02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors L.O. To be able to Find the HCF and LCM of given numbers Write a number as a product of its prime factors Key Words common, factor, multiple, highest, prime, product Starter: MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors

MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 CONTENTS Click to go to HCF AND LCM LCM WORDED PROBLEMS PRODUCT OF PRIME FACTORS USING PRODUCT OF PRIMES TO FIND HCF AND LCM 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP

78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 HCF AND LCM 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP

78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Definition The Highest Common Factor of two numbers is the largest number that is a common factor of both numbers. We call it the HCF. List all factors of each number List them in pairs so you wont miss any out! Circle all common factors The highest circled number is the HCF 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors Example Find the HCF of 24 and 30 Factors of 24:

Factors of 30: So the HCF of 24 and 30 is: MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors Example Find the HCF of 36 and 45 Factors of 36: Factors of 45: So the HCF of 36 and 45 is: MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE

2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Task Find the HCF of the following numbers... a) 8 and 12 e) 36 and 54 b) 20 and 30 f) 18 and 24

c) 12 and 18 g) 36 and 48 d) 21 and 35 h) 56 and 24 Then challenge your partner to find the HCF of two numbers of your choice... how well do they do? 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Find the HCF of the sets of numbers shown.

a b c HCF 9 and 15 HCF 12 and 30 HCF 18 and 4 3 6 2 d f

e HCF 20 and 35 5 g HCF 42 and 28 HCF 36 and 27 14 9 i h HCF 9, 54, 18 9 HCF 24, 56, 16

HCF 60, 36, 24 8 12 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Definition The Lowest Common Multiple of two numbers is the smallest number that is a common multiple of both numbers. We call it the LCM. List the first few multiples of each number

Circle the common multiples The lowest circled number is the LCM HCF, LCM, product of prime factors 02/23/2020 MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Multiples of 6 12 6 8 18

54 60 66 102 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 Multiples of 8 30 36 42 78 84

90 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors Example Find the LCM of 8 and 10 Multiples of 8: Multiples of 10: So the LCM of 8 and 10 is: MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors

Example Find the LCM of 20 and 25 Multiples of 20: Multiples of 25: So the LCM of 20 and 25 is: MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3

Find the LCM of the sets of numbers shown. a b c LCM 2 and 3 LCM 4 and 10 LCM 6 and 18 6 20 18 d f

e LCM 9 and 36 LCM 7 and 9 LCM 36 and 12 36 63 36 g i h LCM 9, 54, 18

54 LCM 14, 28, 7 LCM 5, 6, 7 28 210 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Task Find the LCM of the following numbers...

a)4 and 10 e) 9 and 6 b)4 and 5 f) 7 and 5 c)5 and 9 g) 6 and 8 d)12 and 3 h) 6 and 7 Can you find the LCM of these harder numbers? e)10 and 15 f)20 and 30 g)12 and 20 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3

Discussion task questions Why do we find the HIGHEST common factor, but then the LOWEST common multiple? Can you think of examples of other maths topics where we could use the HCF or LCM to help us 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 USING THE LCM TO SOLVE WORDED PROBLEMS 02/23/2020

HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 LCM worded problems Often a question will need you to find the LCM without explicitly using those words. Examples are Buying two or three different products that come in different sized packets, but wanting to buy the same amount of each product A situation where two things leave a place at the same time and you need to find the next time when they are all there together (busses or trains leaving the station, racers being at the start line of a race track, etc) 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product

of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 LCM worded problems - Step by step LIST the first few amounts for each of the different things in the question Keep checking carefully to see if there are any common values in the lists! Add more to the lists until you find a value thats in common Read and make sure that you answered the question correctly in the context given Example Rita is going to make some cheeseburgers for a party. She buys some packets of cheese slices and some boxes of burgers. There are 20 cheese slices in each packet. There are 12 burgers in each box. Rita buys exactly the same number of cheese slices and burgers. How many packets of cheese slices and how many boxes of burgers does she buy? Cheese slices: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 Burgers: 12, 24, 36, 48, 60

