Period 1: c.1450 to c.1648 Why 1450? Start

Period 1: c.1450 to c.1648 Why 1450? Start of the Renaissance, Age of Exploration Why 1648? End of the 30 Years War, Peace of Westphalia Big Events: Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, Age of Exploration, Religious Wars, Development of New Monarchs, Witch-Hunting, Military Revolution 5 Main Key Concepts highlighted in Orange Map of Europe: 1400 Map of Europe 1500 Map of Europe 1600 KC 1.1: The worldview of European intellectuals shifted from one based on ecclesiastical and classical authority to one based primarily on inquiry

and observation of the natural world. I. A revival of classical texts led to new methods of scholarship and new values in both society and religion Humanist praised mankind as heroic and divine No longer intrinsically unworthy Mirandola: Individual was an independent and autonomous being with moral choices Humanist shifted focus of education away from theology toward the study of the classical texts Alberti (Italian humanist author): The Greco-Romans believed that the painted and the sculptor understood and portrayed the soul when they reproduced the human face

The artist had to be able to reveal the emotions and passions of the figures he depicted Civic Humanism: Application of the classics to individuals and government Machiavelli: Wrote extensively about the relationship between the government and the people The ends justify the means II. The invention of the printing press promoted the dissemination of new ideas. Led to vernacular languages and eventually national cultures (synthesis = Nationalism) III. The visual arts incorporated the news ideas of the Renaissance and were used to promote personal, political and religious goals Michelangelo Raphael

Human-centered naturalism that considered individuals and everyday life appropriate objects of artistic representation El Greco Mannerist and baroque artists employed distortion, drama, and illusion in works commissioned by monarchies, city-states, and the church for public buildings to promote their stature and power Isolated atop a mountain, a gaunt, tormented Christ dominates a nearly empty landscape. On a road leading to the walled city of Jerusalem, horsemen pass by the execution hill, literally turning their backs on Christ. El Greco's use of dramatic colors and exaggerated proportions distorts the figure, conveying the transcendent moment when Christ sublimated his physical pain and commended his spirit to God. Turning his eyes upward toward heaven, Christ looks away from the bones and skulls that lie at his feet, representative of his triumph over death. Light plays across his undulating form, illuminating his tortured body against the dark background. To heighten empathy between the viewer and Christ, the elongated but graceful figure appears alone. This private,

devotional image was meant to encourage contemplation and spiritual reflection. (Text and picture from IV. New ideas in science based on observations, experimentation, and mathematics challenged classical views of the cosmos, nature, and the human body, although folk traditions of knowledge and the universe persisted Heliocentric model of the universe Advances in anatomical and medical discoveries Harvey: fixed many errors from ancient scientists; heart was beginning point of blood and only one type of blood flow Vesalius: He used dissection and observation to get a more clear view of anatomical structure and corrected many errors from Galen. He learned that great blood vessels originate in the heart, not the liver Bacon and Descartes: inductive and deductive reasoning, promoting experimentation

Some people still clung to alchemy and astrology Newton: God had left clues in the heavens about the world and certain clues in previous records KC 1.2: The struggle for sovereignty within and among states resulted in varying degrees of political centralization Three trends shaped early modern political development 1. Decentralized power and authority to centralized (this was a process) 2. Political elite primarily of a hereditary landed nobility towards one open to men distinguished by their education, skills, and wealth (this was also a process)

3. Religious towards secular norms of law and justice (think Beccaria here) Military revolution made knights unnecessary Kings with the ability to create taxes and with the revenue could afford big state armies The kings of Western Europe were no longer financially or militarily dependent on the nobles I. The new concept of the sovereign state and secular systems of law plated a central role in the creation of new political institutions New monarchs established a monopoly on tax collection, military force, and the dispensing of justice, and gaining the right to determine the religion of their subjects Peace of Augsburg(1555): Attempted policy of religious compromise by Charles V in an attempt to prevent religious warfare in the HRE. The princes in the HRE could decide if their people would be Catholic or Lutheran(no acknowledgement for Calvinist or other Protestants)

Edict of Nantes(1598): Attempted policy of religious compromise by Henry IV(politique). This officially made Catholicism the state religion of France, but allowed Huguenots the right to practice their religion. (synthesis of Realpolitik) Peace of Westphalia(1648): Marked the effective end of medieval idea of universal Christendom and accelerated the decline of the HRE Commercial and professional groups gained in power and played a greater role in political affairs Nobles of the robe: As a way to generate money, the kings of France sold positions of nobility to wealthy nobles Secular political theories, such as those espoused in The Prince provided a new concept of the state Jean Bodin (French political theorist) : Sovereign power consisted of the authority to make laws, tax, administer justice, control the states administrative system, and determine foreign policy (synthesis is Hobbes)

