Welcome to the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Learning

Welcome to the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Learning Module Series Liv Haselbach Quinn Langfitt For current modules email [email protected] or visit cem.uaf.edu/CESTiCC ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: CESTiCC WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY FULBRIGHT LCA Module Series Groups Group A: ISO Compliant LCA Overview Modules Group : ISO Compliant LCA Detailed Modules Group B: Environmental Impact Categories Overview Modules Group : Environmental Impact Categories Detailed Modules Group G: General LCA Tools Overview Modules Group : General LCA Tools Detailed Modules Group T: Transportation-Related LCA Overview Modules Group : Transportation-Related LCA Detailed Modules 2 Ozone Depletion Potential MODULE 3 09/2015

It is suggested to review Modules B1 and B2 prior to this module LCA MODULE 3 3 Summary of Module B1 and Other Points All impacts are potential Only anthropogenic sources are included Different substances have different relative amounts of forcing Usually results are related to the equivalent release of a particular substance Different impact categories have different scales of impacts Global, regional, local Watch Module B1 for background Module B2 includes a brief overview of ozone depletion potential 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 4 Common Impact Categories Acidification Potential (AP) Global Warming/Climate Change Potential (GWP) Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)

Air Smog/Ozone/Photochemical Oxidants/Creation Potential (SCP) Human Health Particulates/Criteria Air Potential (HHCAP) Human Health/Toxicity Cancer/Non-Cancer Potential (HTP) Ecotoxicity Potential (ETP) Eutrophication Potential (EP) Air Water Soil Bolded impact categories are those covered in this module These are only some of the possible impact categories in LCA 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 5 Ozone Molecule composed of three oxygen atoms Colorless, odorless gas The focus of two very different impact categories Ozone depletion potential Good ozone Smog creation potential Bad ozone Ozone molecule: naturallythebest.com

09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 Good/bad ozone: epa.gov 6 Ozone Profile Good Ozone Bad Ozone Image source: NOAA. (2006). The Science of Ozone Depletion 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 7 Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Reduction of ozone concentration in the stratosphere This is good ozone which filters out UV-B radiation Additional UV can cause negative effects on humans, crops, and the built environment Scale of impacts: Occurs when ozone depleting substances catalyze ozone destroying reactions First noticed by scientists in 1970s

Two phenomena covered by this impact category Decreased overall ozone concentration in the stratosphere More severe depletion in localized holes (e.g. the ozone hole) Global Not a major cause of global warming/climate change Some time dependence, but usually not accounted for in LCA 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 8 Process and Effects of Ozone Depletion Endpoint Midpoint Emissions of ozone depleting substances Substances are transported to stratosphere where Cl- and Br- detach

Ozone depleted based on substances reactivity/lifetime Reduced ozone allows increased UVB penetration Effects of increased UV: Skin cancer Cataracts Damage to: Crops Materials Marine life Flow diagram adapted from: Bare, J., Norris, G., Pennington, D., and McKone, T. (2002). Traci. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 6(34), 49-78.4), 49-78. 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 Image source: epa.gov 9 Substances Classes of Ozone Depleting Substances (Selection)

Abbrev. Name Severity Main use(s) Some Examples* Halons Haloalkanes Very high Fire suppression Halon 1301, Halon 1211 CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons (Freons) High Refrigeration, A/C, aerosols, solvents CFC-11, CFC-12 HCFCs Hydrochlorofluorocarbons

Refrigeration, A/C, aerosols, solvents HCFC-140, HCFC-22 Moderate *Common naming (e.g. CFC-11) is based on numbering scheme for # of C atoms, # of H atoms, # of F atoms, and # of Br atoms Due to decreases in emissions of these, N2O (laughing gas) is becoming important Will likely be largest contributor to ODP in 21st century according to Ravishankara et al. (2009) Causes ozone loss through different mechanism Main anthropogenic emissions from agriculture and fuel combustion Not even classified as ODP in most impact methodologies (including TRACI 2.1 and CML 2007) 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 10 Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry Formation Happens at equal rates in natural equilibrium Sun

Destruction Sun Step 1 + Step 1 O2 + h Step 2 Step 2 2O2 O O3 + h + 2O 09/2015 2O + O

