# Atomic Structure The Atom Smallest form of an

Atomic Structure The Atom Smallest form of an element that that elements properties Basic bloc of matt er building k Made of: Protons Neutron s

stil retain l s Th Ato e m Composed of: Nucleus Electron Cloud Th Nucleu e s Positively charged Protons and neutrons Protons

positively charged Neutrons Th Electro Negatively e nscharged Occupy the Electron cloud surrounding the nucleus Arranged into shells or orbitals Electrons are NOT moving in perfect orbits around the nucleus. The electron movement Proton

s Neutron s Electron s Subatom Particle Locatio Charg Mas ic n s s e Nucleu s Positive (+) 1 amu

Nucleu s Electron Cloud Neutra l Negative (-) 1 amu 0.00054 amu Special Fact Number of protons determines the

identity of the element Electron cloud takes up 99.9999999% of the volume of the atom Properti of Atom es Number s Atomic Mass Number Average Atomic Mass INSIDE THE SQUARES Atomi Numb c

er in the nucleus of an Number of protons atom Each element has its own specific atomic number In a NEUTRAL ATOM, this is also the number of electrons (Averag Atomi Mas c of each s of the different e) An average mass isotopes found for that element in nature For example, Chlorine has 2

neutronsisotopes (This is what an is. More on that different isotope later) Each one has 17 carbons and a different of Ifnumber you take the average atomic single carbon atom that exists, the average mass of every

Mas Numb s Mass number er is the mass of a SPECIFIC isotope of atom. is the SUM = of the protons and neutrons It Mass (# of neutrons) + (# of in the nucleus Number

protons) Mass Number = Atomic Mass It is not the average unless we How do we find # of neutrons? say AVERAGE a n Soho d I know w Number o what Mas Is

will tell is? One of two th e you. ways: 1) Give you the mass number or the tabl neutrons in agive it to ge th rounde # offth e. If I dont you, 2) Tell you in the symbol t

. A) Isotope Notation: B) Isotope Name: e d e PT Figuring out some element parts Element Neutrons Symbol Mass # Boron-11

B Atomic # Protons Carbon -12 6 Magnesium-23 Copper-64 35 6 23 12 29 20

Figuring out some element parts Element Neutrons Symbol Mass # Boron-11 6 B 5 5 C 6

6 Mg 12 12 Cu 29 29 Carbon -12 6 Magnesium-23 11 Copper-64 35

? 20 11 12 23 64 ? ? Atomic # ? Protons ?

Isotopes and Ions Isotope s the eleme same nt Isotopes: numbe of atoms of rs Two isotopes of an will that have element have the

same atomic number, but different different mas numbe (an atomic masses) neutrons s rs d CARBON (above 1. What right) is the mass number to the left? What is the mass number to the right? 2. Isotope Example

So, whichelemen of the the same t? following #1 #2 234 X 92 234 X 93 Whic element are h these represe isotopes

nt of #3 #4 23 5 X 92 23 8 X 92 isotopes of? Isotop Notatio e the symbol n Write

the mass with number on top and the on the bottom Example: atomic number Isotope Example Naturally occurring carbon consists of three 14N, isotopes, an 16N. State the number of 15N, protons, neutrondan electro in of thes carbon d ns

e s, each atoms. #P # N #E 14 15 N N 7

7 16N 7 Ions IONS are charged atoms (or groups of atoms) positive or negative charge. Ions differ in the number of electrons For Neutral Atoms : Number of electrons = number of protons For Ions : protons the same, electrons are different + Ior - Ogained -2

EitherCa lost electrons Ion: Na+ 2 tha hav a t e IONS Taking away an electron positive charge from an atom gives a becau ther ar no mor

se e e w e protons Called a CATION So if the Mg atom to the right loses 2 electrons, it becomes Mg2 + IONS Adding an electron to an atom gives a negative

charge because there are now Called an ANION So if the F atom to the right gains 1 electron, it becomes F- mor electro e ns Ion Practice State the number these

ions. #p+ #n o #e- 39 19 K+ of protons, neutrons, an electrons in d each 16O -2

41C +2 8 a 20 of Electron Arrangement Energ Level y s Electrons that are closer nucletohave lower energy us away = Higher energy

