THE INTERWAR YEARS: REVOLUTION AND NATIONALISM (1919-1939) Unit
THE INTERWAR YEARS: REVOLUTION AND NATIONALISM (1919-1939) Unit 5 Part 1 UNIT V ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS: International conflict often leads to domestic changes. In times of crisis, people often turn to strong leaders in
search of stability. Conflicts of the 20th Century were rooted in political and ideological differences around the world. UNIT V ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: Describe the long-term and short-term causes of the Russian Revolution. Focus particularly on ideology, social, economic, military and political conditions.
Are all revolutions the same? Compare the Russian Revolution to the French Revolution. THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE RISE OF MODERN COMMUNISM INTRODUCTORY VOCAB QUIZ 1) Who was the leader of the provisional government in Russia?
2) What was the name of the Russian Parliament? 3) What was the name of the wealthy peasants in Russia? 4) What political group was led by Vladimir Lenin? 5) What term refers to organized waves of violence? 6) Who was the last Czar of Russia? 7) Plan of Lenins to promote financial growth in Russiaallowed for small scale capitalism. 8) Peaceful protest against the Czar in 1905 that ended
violently. 9) 10) Government created art to promote the Communist state. Ruthless leader of Russia that used fear and secret police to control his people. GROUP ASSIGNMENT: CONSTRUCT A TIMELINE THAT EXPLAINS THE KEY EVENTS THAT OCCURRED IN RUSSIA DURING THE TIME PERIOD OF THESE RUSSIAN LEADERS.
Alexander III Nicolas II Kerensky Lenin REQUIRED TIMELINE EVENTS: Lenins return to Russia Reign of Czar Alexander III Russian Civil War
Establishment of Bolshevik rule /Creation of the USSR Brest-Litovsk Treaty March Revolution Lenins death Start of World War I Bloody Sunday Reign of Czar Nicolas II Russo-Japanese War Establishment of Provisional Government Bolshevik Revolution The Red Terror Execution of the Romanovs
Put in chronological order. Provide brief explanation of events TIMELINE EVENTS: CORRECT CHRONOLOGY Reign of Czar Alexander III Reign of Czar Nicolas II Russo-Japanese War Bloody Sunday Start of World War I March Revolution Establishment of Provisional Government Bolshevik Revolution
Lenins return to Russia Create timeline Provide brief explanation of each events Brest-Litovsk Treaty Russian Civil War The Red Terror Execution of the Romanovs Establishment of Bolshevik rule /Creation of the USSR Lenins death
CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 1. Autocratic rule of the Czars 2. Industrialization and resulting worker discontent 3. Russo-Japanese War 4. Bloody Sunday 5. World War I 6. Failures of the Provisional Government CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION POLICIES OF THE CZARS Russias 19th-century czars: Cruel
oppressive, and autocratic Peasants lived in poverty and had no rights. Their ruthless treatment created widespread social unrest and led to violent uprisings Alexander III (1881-1894) used harsh tactics to crush opponents.
Turned Russia into police state teeming with spies and informers. Oppressed non -Russians and carried out pogroms against Russias Jews. Czar Alexander III CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION POLICIES OF THE CZARS
Nicolas II (son of Alexander III) , became Czar in 1894. The principle of autocracy will be maintained Refused to surrender any of his power. Vowed to maintain autocratic rule.
Blind to changing conditions of his time. Never visited any factories or farms. Had little understanding of working conditions. Weak and ineffective ruler. Czar Nicolas II
CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION WORKER DISCONTENT Industrialization created problems and discontent. What problems? Angry factory workers felt exploited: Miserably low wages Grueling working conditions Child labor Labor unions outlawed. No political power
Enormous gap between rich and poor. Various radical groups plotted revolutions, including Marxist who tried to ignite revolution among the proletariat Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Russia lost war to Japan in 1905. Expected an easy victory to raise morale. Embarrassed to lose war against a second rate power. Russian fleet had sailed for six months to engage the Japanese and was destroyed in under an hour. Humiliating defeat sparks social unrest at
home. CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 1905 REVOLUTION / BLOODY SUNDAY In 1905, workers marched in St. Petersburg to demand better working conditions and a say in government. Russian soldiers opened fire on
protestors. Hundreds were killed in Bloody Sunday. A Duma (parliament) created to give people a voice but the Czar dissolved it 10 weeks later. Reading on Bloody Sunday CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION WORLD WAR I
Czar took unprepared Russia into war with Germany in 1914. Weak generals and poorly equipped soldiers no match for German army. Russian army suffered defeat after defeat and lost 4 million casualties within first year. Soldiers mutinied and deserted by the
thousands. Social unrest at home caused by food and fuel shortages. RASPUTIN In an effort to increase troop morale, Nicholas went to the front, leaving Czarina Alexandra in charge of the government.