2O3 LCA MODULE 3 O2 O3 2O2 11 Chlorine/Bromine Catalyzed Reaction Chlorine and bromine travel to the stratosphere attached to CFCs, HCFCs, Halons, etc. After some time, the chlorine or bromine atoms break off in reaction with sunlight in the stratosphere They can then catalyze ozone destruction through the following sequence + Step 1 + Cl + Step 2 ClO 09/2015

ClO O3 O2 + O Cl LCA MODULE 3 O2 12 Characterization of Ozone Depletion Potential ODP Characterization Factors (TRACI 2.1) 1 kg of substance ODP= i (mi x ODPi) (kg CFC-11-eq) where ODP=ozone depletion potential of full inventory in kg CFC-11-eq

mi = mass (in kg) of inventory flow i, ODPi = kg of CFC-11 with the same ozone depletion potential as one kg of inventory flow i Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) 0.73 CFC-12 (CCl2F2) 1.00 Halon 1301 (CF3Br) 16.0 HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl) 0.05 Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) 0.51 Trichloroethane (1,1,1-CH3CCl3) 0.12 Nitrous Oxide (N2O)*

0.017 *Not characterized in TRACI 2.1, value from Ravishankara et al. (2009) Based on each substances reactivity and lifetime 09/2015 ODPi LCA MODULE 3 13 Ozone Hole Extensive localized losses Mostly at arctic and Antarctic Antarctic hole most severe Largest in springtime Polar holes due to presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs - ice clouds) and due to relative isolation of air transport there in the winter Convert HCl and ClONO2 into ClO (more reactive) Enhanced destruction of ozone Minimum temperature and sustained low temperature for PSC formation more common in Antarctic

Polar Stratospheric Clouds Hole: Wikipedia.org 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 PSC and Formation Conditions: NOAA. (2006). Twenty Questions: 2006 Update. 14 Montreal Protocol International treaty to limit the production and use of ozone depleting substances Agreed upon in 1987, and enforced starting in 1989 Universally ratified by the United Nations members Phase out of harmful substances, phase in of less harmful replacements First phase out CFCs (high ODP) Then phase out HCFCs (moderate ODP) Various others: halons, carbon tet, etc. Replace mostly by HFCs (no ODP) Significant reduction in ODP emissions Recovery of ozone hole expected within about 50 years (EPA 2010) EPA. (2010). Ozone Science: The Facts Behind the Phaseout ). 09/2015

LCA MODULE 3 Fig: Fahey and Hegglin. (2010). 20 Qs and As About the Ozone Layer. 15 Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Major sources Fire extinguishers Manufacturing (polymers, aerosols) Refrigerant systems Main substances* Others: 26% 29% Halon 1301 22% CFC-11

14% www.esrl.noaa.gov/csd/assessments/oz one/2006/twentyquestionsposter.pdf 9% CFC-12 HCFC-22 Midpoint Decrease in stratospheric ozone concentration Possible Endpoints (Due to increased UV-B radiation) Skin cancer CFC: chlorofluorocarbon 09/2015 Crop damage Materials damage Marine life damage

*Ryberg et al. 2014 HCFC: hydrochlorofluorocarbon LCA MODULE 3 16 Thank you for completing Module 3! Group A: ISO Compliant LCA Overview Modules Group : ISO Compliant LCA Detailed Modules Group B: Environmental Impact Categories Overview Modules Group : Environmental Impact Categories Detailed Modules Group G: General LCA Tools Overview Modules Group : General LCA Tools Detailed Modules Group T: Transportation-Related LCA Overview Modules Group : Transportation-Related LCA Detailed Modules 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 17 Homework 1. Look around your home, school, or office building and identify potential sources of gases that might contribute to ozone depletion.

2. Follow the link on Slide 16 to the full size poster. From those topics covered on the poster, choose one not covered in this module that interests you and explain what the poster says about it in your own words. 3. Research what your country or state has done to reduce ozone depletion. Briefly summarize (a few sentences) one piece of legislation or one program that has been enacted to reduce ozone depletion. 09/2015 LCA MODULE 3 18

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