II. The competitive state system led to new patterns of diplomacy and new forms of warfare Balance of power played an important role in diplomatic and military objectives after the Peace of Westphalia Advances in military favored the state France created a massive state army, using taxes on the middle class to generate the necessary money III. The competition for power between monarchs and corporate groups produced different distributions of government authority in European states English Civil War, conflict between the monarchy and Parliament exemplified this competition

James I: Wanted to rule as a divine-right monarchy. Parliament resisted this by refusing his requests for additional money. This conflict became worse under Charles I and led to the English Civil War The Fronde in France: Revolts of the French nobles that were trying to resist the centralized power of the monarchs, but these were crushed and many concluded that best hope for stability in France was the monarch KC 1.3: Religious pluralism challenged the concept of a unified Europe I. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations fundamentally changed theology, religious institutions, and culture Christian humanism, embodied in the writings of Erasmus, employed Renaissance learning in the service of religious reform Sir Thomas More: He believed in a strict adherence to Christian values and was very disturbed by the developing materialism and resisted the attempts to break from the Catholic Church Indulgences: The Catholic Church was selling a free pass to salvation. This policy

created a lot of criticism and was a spark of the Protestant Reformation Catholic Reformation, exemplified by the Jesuit Order and the Council of Trent, revived the church but cemented the division within Christianity Index of Prohibited Books: A list of books that Catholics were not allowed to read II. Religious reforms both increased state control of religious institutions and provided justifications for challenging state authority Monarchs and princes, such as Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, initiated religious reform from the top down to exercise greater control over religious life Book of Common Prayer: This prayer book reflected the religious changes in England and divide with the Catholic Church

Huguenots: Challenged the authority of the French monarch by resisting their control. Huguenots attempted to create their own laws and resisted taxation from the crown. III. Conflicts among religious groups overlapped with political and economic competition within and among states The late 1500s was a time of religious warfare in France St. Bartholomews Day Massacre: Charles IX and his advisers decided to kill prominent Huguenots in Paris, and the violence spread when mobs of Catholics killed Huguenots Religious warfare continued, but was finally stopped when Henry of Navarre took the throne and issued the Edict of Nantes The Habsburgs attempted, but failed to restore Catholic unity across Europe Philip II: He wanted to re-catholicize all of Europe. He attempted to crush a rebellion in the Netherlands, but made the mistake of trying to attack England first. In 1588, his Armada suffered a major defeat. His goal of restoring Catholicism failed.

Thirty Years War: France, Sweden, and Denmark used the war as an excuse to increase taxation and exert more control over their own people. It also allowed these countries to weaken the HRE. Poland: This was one of the few states in Europe that allowed religious plurality. Poland had a weak monarch and the nobles had a large amount of control over the religion of their people. No centralized religion was forced on the people of Poland KC 1.4: Europeans explored and settled overseas territories, encountering and interacting with indigenous populations. By the 17th century, Europeans had forged a global trade network that gradually edged out earlier Muslim and Chinese domination Mercantilism: Economic theory which promoted government management of economic imperatives and policies I. European nations were driven by commercial and religious motives to explore overseas territories and establish colonies (think Three Gs)

II. Advances in navigation, cartography, and military technology allowed Europeans to establish overseas colonies and empires Stern-post rudder: Steering mechanism that made directional control of ships much easier Guns and gunpowder: These gave the Europeans a huge advantage over the people they encountered in the rest of the world III. Europeans established overseas empires and trade networks through coercion and negotiation Competition for trade led to conflicts and rivalries among European powers IV. Europes colonial expansion led to a global exchange of goods, flora, fauna, cultural practices, and diseases, resulting in the destruction of some indigenous civilizations, a shift toward European dominance, and the expansion of the slave trade.