So I need 3 packets of cheese slices, and 5 boxes of burgers 02/23/2020 Exam question HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 Mark scheme HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE

2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Some to try! These are some past paper questions on this theme that are worth having a go at, to test your skills 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP

78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 PRODUCT OF PRIME FACTORS 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Key phrases You could be asked to find the product of prime factors or the prime factor decomposition of a number. Both of these phrases mean the same thing. Step by step

Draw a factor tree Write out all the PRIME factors as a list, with a MULTIPLY symbol in between each number (a product of prime factors!) 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors Think of any pair of numbers that multiply to make 180 180 10 18 MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80

GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors 180 Think of factor pairs for both 10 and 18 10 18 MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3

02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors 180 18 10 2 5 6 3 MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020

HCF, LCM, product of prime factors 180 When you get to a PRIME number, circle it and stop that branch 18 10 2 5 6 2 3 3

MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors Example Write 75 as a product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product

of prime factors Example Write120 as a product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Task Write the following numbers as a product of their prime factors

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 20 32 72 195 26 130 330 60 45 02/23/2020

HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 SHORTCUT!!! A quick way to find the product of prime factors can be done on your calculator Example Write 36 as a product of prime factors Type in 3 6 = Press shift then press (says FACT above the button) Your screen will show the number as a product of its prime factors! 02/23/2020

HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 USING PRODUCT OF PRIMES TO FIND HCF AND LCM 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Using the product of prime factors to find the HCF

Find the product of primes for each number Circle pairs that are in BOTH lists Multiply these paired numbers together The result is the HCF Using the product of prime factors to find the LCM First find the HCF as above Find all the leftover numbers (that didnt pair up) Times all the leftovers by the HCF The result is the LCM Some interactive examples can be found here 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Find the Highest Common Factor of 36 and 90

90 36 6 2 9 6 3 2 36 = 2 2 3 3 3 3 10 3

2 5 90 = 2 3 3 5 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 36 = 2 2 3 3 90 = 2 3 3 5 The common prime factors are 2 3 3 HCF = 18

02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Find the Highest Common Factor of 18 and 60 18 = 2 3 3 60 = 2 2 3 5 Multiply the common prime factors HCF = 2 3 HCF = 6 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors

MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Find the Highest Common Factor of 315 and 525 315 = 3 3 5 7 525 = 3 5 5 7 Multiply the common prime factors HCF = 3 5 7 HCF = 105 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80

GRADE 2, 3 Find the Lowest Common Multiple of 36 and 81 81 36 6 2 9 6 3 2 36 = 2 2 3 3

3 3 9 3 3 81 = 3 3 3 3 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors 36 = 2 2 3 3 3 3 HCF 81 = 3 3 3 3

LCM = 2 2 3 3 9 = 324 MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors Finding the LCM 6=23 2 HCF 8=2 2 2

LCM = 2 2 3 2 = 24 MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Find the Lowest Common Multiple of 18 and 60

18 = 2 3 3 2 3 HCF 60 = 2 2 3 5 LCM = 2 3 5 x6 = 180 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Find the Lowest Common Multiple of 24 and 40

24 = 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 HCF 40 = 2 2 2 5 LCM = 3 5 8 = 120 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 Using the product of prime factors and a VENN

diagram You can also put your products of prime factors in a Venn diagram, and use that to help you to calculate the HCF and LCM HCF multiply only the numbers in the overlapping middle section LCM multiply all the numbers you can see in the Venn diagram 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 60 = 2 2 3 5 294 = 2 3 7 7 60

294 2 7 2 5 HCF of 60 and 294 = LCM of 60 and 294 = 3 7 23 =6 252377= 2940 02/23/2020

HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product

of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3 02/23/2020 HCF, LCM, product of prime factors MATHSWATCH CLIP 78, 79, 80 GRADE 2, 3