CDCS Response to Zika ZIKA VIRUS: INFORMATION FOR CLINICIANS Updated May 9, 2017 These slides provide clinicians with information about
Zika virus epidemiology Diagnoses and testing Case reporting Zika and pregnancy Clinical management of infants Sexual transmission
Preconception guidance Infection control What to tell patients about Zika What to tell patients about mosquito bite protection ZIKA VIRUS EPIDEMIOLOGY Zika Virus (Zika)
Single stranded RNA virus Genus flavivirus, family Flaviviridae Closely related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses Primarily transmitted through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus Where has Zika virus been found? Before 2015, Zika outbreaks occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Currently is a risk in many countries and territories. For the most recent case counts in the US visit CDCs Zika website: cdc.gov/zika
http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html Transmission Bite from an infected mosquito Maternal-fetal Periconceptional Intrauterine Perinatal Sexual transmission from an infected
person to his or her partners Laboratory exposure Transmission Zika may be spread through blood transfusion. Zika virus has been detected in breast milk. There are no reports of transmission of Zika virus infection through breastfeeding. Based on available evidence, the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh any possible risk.
Zika virus incidence and attack rates, Yap 2007 Infection rate: 73% (95% CI 6877) Symptomatic attack rate among infected: 18% (95% CI 1027) All age groups affected Adults more likely to present for medical care No severe disease, hospitalizations, or deaths
Note: Rates based on serosurvey on Yap Island, 2007 (population 7,391) Incubation and viremia Incubation period for Zika virus disease is 314 days. Zika viremia ranges from a few days to 1 week. Some infected pregnant women can have
evidence of Zika virus in their blood longer than expected. Virus remains in semen and urine longer than in blood. 3 14 days Zika virus clinical disease course and outcomes Clinical illness is usually mild.
Symptoms last several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon. Fatalities are rare. Research suggests that Guillain-Barr syndrome (GBS) is strongly associated with Zika; however only a small proportion of people with recent Zika infection get GBS. Symptoms
Many infections are asymptomatic Acute onset of fever Maculopapular rash Headache Joint pain Conjunctivitis Muscle pain Reported clinical symptoms among confirmed Zika virus disease cases Yap Island, 2007 Duffy M. N Engl J Med 2009
Clinical features: Zika virus compared to dengue and chikungunya Rabe, Ingrid MBChB, MMed Zika Virus- What Clinicians Need to Know? (presentation, Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call, Atlanta, GA, January 26 2016) DIAGNOSES AND TESTING FOR ZIKA Assessing pregnant women
All pregnant women should be asked at each prenatal care visit if they Traveled to or live in an area with risk of Zika during their pregnancy or periconceptional period (the 6 weeks before last menstrual period or 8 weeks before conception). Had sex without a condom with a partner who has traveled to or lives in an area with risk of Zika. Pregnant women who have a possible exposure to Zika virus are eligible for testing for Zika virus infection.
Who to test for Zika Anyone who has or recently experienced symptoms of Zika and lives in or recently traveled to an area with risk of Zika Anyone who has or recently experienced symptoms of Zika and had unprotected sex with a partner who lived in or traveled to an area with risk of Zika Pregnant women who have possible exposure to An area with risk of Zika with a CDC Zika travel notice, regardless of symptoms An area with risk of Zika but without a CDC Zika travel notice if they develop symptoms of Zika or if their fetus has abnormalities on an ultrasound that may be related to Zika
Diagnostic testing for Zika virus During first 2 weeks after the start of illness (or exposure, in the case of asymptomatic pregnant women), Zika virus infection can often be diagnosed by performing RNA nucleic acid testing (NAT) on serum and urine, and possibly whole blood, cerebral spinal fluid, or amniotic fluid in accordance with EUA labeling. Serology assays can also be used to detect Zika virusspecific IgM and neutralizing antibodies, which typically develop toward the end of the first week of illness.
Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for presence of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in serum samples. Differential diagnosis Based on typical clinical features, the differential diagnosis for Zika virus infection is broad. Considerations include Dengue
Chikungunya Leptospirosis Malaria Riskettsia Group A Streptococcus Rubella Measles Parvovirus Enterovirus Adenovirus
Other alphaviruses (e.g., Mayaro, Ross River, Barmah Forest, onyong-nyong, and sindbis viruses) Serology cross-reactions with other flaviviruses Zika virus serology (IgM) can be positive due to
antibodies against related flaviviruses (e.g., dengue and yellow fever viruses). If Zika virus RNA NAT results are negative for both specimens, serum should be tested by antibody detection methods. Neutralizing antibody testing by PRNT may discriminate between cross-reacting antibodies in primary flavivirus infections. Difficult to distinguish Zika virus in people previously infected with or vaccinated against a related flavivirus. Testing for infants CDC recommends laboratory testing for All infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of
possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Infants who have abnormal clinical or neuroimaging finds suggestive of congenital Zika syndrome and a mother with a possible exposure to Zika virus, regardless of maternal Zika virus testing results. Infant samples for Zika virus testing should be collected ideally within the first 2 days of life; if testing is performed later, distinguishing between congenital, perinatal, and postnatal infection will be difficult. Laboratories for diagnostic testing
Testing performed at CDC, select commercial labs, and a few state health departments. CDC is working to expand diagnostic testing capacity with both public and commercial partners in the United States. Healthcare providers should work with their state health department to facilitate diagnostic testing and report results. REPORTING ZIKA CASES Reporting cases Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable
condition. Report all confirmed cases to your state health department. Zika pregnancy registries CDC is monitoring pregnancy and infant outcomes following Zika infection during pregnancy in US states and territories through the US Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) and the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS) in Puerto Rico. CDC maintains a 24/7 consultation service
for health officials and healthcare providers caring for pregnant women. To contact the service, call 800-CDC-INFO (800-2324636),or email [email protected] ZIKA AND PREGNANCY Zika and pregnancy Knowledge about Zika virus is increasing rapidly and researchers continue to work to better understand the extent of Zika virus impact on mothers, infants, and children.
No reports of infants getting Zika through breastfeeding No evidence that previous infection will affect future pregnancies Testing guidance: Pregnant women with possible Zika exposure Clinical management of a pregnant woman with suspected Zika virus infection EVALUATION AND FOLLOW UP OF INFANTS WITH CONFIRMED OR POSSIBLE ZIKA INFECTION Zika and pregnancy outcomes Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe
birth defects. All infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika infection during pregnancy should receive a comprehensive physical exam. Congenital Zika syndrome is a distinct pattern of birth defects among fetuses and infants infected before birth. Congenital Zika syndrome Congenital Zika syndrome is associated with five types of birth defects that are either not seen or occur rarely with other infections during pregnancy: Severe microcephaly (small head size) resulting in a partially collapsed skull Decreased brain tissue with brain damage (as
indicated by a specific pattern of calcium deposits) Damage to the back of the eye with a specific pattern of scarring and increased pigment Limited range of joint motion, such as clubfoot Too much muscle tone restricting body movement soon after birth Case definition of microcephaly Definite congenital microcephaly for live births Head circumference (HC) at birth is less than the 3rd percentile for gestational age and sex. If HC at birth is not available, HC less than the 3rd percentile for age and sex within the first 6 weeks of life. Definite congenital microcephaly for still births
and early termination HC at delivery is less than the 3rd percentile for gestational age and sex. Baby with microcephaly Definitions for possible congenital microcephaly Possible congenital microcephaly for live births If earlier HC is not available, HC less than 3rd percentile for age and sex beyond 6 weeks of life. Possible microcephaly for all birth outcomes Microcephaly diagnosed or suspected on prenatal ultrasound in the absence of available HC measurements. Baby with microcephaly
Measuring head circumference for microcephaly Baby with typical head size Baby with Microcephaly Use a measuring tape that cannot be stretched Securely wrap the tape around the widest possible circumference of the head Broadest part of the forehead above eyebrow Above the ears Most prominent part of the back of the head http://www.cdc.gov/zika/pdfs/microcephaly_measuring.pdf Baby with Severe Microcephaly
Take the measurement three times and select the largest measurement to the nearest 0.1 cm Optimal measurement within 24 hours after birth. Commonly-used birth head circumference reference charts by age and sex based on measurements taken before 24 hours of age Not every infection will lead to birth defects Its important to remember that even in