Trade shift from Mediterranean to the Atlantic Columbian Exchange led to subjugation and destruction of indigenous peoples Many new crops were introduced to the Americas: Wheat, Cattle, Horses, Pigs, Sheep Manny new crops went to Europe: Tomatoes, Potatoes, Squash, Corn, Tobacco, Turkeys But also diseases: Small pox and measles Syphilis was only disease Slave trade expanded as a result of the plantation economies KC 1.5: European society and the experiences of everyday life were increasingly shaped by commercial and agricultural capitalism,

notwithstanding the persistence of medieval social and economic structures. More silver and higher population led to a price revolution, which was a high cost for goods and services Development of capitalist economies and things like joint-stock companies to conduct overseas trade By mid-17th Europe no longer had the communal values and people were responding to very difficult economic times by becoming more individualistic Leisure time was still communal, as was the enforcement of social norms I. Economic change produced new social patterns, while traditions of hierarchy and status persisted. Growth of urban financial centers and a money economy

Bank of Amsterdam: Started in 1609 as both a deposit and transfer institution, and eventually a stock exchange. This emerged as the European hub of business. Gentry in England: Well-to-do landowners below the level of nobility, held many positions in the House of Commons and also local government. They became a very strong group. Rural areas remained unchanged; hierarchy and status continued to define social power II. Most Europeans derived their livelihood from agriculture and oriented their lives around the seasons, the village, or the manor, although economic changes began to alter rural production and power Subsistence farming was common in most rural areas

Price revolution favored the commercialization of agriculture, which benefited large landowners. Enclosure Movement: Governments were enclosing small farms and selling them off to big landowners, this created a group of landless wage laborers **As western Europe moved toward a free peasantry and commercial agriculture, serfdom was reinforced in the east (Russia) Landlords restricting rights led to revolt III. Population shifts and growing commerce caused the expansion of cities, which often found their traditional political and social structures stressed by the growth Population pressure contributed to uneven price increases; agricultural commodities increased more sharply than wages Migrants challenged the ability of merchant elites and craft guilds to govern and strained resources

Sanitation problems: As population rose, cites dealt with far dirtier conditions. There was no infrastructure in place for bringing in/out water or garbage Social dislocation and weakening religious institutions, left city government to regulate morality Stricter codes on prostitution and begging: Cities made laws to regulate prostitution and attempted to limit beggars, but the underlying assumption was that people were in these positions by choice. The social attitude towards poverty was changing, people looked at the poor as lazy IV. The family remained the primary social and economic institution of early modern Europe and took several forms, including the nuclear family Rural and urban households worked as units Renaissance and Reformation raised debates about female roles in the family

La Querelle des Femmes: The debate about whether women should be able to study in universities and the overall role they should play From the late 16th, economic changes delayed marriage, which slowed population growth and improved economic conditions V. Popular culture, leisure activities, and rituals reflecting the persistence of folk ideas reinforced and sometimes challenged communal ties and norms Leisure was organize around religious calendar and communal Blood sports: People enjoyed watching things like cock fighting and bull baiting, people in the Renaissance age viewed animals as soulless creatures There were rituals of public humiliation in an attempt to keep communal order; people were put in stocks for committing crimes or violations of social norms Period 2: c. 1648 to c. 1815

Why 1648: End of 30 Years War, Peace of Westphalia Why 1815: Congress of Vienna Big Events: More Science, Enlightenment, Age of Revolutions, Napoleon, Warfare for Colonies, Emergence of England as the world power Map of Europe 1600 Map of Europe 1700 Map of Europe 1800 KC 2.1: Different models of political sovereignty affected the relationship among states and between states and individuals. I. In much of Europe, absolute monarchy was established over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries Limited the nobility's participation in government but preserved their social and legal position

Peter the Great: Table of Ranks: Created opportunities for non-nobles to serve the state and join the nobility. He was trying to create a system based on merit and a way to limit the power of the hereditary nobles. He also created a senate to supervise the administrative machinery of the state and brought westernization to Russia; thinking that Russia needed to be more like the Western European countries Louis XIV and his fianc minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, extended the administrative, financial, military, and religious control of the central state: Strengthening of the intendant system, mercantilism, and Edict of Fountainebleau A few monarchs experimented with enlightened absolutism Frederick II of Prussia: Followed a single law code and eliminated the use of torture. He also granted limited free speech and press as well as complete religious toleration. However, he was too dependent on the nobilities to end serfdom Inability of Polish monarchy to consolidate power over the nobility led to weakness and eventual loss all land to Austria, Prussia, and Russia

II. Challenges to absolutism resulted in alternative political systems Outcome of English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution protected the rights of gentry and aristocracy from absolutism through assertions of the rights of Parliament English Bill of Rights: Affirmed Parliaments right to make laws and levy taxes and Parliament had to consent to the raising of an army. Citizens had the guaranteed right to petition the king, keep arms, have a jury trial, and not be subject to excessive bail. The BOR helped create a system of government based on the rule of law and a freely elected Parliament. This did not address freedom of religion The Dutch Republic developed an oligarchy of urban gentry and rural landholders to promote trade and protect traditional rights III. After 1648, dynastic and state interests, along with Europes expanding colonial empires, influenced the diplomacy of European states and frequently led to war

