i213: User Interface Design & Development Marti Hearst
i213: User Interface Design & Development Marti Hearst Thurs, Feb 22, 2007 Spotted by Mike Wooldridge http://www.flickr.com/photos/cardhouse/397124663/in/photostream/
Spotted by Mike Wooldridge http://www.flickr.com/photos/cardhouse/397123933/in/photostream/ Outline Finish up HE Low-fidelity prototyping
Informal user interfaces Slide adapted from James Landay Results of Using HE Single evaluator achieves poor results only finds 35% of usability problems 5 evaluators find ~ 75% of usability problems
why not more evaluators? 10? 20? adding evaluators costs more adding more evaluators doesnt increase the number of unique problems found Adapted from slide by James Land ay
Decreasing Returns problems found benefits / cost (from Nielsen) Caveat: these graphs are for a specific example
This is a controversial point. Adapted from slide by James Land ay Why Multiple Evaluators? Every evaluator doesnt find every problem Good evaluators find both easy & hard ones
Comments from CHI-Web From Gilbert Cockton (2/19/02): Inspection methods are discount methods for practitioners. They are not rigorous scientific methods. All inspection methods are subjective. No inspection method can compensate for inexperience or poor judgement.
Using multiple analysts results in an inter-subjective synthesis. However, this also a) raises the false alarm rate, unless a voting system is applied b) reduces the hit rate if a voting system is applied! Group synthesis of a prioritized problem list seems to be the most effective current practical approach.
In-Class Heuristic Evaluation Windows Character Map Program Why Do We Prototype? Get feedback on our design faster saves money Experiment with alternative designs
Fix problems before code is written Keep the design centered on the user Slide adapted from James Landay Fidelity in Prototyping Fidelity refers to the level of detail High fidelity
? prototypes look like the final product Low fidelity ?
artists renditions with many details missing Slide adapted from James Landay Low-fidelity Sketches Slide adapted from James Landay
Why Use Low-fi Prototypes? Traditional methods take too long sketches -> prototype -> evaluate -> iterate Can simulate the prototype sketches -> evaluate -> iterate sketches act as prototypes designer plays computer
other design team members observe & record Kindergarten implementation skills allows non-programmers to participate Slide adapted from James Landay Low-fi Storyboards
Where do storyboards come from? Film & animation Give you a script of important events leave out the details concentrate on the important interactions Slide adapted from James Landay
Sketches for the Ink Chat System Paper prototyping Main idea:
Sketch out prototypes of the interface on paper Potential users walk through task scenarios using the paper interface A designer plays computer Change the design on-the-fly if helpful Widely practiced in industry Sounds silly at first, but is surpringly effective
Helps people work together on the design Readings by Rettig, Cooper, Klee, Spools group This discussion primarily follows Rettigs article The Materials Large, heavy, white paper (11 x 17) 5x8 in. index cards
Post-it notes Tape, stick glue, correction tape Pens & markers (many colors & sizes) Transparencies (including colored) Colorforms (toy stores) Scissors, X-acto knives, etc. Slide adapted from James Landay
Constructing the Model Set a deadline dont think too long - build it! Draw a window frame on large paper Put different screen regions on cards anything that moves, changes, appears/disappears
Ready response for any user action e.g., have those pull-down menus already made Use photocopier to make many versions Slide adapted from James Landay
Preparing for a Test Select your participants understand background of intended users use a questionnaire to get the people you need dont use friends or family Prepare scenarios that are typical of the product during actual use
make prototype support these (small, yet broad) Practice running the computer to avoid bugs Slide adapted from James Landay Conducting a Test Three or Four testers (preferable)
greeter - puts users at ease & gets data facilitator - only team member who speaks gives instructions & encourages thoughts, opinions computer - knows application logic & controls it always simulates the response, w/o explanation observer(s) - take notes & recommendations
Typical session is approximately 1 hour preparation, the test, debriefing Slide adapted from James Landay Conducting a Test (cont.) Greet
get forms filled, assure confidentiality, etc. Test facilitator hands written tasks to the user must be clear & detailed facilitator keeps getting output from participant What are you thinking right now?, Think aloud
observe -> no a-ha, laugh, etc. Slide adapted from James Landay Conducting a Test (cont.) Debrief
fill out post-evaluation questionnaire ask questions about parts you saw problems on gather impressions give thanks
Slide adapted from James Landay Evaluating Results Sort & prioritize observations what was important? lots of problems in the same area?
Create a written report on findings gives agenda for meeting on design changes Make changes & iterate Slide adapted from James Landay Potential difficulties
Content-centric Interfaces Dynamic or static; both are ill-suited Use printed output for large sets of text For search/database applications Have pre-planned searches Even though not very realistic
Write up search results on the fly Maybe have a printer nearby that can produced typed results Bottom line: can only prototype the main interaction this way; search needs to be hooked up to really test the search mechanism Potential difficulties Interfaces that use animation / dynamic graphics
IUEs answer: maybe it isnt all that usable to have flash Broader answer: Only testing the main functionality, not the finer points The interface should also work without the flash Use transparencies, etc, for important rollovers.
Advantages of Low-fi Prototyping Takes only a few hours Can test multiple alternatives Can change the design as you test If users are trying to use the interface in a way you didnt design it go with what they think! Adapt! Allows designers to work together
Slide adapted from James Landay Examples from Prior Classes Telebears example: interaction flow Telebears
example Telebears example: Welcome, Registration time Telebears example: Welcome, Not Registration time Telebears example: Task 3: Plan Schedule
Telebears example: Task 2: Switching discussion sections Telebears example: Task 4: Adding a course Sho, Shamma, von Krogh, Johnstad
Sho, Shamma, von Krogh, Johnstad Costa, Chopra, Orr, Stetson
Brandt, Falk, McMahon Hernandez, Liang Designing a content page Using low-fi techniques
Combine low-fi paper prototyping and card sorting Idea from Peter Merholtz Start with a page with all the features you might want Cut it up into pieces Have people arrange the components One set of users sorts into groups, as in card sorting for categories
Another set of users lays out the information in a way that would work well for them given certain tasks. Drawbacks of Current Tools Require specification of lots of detail must give specific instance of a general idea e.g., exact widgets, fonts, alignments, colors
designers led to focus on unimportant details evaluators focus on wrong issues Take too much time to use poor support for iterative design sketched interface took 5 times longer with traditional tool (no icons)
Slide adapted from James Landay DENIM: Designing Web Sites by Sketching Early-phase information & navigation design Integrates multiple views site map storyboard page
sketch Supports informal interaction sketching, pen-based interaction Slide adapted from James Landay Designing Interfaces with Denim
1) Designer sketches ideas rapidly with electronic pad and pen recognizes widgets easy editing with gestures 2) Designer or end-user tests interface widgets behave specify additional behavior visually
3) Automatically transforms to a finished UI Slide adapted from James Landay Specifying Behaviors Sequencing behavior between widgets
before after Storyboards series of rough sketches depicting changes in response to end-user interaction
Expresses many common behaviors Slide adapted from James Landay Denim Storyboards Copy sketches to storyboard window Draw arrows from objects to screens
Switch to run mode to test Denim changes screens on mouse clicks Slide adapted from James Landay Next Time In-class project work Come prepared to work in class on your low-fi
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