Alexandra fell under the spell of Rasputin, a self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to have magical healing powers. Rasputins influence over the Czarina gave him great power. Murdered by Russian nobles in 1916. Why?
Rasputin THE MARCH REVOLUTION, 1917 Huge uprising of workers spread throughout Russia. Soldiers sent to put down the rebellion joined it instead. Czar Nicolas forced to abdicate his throne. Nicolas II would be Russias last Czar Weak provisional (temporary) government replaced Czars regime. Nicolas II after his abdication
CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENTS MISTAKES Provisional government decided to continue Russias involvement in World War I. Lost support of both soldiers and civilians). Failed to address the concerns of Russias
peasants (no land reform). Resulted in growth of local Soviets (councils) made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers unhappy with the lack of reform. Alexander Kerensky RUSSIAN MARXISTS DIVIDED Mensheviks
Bolsheviks Means minority Means majority Wanted to implement communism in Wanted to implement Russia Wanted to educate the people about
communism Slow process to gain popular support Grass roots movement communism in Russia Believed in radical quick implementation w/out popular consent
Elite group (themselves) would take charge. EMERGED AS DOMINANT SOCIAL REVOLUTIONARY GROUP VLADIMIR LENIN Influenced by ideas of Karl Marx Committed to class struggle and revolution. Organized Bolsheviks elite group of radicals
committed to carrying out revolution in Russia. Promised Peace, Land, and Bread Supported by suffering peasants Workers & Soldiers angry with governments failure to address their needs. Germans helped Lenin return to Russia in 1917 after several years in exile. Why? Lenin's Return
Reading on Lenin Vladimir Lenin 1870-1924 NOVEMBER, 1917 THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION What happened? Bolshevik soldiers seized control of the Winter Palace (government buildings in Petrograd) and arrested
leaders of the provisional government. Uprising in Petrograd All power to the Soviets became the rallying cry of the Bolsheviks. Lenin named as head of new socialist government within hours. RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR, 1918-1920 The Bolshevik revolution was opposed by elements of the army and government loyalists from many social
groups united by their hatred of Communism . Civil war broke out between White Army made up of government loyalists and the Red Army of Bolsheviks (the Reds). Red Army troops White Army troops
THE RED TERROR OF 19181920 Tens of thousands of class enemies were imprisoned and executed without trial by the Bolsheviks during the civil war. Victims included clergymen, aristocrats and wealthy bourgeoisie, deserters from Red Army, and political
opponents of all kinds. THE FATE OF THE ROMANOVS During the early hours of July 17, 1918 Czar Nicholas, his wife Alexandra, his five children, and their servants were herded into the cellar of their prison house and executed. Liberation by the White Army was
imminent and the Reds wanted to get rid of the Czar and his family. In addition to the royal family, the Reds executed their doctor, cook, valet, maid and dog. END OF THE RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR, 1920 Western Allies (including Britain, France, Japan, and the U.S.) sent troops to support the White Army.
Western intervention was half-hearted and ineffective and the Reds defeated the White Army after three years of war. 15 million Russians died in this conflict! Leon Trotsky Red Army Commander
ACTIONS OF THE BOLSHEVIKS IN POWER Land was redistributed to the peasants who were already seizing and dividing up the estates of the landlords and the church. Workers given control of mines and factories.
Signed the Brest-Litovsk treaty with Germany pulling Russia out of WWI, which Lenin had always opposed as a Capitalist/imperialist war. LENINS NEW ECONOMIC POLICY State controlled large industries and banks. Allowed small-scale capitalism. Individuals could buy and sell
goods for profit. Peasants controlled own plots of land and could sell surplus crops. Lenin saw this as a temporary retreat from Communism . Lenins reforms revived Russias economy. RUSSIA RENAMED THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
To keep nationalism in check, Lenin organized Soviet Union into smaller self-governing republics under the central governments control from new capital: Moscow. THE ONE-PARTY STATE OF THE USSR Bolsheviks rename their party the Communist Party Soviet Union was a one-party state with Communist Party
in complete control. This dictatorship of Communist Party was NOT the dictatorship of the proletariat envisioned by Karl Marx. LENINS DEATH Lenin suffered series of strokes and died in 1924. His death led to a power
struggle for control of the Communist Party and the country. Lenin wanted Trotsky, the Party chose Stalin. Lenins successor wasnt decided until 1928. BELIEVE IT OR NOT! Lenins embalmed corpse has been carefully preserved and has been on public display in
Moscows Red Square since his death in 1924. Lenins Tomb! Millions of people have visited Lenins tomb, waiting in long lines to view his body. Totalitarianism Under Stalin JOSEPH STALIN, MAN OF STEEL Stalin was cold, paranoid, ruthless, and ambitious.