places with Zika, women are delivering infants that appear to be healthy. Many questions remain about the timing, absolute risk, and the spectrum of outcomes associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy. More lab testing and other studies are planned to learn more about the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Infants of mothers with potential maternal exposure to Zika Infants born to potentially exposed mothers who were not tested before delivery, or who
were tested outside of the recommended window, and the IgM result was negative, should receive Comprehensive assessment including a physical exam Careful measurement of head circumference Head ultrasound to assess the brains structure Standard newborn screening Interim Guidance: Evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital Zika virus infection Recommended consultation for initial evaluation and management of infants affected by Zika
Consultation with Neurologist - determination of appropriate neuroimaging and evaluation Infectious disease specialist - diagnostic evaluation of other congenital infections Ophthalmologist - comprehensive eye exam and evaluation for possible cortical visual impairment prior to discharge from hospital or within 1 month of birth Endocrinologist - evaluation for hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction Clinical geneticist- evaluate for other causes of microcephaly or other anomalies if present
Considerations for consultation Consider consultation with Orthopedist, physiatrist, and physical therapist for the management of hypertonia, club foot, or arthrogrypotic-like conditions Pulmonologist or otolaryngologist for concerns about aspiration. Lactation specialist, nutritionist, gastroenterologist, or speech or occupational therapist for the management of feeding issues. Perform auditory brain response (ABR) to assess hearing. Perform complete blood count and metabolic panel, including liver function tests.
Provide family and supportive services. Outpatient management Outpatient management andchecklist checklist Infant with abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika syndrome and laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection Infant with abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika syndrome and negative for Zika virus infection
Infant with no abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika syndrome and laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection Infant with no abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika syndrome and negative for Zika virus infection 2 weeks 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo.
Routine preventive health care including monitoring of feeding, growth, and development Routine and congenital infection-specific anticipatory guidance Referral to specialists as needed Referral to early intervention services Evaluate for other causes of congenital anomalies Further management as clinically indicated Ophthalmology exam ABR Consider
repeat ABR 12 mo. Developmenta l screening Behavioral audiology evaluation if ABR was not done at 4-6 mo
Monitoring of growth parameters (Head circumference, weight, and height), developmental monitoring by caregivers and health care providers, and age-appropriate developmental screening at well-child visits Monitoring of growth parameters (Head circumference, weight, and height), developmental monitoring by caregivers and health care providers, and age-appropriate developmental screening at well-child visits Pediatric evaluation and follow up tools Download at: http://www.cdc.gov/ zika/pdfs/pediatric-evaluationfollow-up-tool.pdf SEXUAL TRANSMISSION
About sexual transmission Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners. It can be passed from a person with Zika before their symptoms start, while they have symptoms, and after their symptoms end. The virus may also be passed by a person who never has symptoms. Sexual exposure includes sex without a condom with a person who traveled to or
lives in an area with risk of Zika. This includes vaginal, anal, and oral sex and the sharing of sex toys. Zika in genital fluids We know that Zika can remain in semen longer than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, urine, and blood. Among four published reports of Zika virus cultured from semen, virus was reported in
semen up to 69 days after symptom onset. Zika RNA has been found in semen as many as 188 days after symptoms began, and in vaginal and cervical fluids up to 14 days after symptoms began. What we do not know about sexual transmission CDC and other public health partners continue research that may help us find out How long Zika can stay in genital fluids. How common it is for Zika to be passed during sex. If Zika passed to a pregnant woman
during sex has a different risk for birth defects than Zika transmitted by a mosquito bite. Preventing or reducing the chance of sexual transmission Not having sex eliminates the risk of getting Zika from sex. Condoms can reduce the chance of getting Zika from sex. Dental dams (latex or polyurethane sheets) may also be used for certain types of oral sex (mouth to vagina or mouth to anus). Not sharing sex toys can also reduce the risk of spreading Zika to sex partners Pregnant couples with a partner who lives in or recently
traveled to an area with risk of Zika should use condoms correctly every time they have sex or not have sex during pregnancy. Men and women with possible Zika exposure People with a partner who traveled to an area with risk of Zika can use condoms or not have sex. If traveler is female: For at least 8 weeks after travel or symptom onset. If traveler is male: For at least 6 months after travel or symptom onset.