Furthe nucleus an electron is, the further away from r more the it has energy So the electron cloud is The organized into shells. Each shell has a max. # Electro in Eac Energ Lev of 1 Level

ns 2 electro h y el st n 2 = ns d =18 e= 3r e d = 8 e3 t 4 2

h Electrons must orbital first occup the lowest energy y level or Boh Diagra Bohr r Diagrams ms show each of the energy levels of the atom Showelectrons every electron

theth atom has shell or These are thatint differe orbiting around it. organized o e nt s orbital levels -2 1stlevel 2n electrons d level - 8 3rd electrons level - 18 Example s: electrons

Boh Diagrams: Draw Boh Diagra of r thYou me e r H m each Tr of th y followin e g: B F

Si Valenc Electro e ns Electrons in outermost shell = valence electrons Determine the properties of the element Will it bond with other elements? Which ones? Valence electrons tell us the answers. Each column (except for the transition

metals) has a set number of valence electrons YOU-TRY! Use the number above the column to group determine number of valence electrons. the 1 valen electro Sodium ce ns (Na) 3 Boron (B) 7 valen electr ons

Chlorine 8 ce (Cl) Neon (Ne) valen electr ce ons valen electro Lewi Do Diagra Uses of the element s the symbol t ms and dots to represent VALENCE electrons Lewi Dot Ho To Write

s the symbol : ofwthe element Figure out how many valence electrons it has Each side of the symbol can only hold 2 electrons get 2 1 dot = 1 electron Each cant side must one electron beforeon the (You have get

more than 8 electrons any siderow) can outside Max Number = 8 dots for 8 electrons NUCLEAR ENERGY! DAY 1: (RADIATION, FISSION, FUSION) Nucleus Stability Stability of the depends on nucleus

the nuclear tha act betwee proton forces t n s and neutrons Protons repel each other Protons attract Nucleus Stability Nuclei with too

many are unstable. If an atom is unstable, stable by splitting into Nuclei with more than 83 protons are ALWAYS unstable protons or neutrons

it will try to become tw smalle atom o r s. Nucleus Stability Essentially, nuclear stability is based the arrangement the protons of and neutrons in the nucleus The more efficient and tightly packed the nucleus orientation is, the more stable the nucleus is

on FISSION Fission is the process where a nucleus splits into two or more smaller fragments, Nucleus mustreleasing be for this to large happen neutrons, and energy Ex: Uranium-235 Uranium-235 only makes up 0.7% of the Uranium in the world

elemen t The rest is stable Uranium-238 The largest Done in nuclear power plants and atomic naturally occurring bombs FISSION Neutrons are used as bullets to break apart the uranium-

235 nucleus. 3 Products form Fission Products: Barium and Krypton 3 Free Neutrons FISSION: Multiple Pathway s

There are a multiple pathways for Uranium to decay The pathway we concentrate on involves Ba and Kr products In any case, there will always be 3 products, regardless of pathway. Fission Products 2-3 Free Neutrons Energy is released Chain Reactions

Chain Reaction: The 3 neutrons that are released from fission start an additional fission reaction in a different U235 nucleus This produces more neutrons and repeats. The process may be Video Chain Reaction with M Traps (3 controlled (nuclear power Chain Reactions