After 30 Years War the HRE had limited power, Prussia rose to power and the Habsburgs, centered in Austria, shifted their empire eastward Austria defeat the Turks in 1683 and Louis XIV undertook nearly continuous wars Maria Theresa of Austria(1740-1780): Reorganized Austria society by curtailing the power of the ruling diets. Clergy and nobles were required to pay taxes directly to royal officials. Austrians and Bohemian lands were divided into ten provinces; administration was centralized and armed forces were expanded. This centralization and expansion were in preparation for a war with Prussia. War of the Spanish Succession(1702-1713): Charles II, king of Spain, left his throne to the grandson of Louis XIV. Coalition of England, the United Provinces, Habsburg Austria, and German states waged war to prevent France from combining the two kingdoms. Peace of Utrecht(1713) confirmed Philip V as king of Spain and kept thrones divided. Continued warfare between Britain and France; 7 Years War would end with Britain supplanting France as the greatest European power IV. The French Revolution posed a fundamental challenge to Europes

existing political and social order Caused by Enlightenment ideas, exacerbated by short-term fiscal and economic crises First phase of the revolution established a constitutional monarchy, increased popular participation, nationalized Catholic church, and abolished hereditary privileges After execution of Louis XVI, radical Jacobin Republic led by Robespierre instituted Reign of Terror, fixing prices and wages, and pursued a policy de-Christianization Civil Constitution of the Clergy: Both bishops and priests were to be elected by the people and paid by the church. All clergy were required to swear an oath of allegiance to the state Constitution, which was forbidden by the church Committee of Public Safety: Courts were established to protect the revolution from enemies at home; created the republic of virtue Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Revolutionary armies brought changed to the rest of Europe, women enthusiastically participated but received few gains, revolutionary ideas inspired a slave revolt in Haiti(independent by 1804), some were inspired by revolutionary emphasis on equality

and human rights, but others condemned its violence and disregard for traditional authority V. Claiming to defend the ideals of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte imposed French control over much of the European continent that eventually provoked a nationalistic reaction. Napoleon undertook a number of enduring domestic reforms while curtailing rights and manipulation people behind a faade of representative institutions Civil Code (Napoleonic Code): Recognized the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law, the rights of individuals to choose their professions, religious toleration, and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism Censorship: Napoleon shut down sixty of Frances newspapers(out of 73) and insisted that all manuscripts be subjected to government scrutiny before they were published. Even the mail was opened by government police New military tactics allow him to exert direct or indirect control over much of Europe, spreading ideals of the French Revolution

Napoleons expanding empire created nationalist responses throughout Europe After the defeat of Napoleon by a coalition of French powers, the Congress of Vienna(1814-1815) attempted to restore the balance of power and contain the danger of revolutionary or nationalistic upheavals in the future. KC 2.2: The expansion of European commerce accelerated the growth of a worldwide economic network European societies first those with access to the Atlantic and gradually those to the east and on the Mediterranean provided increasing percentages of their populations with a higher standard of living Availability labor power, institutions and practices that supported economic activity and provided incentives, accumulations of capital for financing enterprises and innovations, technological innovations in food production, transportation, communication, and manufacturing = CAUSES OF INDUSTRY Development of a growing consumer society, but the geographic mobility eroded traditional community and family solidarities and protections

European economic strength derived in part from the ability to control and exploit resource around the globe, but eastern Europe countries in a traditional, principally agrarian economy I. Early modern Europe developed a market economy that provided the foundation for its global role Labor and trade in commodities were increasingly freedom from traditional governmental restrictions Le Chapelier Laws: To prevent continued associations of workers based on such economic interests, Le Chapelier introduced a measure (passed into law on 14 June 1791) that historians remember by his name, the "Le Chapelier law." It barred craft guilds and would bar trade unions until 1884. The Agricultural Revolution raised productivity and increased the supply of food Cottage industry, or putting-out system, expanded

Bank of England: The Bank of England was founded in 1694 to act as the Government's banker and debtmanager. Since then its role has developed and evolved, centered on the management of the nation's currency and its position at the center of the UK's financial system. II. The European-dominated worldwide economic network contributed to the agricultural, industrial, and consumer revolutions in Europe States followed mercantilist policies by exploiting colonies and transatlantic slave-labor system expanded in the 17th and 18th centuries as demand for New World products increased Consumer culture developed in Europe Triangle Trade: Trade network that connected Europe, the Americas, and Africa. Slaves went to the Americas, some good went to Africa to pay for the slaves, many crops came back to Europe from the Americas Tea: Once introduced to Europe, there was a great demand for tea and other products from China