Used his position as General Secretary to gain complete control of Communist Party. Named to succeed Lenin in 1928. Wasnt Lenins choice. Stalin is too rude and this defect, although quite
tolerable in our midst and in dealing among us Communists, becomes intolerable in a SecretaryGeneral. That is why I suggest the comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post Lenin and Stalin
Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and LeonTrotsky LEON TROTSKY Bolshevik leader, Commander of the Red Army, Commissar of Foreign Affairs in new Soviet government. Lenins preferred choice as his successor.
Trotsky and Stalin became bitter rivals. What happened to Trotsky? Forced into exile in 1929 and, in 1940, was murdered in Mexico by agents of Stalin. Trotskys Deathbed The murder weapon
STALIN TAKES CONTROL Stalins focus wasnt on Lenins worldwide workers revolution. What was Stalins focus on? Making the Soviet Union a great power. How? Focused on military and
industrial development. Transformed the USSR into a totalitarian state to achieve his goals. WHAT IS TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENT? Describes a government that takes total control over all aspects of public
and private life. Several totalitarian states emerge during the 20th century. Where? THE 20TH CENTURY TOTALITARIAN STATES EMERGE Soviet Union Nazi Germany
Italy North Korea Today Communist China KEY TRAITS OF TOTALITARIANISM
Dictatorship and one-party rule. Personality cult centered on a dynamic leader. Ideology (set of beliefs) which glorifies the goals of the state. State control over all aspects of society. State control over the individual. State demands total obedience and denies basic liberties. Uses mass media to spread propaganda in attempt to control what people think. Organized violence: Uses force and police terror to crush all
opposition. Targets certain groups, such as national minorities and political opponents, as enemies of the state. Complete packet page 15 STALIN SEIZES CONTROL OF THE ECONOMY. Stalins goal: To make up the fifty year gap between the USSR and more advanced countries in ten years. HOW? Rapid _______________. Total control of all the factors of
industrialization production (land, labor, and capital) by the _______ A ___________ economy in which the government makes all decisions. state command
STALINS FIVE YEAR PLANS Set impossibly high ________ quotas (goals) for output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. Limited production of _______ consumer goods. What was the result? People faced severe shortages of
housing, food, clothing etc. STALINS FIVE YEAR PLANS Government controlled every aspect of workers lives assigned them jobs and set their hours and pay. Those who didnt contribute were imprisoned or executed. Results?
From 1925 to 1937 the Soviet economy grew by more than 25 percent. STALINS POLICY OF COLLECTIVIZATION 25 million privately-owned farms seized by government. Combined into large, government- owned collective farms.
Millions of peasants forced to work on these farms producing food for the state. Kulaks resisted and Stalin set out to eliminate them. Millions killed. Food production plummeting and mass famine occurred.
Between 5-10 million peasants died as a result of Stalins policies. STALINS METHODS OF CONTROL Police Terror Secret police monitored phone lines, read mail, and planted informers everywhere.
Children encouraged to report on disloyal remarks heard at home. Secret police arrested and executed millions of so-called traitors. STALINS METHODS OF CONTROL Indoctrination
Instruction on the governments beliefs to mold peoples minds. State-supported youth groups. Propaganda Biased or incomplete information used to influence peoples beliefs.
Censorship Writers, artists, composers were censored. Government controlled all books, newspapers, films, radio, and other sources of information. STALINS METHODS OF CONTROL
Religious Persecution Stalin opposed to religion and banned the teaching of it. Sunday no longer day of rest. Russian Orthodox Church was the main target. Police destroyed churches and
synagogues. Many religious leaders killed or sent to the Gulag. STALINS GREAT PURGE, 19361938 Stalin set out to eliminate anyone viewed as a threat. Thousands of government officials, Communist Party
executed for crimes against the Soviet state. 950,000 - 1.2 million people were executed during this two year period! Also called Great Terror. members, and others were STALINS PURGE OF THE RED ARMY, 1937 Stalin became convinced that the
leadership of the Red Army was planning a coup against him. Eight top Red Army commanders were charged with conspiracy. All eight convicted and executed. A total of 30,000 members of the armed forces were executed. Included half of all Soviet Unions army officers!
Video: Life Under Stalin THE SOVIET GULAG Massive system of forced labor camps that existed under Stalins rule. Labor camp prisoners were an important source of labor for many industries. Millions suffered in the camps, many guilty of no
crime. THE SOVIET GULAG THE SOVIET GULAG 476 separate camps all over USSR. Most notorious in Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions (SIBERIA) DRAWINGS FROM THE GULAG
Drawings From the Gulag bears witness to some of the most horrific events to take place in Soviet prison camps, scenes that no camera was ever allowed to capture. Almost 240 pages cover to cover, the book begins with a terse biography of author and illustrator Danzig Baldaev, a former warden at Leningrads infamous Kresty prison. After that, its basically 130 detailed depictions of beatings, rape and torture. LEGACY OF THE GULAG
Estimated that 20-40 million people passed through the Gulag from 1928 until Stalins death in 1953. Over two million people died in the camps.
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