Topics Origin and adaptive superiority of vascular system,
Topics Origin and adaptive superiority of vascular system, seed and flower Lycophytes Club mosses Pteridophytes Ferns and allies one phylum Gymnosperms four phyla Angiosperms one phylum most plants Seedless Vascular Plants
Club mosses (Lycopodiophyta) and Ferns (Pteridophyta) two clades Vascular tissue - large size - strength - lignin sporophytic dominance Kingdom Plantae Ch. 27. p. 568-569.
Pteridophyta - Life Cycle Kingdom Plantae Ch. 27. p. 573. plant life cycles compared I the homosporous life cycle (nonvascular plants, most seedless vascular plants)
released and disseminated spore growth by mitosis meiosis gametophyte
haploid sporangium mature sporophyte diploid
archegonia antheridia egg growth by mitosis sperm
embryo zygote fertilization Seed Develops from Fertilized ovule
(Ovule = Megasporangium covered by integument) Consists of Embryonic sporophyte Nutritive tissue Protective coat Seeds covered in ovary (fruit) Angiosperms not covered in ovary but on open scales of cones no
fruit Gymnosperms Draw the cladogram of seed plants Kingdom Plantae Ch. 28, p. 578-580. phylum Cycadophyta - cycads
Dioecious Phylum Ginkgophyta - the ginkgo tree Gingko biloba Phylum Coniferophyta (Pinophyta)
female pine cone cluster of male pine cones white pine an important
northern commercial species stand of longleaf pines an important southern
commercial species Phylum - Gnetophyta Ephedra spp. Gnetum spp.
male parts parts of complete flower female parts a typical fruit the apple
expanded ovary wall seeds monocots vs. dicots the flower lily a monocot count the petals
hibiscus a dicot count the petals orchid a monocot count the petals monocots vs. dicots the leaves monocot leaf monocot leaf
dicot leaves petiole monocots vs. dicots the seeds structure of
a dicot seed - notice the two cotyledons monocot vs. dicot stem c/s xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals
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