Food from the Americas led to increase in food supply in Europe Foreign lands provided raw materials, finished goods, laborers, and markets III. Commercial rivalries influenced diplomacy and warfare among European states in the early modern era European sea powers vied for Atlantic influence throughout 18th century Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British rivalries in Asia culminated in British domination in India and Dutch control of East Indies KC 2.3: The popularization and dissemination of the Scientific Revolution and the application of its methods to political, social, and ethical issues led to an increased, although not unchallenged, emphasis on reason in European culture

Europeans applied methods of science to human affairs Rousseau, Voltaire, and Diderot aimed to place faith in divine revelation with faith in human reason and classical values John Locke and Adam Smith questioned absolutism and mercantilism by arguing for the authority of natural law and the market Belief in progress, along with improved social and economic conditions, spurred gains in literacy and education as well as the creation of a new culture of the printed word Religious revival occurred, but elite culture embraced skepticism, secularism, and atheism Religious toleration, or at least acceptance, increased The new rationalism faced some challenges with revival of sentimentalism and emotionalism of romanticism and nationalism

I. Rational and empirical thought challenged traditional values and ideas Montesquieu: He wrote about different types of government and concluded that have a system with a separation of powers and checks and balances Locke and Rousseau developed political models based on the concept of natural rights, but for Rousseau, these rights still did not apply to women Mary Wollstonecraft: She wrote In Vindication of the Rights of Women and argued that women having to obey men was contrary to beliefs of the same individuals that a system based on the arbitrary power of monarchs on wrong. And, if all people have reason, then that applies to women and they should have equal rights II. New public venues and print media popularized Enlightenment ideas Salons explored and disseminated Enlightenment culture

Coffeehouses: This became a place where people from all walks of life would gather and mingle, exchanging news and having discusses and debates Newspapers: Despite censorship, newspapers served a growing literate public and led to the development of public opinion Through literature, Europeans were being exposed to representations of peoples outside Europe III. New political and economic theories challenged absolutism and mercantilism. Locke: The state originated in the consent of the governed(the social contract) rather than in divine right or tradition Mercantilist theory and practices were challenged by people like Adam Smith, arguing for free trade and a free market

Physiocrats: They believe that land, rather than gold and silver, was the real source of wealth and that the natural market forces of supply and demand should not be manipulated by the government, rather the government should apply laissez-faire IV. During the Enlightenment, the rational analysis of religious practices led to natural religion and the demand for religious toleration Intellectuals, including Voltaire and Diderot, develop new philosophies of deism, skepticism, and atheism Hume:. He argued that observation and reflection, grounded in systematized common sense made conceivable a science of man. Careful examination of the experiences that constituted human life would lead to the knowledge of human nature Religion was increasingly view as a private matter rather than public and toleration extended to Christian minorities and, in some states, civil equality to Jews V. The arts moved from the celebration of religious themes and royal power to an emphasis on private life and the public good Until 1750, Baroque art and music promoted religious feeling and was employed by monarchs to glorify state

power Velasquez: Spanish painter who was the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was important as a portrait artist. In addition to numerous renditions of scenes of historical and cultural significance, he painted scores of portraits of the Spanish royal family, other notable European figures, and commoners, culminating in the production of his masterpiece Las Meninas (1656). Artistic movement and literature also reflected the outlook and values of commercial and bourgeois as well as Enlightenment ideas of political power and citizenship Dutch Painting: Although Dutch painting of the Golden Age comes in the general European period of Baroque, and often shows many of its characteristics, most lacks the idealization and love of splendor typical of much Baroque work. Most work, including that for which the period is best known, reflects the traditions of detailed realism.