People living in an area with risk of Zika can use condoms or not have sex. PRECONCEPTION GUIDANCE Asymptomatic couples interested in conceiving Testing is NOT recommended for asymptomatic couples in which one or both partners has had possible exposure to Zika virus: A negative blood test or antibody test could be falsely reassuring.
No test is 100% accurate. We have limited understanding of Zika virus shedding in genital secretions or of how to interpret test results of genital secretions. Zika shedding may be intermittent, in which case a person could test negative at one point but still carry the virus and shed it again in the future. Couples interested in conceiving who live in or frequently travel to an area with risk of Zika Women and men interested in conceiving should talk
with their healthcare providers. Factors that may aid in decision-making: Reproductive life plan Environmental risk of exposure Personal measures to prevent mosquito bites Personal measures to prevent sexual transmission Education about Zika virus infection in pregnancy Risks and benefits of pregnancy at this time Long-lasting IgM may complicate interpretation of IgM results in asymptomatic pregnant women. Preconception IgM testing may be considered to help interpret any subsequent IgM results post-conception. Pre-conception results should not be used to determine whether it is safe for a woman to become pregnant nor her Zika infection risk. Couples interested in conceiving who DO NOT live
in an area with risk of Zika For women with possible exposure to an area with a CDC Zika travel notice Discuss signs and symptoms and potential adverse outcomes associated with Zika. Wait at least 8 weeks after last possible exposure to Zika or symptom onset before trying to conceive. If male partner was also exposed, wait at least 6 months after his last possible exposure or symptom onset before trying to conceive. During that time, use condoms every time during sex or do not have sex.
Couples interested in conceiving who DO NOT reside in an area with risk of Zika For men with possible exposure to with a CDC Zika travel notice Wait at least 6 months after last possible exposure to Zika or symptom onset before trying to conceive. During that time, use condoms every time during sex or do not have sex. Couples interested in conceiving who DO NOT reside in an area with risk of Zika
For couples with exposure to areas with risk of Zika but no CDC Zika travel notice The level of risk for Zika in these areas is unknown Healthcare providers should counsel couples about travel to these areas and risk, including potential consequences of becoming infected INFECTION CONTROL IN HEALTHCARE SETTINGS Infection control Standard Precautions should be used to
protect healthcare personnel from all infectious disease transmission, including Zika virus. Body fluids, including blood, vaginal secretions, and semen, have been implicated in transmission of Zika virus. Occupational exposure that requires evaluation includes percutaneous exposure or exposure of non-intact skin or mucous membranes to any of the following: blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions. Labor and delivery settings
Healthcare personnel should assess the likelihood of the presence of body fluids or other infectious material based on the condition of the patient, the type of anticipated contact, and the nature of the procedure or activity that is being performed. Apply practices and personal protective equipment to prevent exposure as indicated. WHAT TO TELL PATIENTS ABOUT ZIKA Travel
Pregnant women should not travel to areas with risk of Zika. If they must travel to areas with risk of Zika, they should protect themselves from mosquito bites and sexual transmission during and after travel. Women planning pregnancy should consider avoiding nonessential travel to areas with CDC Zika travel notices. Treating patients who test positive
There is no vaccine or medicine for Zika. Treat the symptoms of Zika Rest Drink fluids to prevent dehydration Take acetaminophen (Tylenol) to reduce fever and pain. Patients who have Zika
Protect from mosquito bites during the first week of illness, when Zika virus can be found in blood. The virus can be passed from an infected person to a mosquito through bites. An infected mosquito can spread the virus to other people. Preventing Zika: Mosquito bite protection
Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Stay and sleep in places with air conditioning and window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside. Take steps to control mosquitoes inside and outside your home . Sleep under a mosquito bed net if air conditioned or screened rooms are not available for if sleeping outdoors. Preventing Zika: Mosquito bite protection
Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-reg istered insect repellents with one of the following active ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, para-menthanediol, or 2-undecanone. Always follow the product label instructions. Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing. If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen before applying insect repellent.
Preventing Zika: Mosquito bite protection Do not use insect repellent on babies younger than 2 months old. Do not use products containing oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol on children younger than 3 years old. Dress children in clothing that covers arms and legs. Do not apply insect repellent onto a childs
hands, eyes, mouth, and cut or irritated skin. Additional resources http://www.cdc.gov/zika http://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/index.html
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