in adolescence; equal rates in childhood Three risk factors Temperament (negative affectivity) Environmental (adverse childhood experiences, particularly multiple experiences) Genetic (two to four higher likelihood if first degree relative has depression) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 27 Depression: Assessment and Treatment Psychological and/or psychiatric evaluation needed Screening tools Child Behavior Checklist Beck Inventory Comprehensive treatment often includes both individual, family therapy, and medication Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are forms of individual therapy Antidepressant medication (SSRIs) most commonly prescribed Paxil, Zoloft, and Prozac are most commonly used Consult doctor if medication side effects occur Medication dosage must be tapered off to avoid negative effects of abruptly stopping the medication The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 28 Warning Signs for Suicide Talking about suicide Getting the means to commit suicide Withdrawing from social contact Having mood swings Preoccupation with death, dying or violence Feeling trapped or hopeless about a The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

Increased use of alcohol or drugs Changes in eating or sleeping patterns Risky or selfdestructive behaviors Giving away belongings Saying goodbye to people as if they won't be seen again (Mayo Clinic, 2012) 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 29 Anxiety Disorders: Common Threads Excessive fear (emotional response

to real or perceived imminent threat) Anxiety (anticipation of future threat) Behavioral responses (fight, flight, freeze) (American Psychiatric The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 30 Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence and Risk Separation Anxiety Range of 2.8 percent to 8 percent Environmental

Often develops after a life stress, especially loss Parental overprotection Genetic Much greater risk in first-degree relatives Exact rates unknown The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center Social Anxiety 7 percent Temperamental Fear of negative evaluation Environmental Maltreatment Modeling by parent Genetic 2-6 times greater chance in first-degree

relatives (American Psychiatric 2013) 921:Association, Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 31 Separation Anxiety: Symptoms Excessive distress when anticipating or experiencing separation from home or from attachment figures Excessive worry about Losing attachment figures or possible harm to them Experiencing an untoward event that causes separation from attachment figures Being alone or without attachment figures Reluctance or refusal to go out, away from home, to school Reluctance or refusal to sleep alone Nightmares with them of separation

Repeated complaints of physical symptoms The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) 32 Social Anxiety: Symptoms Fear or anxiety about social situations with peers and adults (conversations, meeting people, performance in front others, being observed) Fears of being negatively evaluated by others Expressed in children through crying, tantrums, freezing, clinging, or failing to speak in social situations Social situations are avoided or endured with intense fear or anxiety Lasting for six months or more (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 33 Anxiety Disorders: Assessment and Treatment Assessment Comprehensive evaluation by a psychologist and/or psychiatrist Sometimes use self-report measures completed by both the parent and child (if the child is old enough to self report on symptoms) Treatment Cognitive behavioral therapy Medication (antianxiety and antidepressant) View video on combination of treatment approaches http://

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents www.webmd.com/balance/video/too-scared-socia 34 l-anxiety-disorder Anxiety Disorders: Interventions Empathize with your childs feelings Stay calm when he becomes anxious about a situation or event Recognize and praise her small accomplishments in handling anxiety and fear Dont punish mistakes or lack of progress Be flexible and try to maintain a normal routine Modify expectations during stressful periods Plan for transitions (i.e. allow extra time in the morning if getting to school is difficult) (Anxiety and Depression Association in America, 2013)

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 35 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Symptoms and Interventions Intrusion symptoms Play therapy Avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma Art therapy Changes in cognitions and mood

Marked changes in arousal and reactivity The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center Trauma-informed cognitive behavioral therapy 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 36 Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Conduct Disorder (CD) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 37 ODD: Symptoms Angry/irritable mood Often loses temper Is often touchy or easily annoyed Is often angry and resentful Argumentative/defiant behavior Argues with adults Defies or refuses to comply with requests or rules Deliberately annoys others Blames others for mistakes Vindictiveness/spiteful At least four symptoms; symptoms present at least 6

months (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 38 ODD: Prevalence and Risk Rates range from 1 percent to 11 percent, with an average prevalence of 3.3 percent More prevalent in families where child care is disrupted by a succession of different caregivers More prevalent in families in which harsh, inconsistent, or neglectful child-rearing practices are used (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 39 ODD: Assessment and Treatment Assessment No single test that can diagnose Psychiatrist interviews parent and child to determine if the behaviors meet the criteria for a diagnosis of ODD Treatment Family therapy to build positive family interactions Parenting skills training Social skills training for the child Conflict resolution and anger management skills for the child Possibly medications to treat related mental health conditions, such as ADHD The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents (AACAP, 2013)

40 ODD: Interventions Forced choice Shirt or pants first. Your choice. Shower or bath. Your choice Meat or potatoes. Your choice Picking the hills to die on Basket A (high priority; must be dealt with immediately) Basket B (high priority; can be dealt with later) Basket C (low priority; do you really want to go there?) Positive reinforcement for delaying gratification Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents I noticed that. I see921: that...

(not I like how) 41 The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center CD: Symptoms Pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or societal norms and rules are violated Behaviors fall into four categories Aggression to people/animals Destruction of property Deceitfulness or theft Serious violation of rules (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 42

CD: Subtypes Three subtypes Childhood onset (prior to age 10) Adolescent subtype (no symptoms prior to age 10) Unspecified (not enough information to determine onset) Code added if symptoms reflect limited prosocial emotions Lack of remorse, empathy, concern about performance, or affect (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 43 CD: Prevalence and Risk Range of 2 percent to 10 percent; more boys than girls

Temperament Difficult temperament; lower than average IQ Environment Neglect, abuse, frequent change in caregivers Inconsistent, harsh discipline Lack of supervision, parental criminality or substance abuse Association with gangs and delinquent peer group Genetics Family history of depressive disorders, bipolar, ADHD, CD Slower resting heart rate (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents

44 CD: Assessment and Treatment Assessment Psychological and/or psychiatric evaluation Child Behavior Checklist Treatment Family therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy Anger management No specific type of medication for CD Medications used to treat co-existing conditions, such as depression, ADHD, or anxiety

(AACAP, 2013) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 45 CD: Interventions I If child is capable of feeling empathy for others and remorse after violating the rights of others: Build anger management skills Trigger, correct interpretation, head talk/cool talk, calming techniques, problem solving skills Correct attribution bias (view of intent in interactions) Was it on purpose or accidental? Promote making amends when rights of others are violated Use logical consequences for stealing or destruction of property (reparations)

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 46 CD: Interventions II If child is not capable of feeling empathy for others and remorse after violating the rights of others: Clearly state the misbehavior, dont ask why (will probably only lie to you), state the consequence, end the conversation It will take extended time in therapy to help the child develop empathy for others For a few adolescents, empathy never develops and they are at risk for the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder in adulthood The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 47 New Ideas: Section II Autism Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Depression Separation Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Conduct Disorder The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 921: Child Mental Health Issues: An Introduction for Resource Parents 48 Resources CHADD http://www.chadd.org/ Depression in Children and Adolescents (Fact Sheet) http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/dep ression-in-children-and-adolescents/index.shtml ODD: A Guide for Families http://www.scribd.com/doc/127177972/A-Guide-f or-Families-Oppositional-Defiant-Disorder-ODD

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