Image to the right: Johannes Vermeer, The Milkmaid (16581660) VI. While Enlightenment values dominated the world of European ideas, they were challenged by the revival of public sentiment and feeling Rousseau questioned the exclusive reliance on reason and emphasized the role of emotions in the moral improvement of self and society Revolution, war, and rebellion demonstrated the emotional state of mass politics and nationalism Romanticism emerged as a challenge to Enlightenment rationality. Romanticism: Included the following characteristics: human existence is subjective and emotional, human knowledge is small compared to the historical record, individuals rights are dangerous and selfish, the community is more important, artist

were apart from society, escape from industrialization, immense power in the forces of nature. Romanticism Wandering Above the Sea of Fog Caspar David Friedrich, 1818 KC 2.4: The experiences of everyday life were shaped by demographic, environmental, medical, and technological changes 16th-century population explosion, which roughly doubled the European population, left many social disruptions and demographic disasters The European marriage pattern, which limited family size, became most important check on population; also some couples adopted birth control practices

By middle 18th century, things were getting better in Europe, because of better weather and many agricultural and hygiene improvements Attitude towards children began to shift in the 18th when there were reductions in child mortality and increased life expectancy in infants By the end of the 18th century, a high portion of Europeans were better fed and educated, but poverty was still a huge problem that strained charitable resources I. In the 17th century, small landholdings, low-productivity agricultural practices, poor transportation, and adverse weather limited and disrupted the food supply, causing periodic famines. By the 18th century, Europeans began to escape from the Malthusian imbalance between population and the food supply, resulting in steady population growth Agricultural Revolution of the 1700s increased the food supply In the 18th century, plague disappeared as a major epidemic disease, and inoculation reduced smallpox morality

II. The consumer revolution of the 18th century was shaped by a new concern for privacy, encouraged the purchase of new goods and homes, and created new venues for leisure activities. New concern for privacy: Homes were built to include private retreats, such as the boudoir; many earlier European homes did not have private bedrooms or spaces specifically designed as a retreat New consumer goods for homes: Porcelain dishes were a way to show wealth, imported from China New Leisure venues: Taverns: People were going to taverns to drink, but also to meet-up for discussions and the sharing of information III. By the 18th century, family and private life reflected new demographic patterns and the effects of the commercial revolution Although the rate of illegitimate births, population growth was limited by the European marriage pattern by early birth control

As infant and child mortality decreased and commercial wealth increased, families dedicated more space and resources to children and child-rearing, as well as private life and comfort IV. Cities offered economic opportunities, which attracted increasing migration from rural areas, transforming urban life and creating challenges from the new urbanites and their families. Agricultural Revolution produced more food using fewer workers; so people migrated to the cities looking for work Growth of cities eroded traditional communal values, and city governments strained to provide protect and a healthy environment Concentration of poor in cities led to greater awareness of poverty, crime, and prostitution as social problems, and prompted increased efforts to police marginal groups Period 3: c. 1815 to c. 1914 Why 1815: Defeat of Napoleon and Congress of Vienna

Why 1914: World War I Big Events: Congress of Vienna, Conservativism, Scramble for Africa, Industrial Revolution, Nationalism, Revolutions of 1848, Alliance System Map of Europe 1800 Map of Europe 1900 KC 3.1: The Industrial Revolution spread from Great Britain to the continent, where the state played a great role in promoting industry. All countries in Europe, had some level of industrialization, but it was most rapid in Great Britain and then Germany By 1870, the European market fluctuation led to more and more governmental

involvement in the manage of the economy include: protective tariffs, military procurements, and colonial conquests I. Great Britain established its industrial dominance through the mechanization of textile production, iron and steel production, and new transportation systems Britain had a ready supplies of coal, iron, and other essential raw materials Economic institutions and human capital helped Britain lead the process of industrialization, largely through private initiative Britains leadership: Crystal Palace at the Great Exhibition of 1851: worlds first industrial fair. It covered 19 acres and contained 100,000 exhibits Britains parliamentary government promoted commercial and industrial interests II. Following the British example, industrialization took root in continental Europe, sometimes with state sponsorship

France moved to industrialization at a more gradual pace, with government support and will less dislocation of traditional methods of production Industrialization in Prussia allowed that state to become the leader of a unified Germany, which subsequently underwent rapid industrialization under government sponsorship. Government support of industrialization: Canals: Government would use the money from taxes and tariffs to construction canals throughout the cities, also railroad. These could then be used to transport goods and people. Zollverein: A Germany customs union, in 1834, eliminated tools on rivers and roads among member states. By 1853, all German states except Austria had joined the union A combination of factors including geography, lack or resources, dominance of landed elites, serfdom, and inadequate government support accounted for eastern and southern Europes lag in industrial development Lack of adequate transportation: The lack of governmental support and a lack of infrastructure building by private individuals, left the eastern and southern Europeans without the necessary roads, bridges, or canals to move goods. Countries like Russia had the challenge of needing so much investment.