FISSION ENERGY Hahn and Strassman found that the overall mass decreases after the into reaction The missing mass changed happens. energy E = mc2 Energy = mass * speed of

light2 Speed E = mc2of light = 300,000,000 m/s E = (1kg) * Sooo E (300,000,000m/s)2 E = 90,000,000,000,000,000 FISSION ENERGY Converting 1 kg of Uranium-235 into E = mc2

energy . E = (1kg) * 2 = Joule E (300,000,000m/s) E 90,000,000,000,000,000 s = 9x1016 joules Energy produced 1 kg of coal (not E= burning using

mc2) E = 31,000,000 joules E= 3.1ofx Uranium 107 joule 235, undergoing fission, will So: 1kg 1 trillion times the energy of 1kg of coal being burned produce over Video: Fission Reactions (2 min) FUSION

Two lighter nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus Start 2 Hydrogen isotopes with: End with with: 1 (deuteriu and tritiu m m) Helium atom 1 Neutron

Energy Occurs in su ENERGY IN FUSION A large amount of energy is needed to create very high temperatures so that the

isotopes can be hurled at each other and overcome the tendency of positively charged nuclei (the A Reca p And dont that both release ENERGY COMPARISONS Finding the elements: Radiation min (12 )

Starts at 1:44:30 Nuclear Radiation Radiation: Emission of particles from energy ordecaying an unstable atom Nuclear Radiation

Background radiation: Radiation from cosmic rays fro m that arises and air naturally radioactive Continuously isotopes in exposed the soil to radiation natura source from

l sun, soil, rocks, plants More due to natural s: than 80% of radiation exposure sources You can change your exposure based on many things: Nuclear Radiation

Radiation comes in forms 3 Alpha particles Beta particle Gamma particle : NUCLEAR ENERGY! DAY 2: (USES, PROS, CONS) Ways We Use Nuclear Nuclear Medicin e

Nuclear Weapo ns Nuclear power Nuclear plants Power Nuclear submarines Energ y Nuclear Medicines Nuclear Medicine: The use of radioactive substances in the diagnosis or

treatment of diseases POSITIVE: properly Check body systems make areto taken orally and then a Radiopharmaceuticals sure working gamma camera captures images of emitted radiation from inside body Nuclear Medicine TherapyIntravenous or oral

Nuclear Medicines Nuclear Medicine: The use of radioactive substances in the diagnosis or treatment of diseases NEGATIVE: Produces mild radiation, so it can damage/cause cancer in healthy cells Nuclear waste must be stored VERY expensive to set up in a facility Nuclear Weapons

This is a Uncontrolled Fission Reaction Tremendous amounts of energy available from small amounts of fuel can be smuggled easily. Tremendous amount of destruction of Contamination of the environment for very long Top amounts

Video: 10 explosions ever http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =yRRGaxx8Zf4 time (4 min) Video: Effects of a nuclear bomb http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =Aza2wopCFY (4 minutes) Video: Time lapse of every nuclear Nuclear Weapons Nuclear Reactor: How It Work s Nuclear Reactor:

a This is Nuclear ReactioControlled Fission n Nuclear Reactor: a This is Nuclear ReactioControlled Fission n Nuclear Reactor: it work Video How(5 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKNbw

s cIaGng Nuclear Energy in 4 easy steps: 1) A Fission chain reaction begins while the fuel rods are in the water The amount of fission is controlled by 2) Th Control water heats up and changes to lead e steam 3)Rods

turnsaagenerator, turbine 4) Th Th steam turbine turns electricit e forming y steam is then cooled down in a The cooling tower The spent fuel rods need to be stored Nuclear Energy: Used Fuel Rods

Nuclear Energy: Where Are The y 65 Nuclear Power Plants in the United States Produce 19.6% of our energy (2008) SC has 4 plants, producing over of our energy Nuclear Energy BENEFITS Tremendous

amounts of energy available from small amounts of fuel No air pollution of greenhouse gasses from the burning of fossil fuels Can be used NUCLEAR ENERGY NEGATIVES: Can cause thermal pollution to water systems (if you put ho the

t water back into rivers) Waste must be stored it until is no longer radioactive can be ahandling very long Improper of nuclear materials time. Power plant failure radioactive