III. During the second industrial revolution(c. 1870-1914), more areas of Europe experienced industrial activity, and industrial processes increased in scale and complexity. Mechanization and the factory system become predominant by 1914 New technology, communication, and transportation including railroads resulted in fully integrated national economies, more urbanization, and truly global economic network Mass production: The assembly line and interchangeable parts made mass production a reality. Internal Combustion Engine: This made the steam engine obsolete and paved the way for smaller and lighter engines and faster transportation, and eventually the automobile Volatile business cycles in the last quarter of 19th century led corporations and

governments to try to manage market through monopolies, banking practices, and tariffs. KC 3.2: The experiences of everyday life were shaped by industrialization, depending on the level of industrial development in a particular location Industrialization promoted the development of new socioeconomic classes, especially the proletariat and bourgeoisie Economic changes also led to the rise of trade and industrial unions More people moved to cities The relationship between the government and people began to shift as governments made more policies to protect child and universalize education Middle-class women withdrew from the workforce, while working-class women

increased their participation as wage-laborers Industrialization and urbanization changed peoples conception of time, trade unions assumed responsibility for the social welfare of working class families, leisure time increased Despite continued inequality and poverty, the average standard of living increased I. Industrialization promoted the development of new classes in the industrial regions of Europe Industrial areas developed distinct social classes, proletariat and the bourgeoisie Less industrialized areas, dominance of agricultural elites persisted Mutual aid societies and trade unions

II. Europe experienced rapid population growth and urbanization, leading to social dislocations. Better harvests, industrialization promoted population growth, longer life expectancy, and lowered infant mortality Urbanization led to overcrowding in cities, while rural areas suffered declines in available labor and weakened communities III. Over time, the Industrial Revolution altered the family structure and relations for bourgeois and working-class families Bourgeois: More focused on nuclear family and the cult of domesticity By the end of the century, wages and quality of life for the working class improved because of laws restricting labor, social welfare programs, improved diets, and the use of birth control Factory Act of 1833: Reduced the number of children in factories and slowly reduced women

in the factories and mines Economic motivations for marriage were replaced by companionate marriage Leisure time centered increasingly on the family or small groups Sports clubs and arenas: Teams sports continued as a way to spend leisure time, but sports became more professionalize and people shifted from participation to observation IV: A heightened consumerism developed as a result of the second industrial revolution Industrialization and mass marketing increase the production and demand for consumer goods Department stores: Constructed of new materials, iron columns and plate-glass windows,

department stores offered consumers an endless variety of goods New efficient modes of transportation and other innovations created new industries, improved the distribution of goods, increased consumerism Railroads: These allowed people to live farther away from the factories and alleviated the strain in the urban areas Leisure travel: People began to get more free time and started to travel outside of the city or away from their homes. Entire industries developed that were central on travel destinations. V. Because of the persistence of primitive agricultural practices and land-owning patterns, some areas of Europe lagged in industrialization while facing famine, debt, and land shortages Irish potato famine: The potato crop failures were caused by late blight, a disease that destroys both the leaves and the edible roots. It led to massive emigration, about 1.6 million fled Ireland. KC 3.3: The problems of industrialization provoked a range of ideological, governmental, and collective responses.

French and industrial revolutions triggered dramatic political and social consequences and new theories to deal them Conservatism, liberalism, socialism, nationalism, and even romanticism Responses to socioeconomic changed reached a culmination in the revolutions of 1848, but failure of these uprisings left issues unresolved well in the 20th century Labor unions developed and used collective action to demand rights and universal suffrage. Feminists and suffragists petitioned and staged protests demanding rights for women Political parties emerged as vehicles for advocating reform or reacting to changing conditions Nationalism acted as one of the most powerful engines of political change

Early nationalism emphasized shared historical and cultural experiences that often threatened traditional elites Over the course of the 19th century, leaders recognized the need to promote national unity through economic development and expanding state functions I. Ideologies developed and took root throughout society as a response to industrial and political revolutions Liberals emphasized popular sovereignty, individual rights, and enlightened selfinterests but debated the extent to which all groups in society should actively participate in its governance Anti-Corn Law League: A group that developed to fight against the corn laws which had imposed high tariffs on imported grain. The 19 th century liberals were looking for less governmental intervention in the economy. Robert Peel, leader of the Tories, persuaded his associates to support free trade principles. Radicals in Britain and republics on the continent demanded universal male suffrage

and full citizen without regard to wealth or property Chartists: This group believed that the solution to many societal problems was to make voting universal to all men and used peaceful methods Klemens von Metternich: Led the Congress of Vienna and was huge advocate of conservatism. He built an alliance with Austria, Prussia, and Russia to crush liberal movements in Europe Socialists called for a fair distribution of societys resources and evolved from a utopian to Marxist scientific critique of capitalism Charles Fourier: Utopian socialist who proposed the formation of self-contained cooperatives ContinuedI. Ideologies developed and took root throughout society as a response to industrial and political revolutions Marxism and anarchism August Babel: Member of the German Social Democratic Party that espoused revolutionary Marxist

rhetoric while organizing itself as a mass political party Anarchists: Mikhail Bakunin: Believed that small groups of well-trained, fanatical revolutionaries could perpetrate so much violence that the state and its institutions would disintegrate Nationalism encouraged loyalty to the nation in a variety of ways Giuseppe Mazzini: Formed a group called Young Italy with its goal the creation of a united Italian republic. The rebellion of Italians in 1848 and 1849 failed to create a republic, largely because of the intervention of foreign powers. However, this idea would be reached in the 1860s Anti-Semitism: Karl Lueger: As the mayor of Vienna, he created a problem of anti-Semitic policies and blaming Jews for the corruption of German culture Jewish Nationalism: Theodor Herzl, in 1896, published a book in which he put forth the notion of a Jewish state. He received some support for the creation of a Jewish community in Palestine II. Governments responded to the problems created or exacerbated by industrialization by expanding their functions and creating modern bureaucratic

states Liberalism shifted from laissez-faire to interventionist economic and social policies on behalf of the less privileged Governments transformed unhealthy and overcrowded cities by modernizing infrastructure, regulating public health, reforming prisons, and establishing modern police forces Urban Redesign: Cities were reconstructed with better planning and sanitation. For example, Napoleon III were the help of Haussmann designed Paris. The wider cities had a practical purpose, allowing the military to move in and crush rebellions. Governments promoted compulsory public education to advance the goals of public order, nationalism, and economic growth III. Political movements and social organizations responded to the problems of industrializations. Mass-based political parties emerges as vehicles for change

Workers established labor unions and movements that also developed into political parties German Social Democratic Party: At first started as a party of socialist, but by 1912 it was the biggest party in the Germany Reichstag and had become less revolutionary and more revisionist Feminists pressed for legal, economic, and political rights for women Conservatives and Liberals in Great Britain: These two political parties emerged as the two strongest parties. At first conservatives faired less services and less voting rights. They traded terms, but ultimately both saw the value of expanded voting rights and more services for the people. Flora Tristan: She preached the need for the liberation of women and full equality Private groups sought to lift up the deserving poor and end serfdom and slavery Josephine Butler: Objected to laws that unfairly punished women, especially the Contagious Disease Acts that punished women, but not men for the spread of venereal disease

Young Prostitutes: Young women that felt like they had no other work opportunities besides becoming prostitutes, many groups attempted to help these young prostitutes, because they left that they were deserving poor. Groups distinguished behind undeserving and deserving poor KC 3.4: European states struggled to maintain international stability in an age of nationalism and revolutions. After the French Revolution and Napoleon era, the world leaders met to suppress liberal and preserve a balance of power Revolution swept Europe in 1848, triggered by poor economic conditions, slow pace of political change, and unfulfilled nationalist hopes However, conservative leaders held off these revolutions New conservatives emerged that were willing to address some of the demands of their people

The Crimean War ended the balance of power from the Napoleonic Age and set the stage of the unification of Italy and Germany; led to the realpolitik Cavour and Bismarck After the Crimean War, Russia undertook a series of internal reforms aimed at achieving nationalism After the new German Emperor Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck in 1890, Germanys diplomatic approach altered significantly A change in diplomacy, the breakdown of alliances, militarism, and nationalism led to World War I. I. The Concert of Europe(or Congress System) sought to maintain the status quo through collective action and adherence to conservatism. Metternich, leader of the Concert, used it to suppress nationalist and liberal

revolutions Conservatives re-established control, through the Principle of Intervention of the Congress, and attempted to suppress movements for change and strengthen adherence to religious authorities Greek War of Independence: The Greeks had long been controlled by the Ottoman Empire, but revolted in 1830. The conservatives of Europe did not like nationalist revolutions, but in this case were more concerned with weakening the Ottoman Empire. So, the Greeks had support from the big powers. The revolutions of 1848 challenged the conservative orders and led to the end of the Concert of Europe II. The breakdown of the Concert of Europe opened the door for movements of national unification in Italy and Germany as well as liberal reforms elsewhere. The Crimean War demonstrated the weakness of the Ottoman Empire and contributed to the breakdown of the Concert of Europe, creating conditions in which Italy and Germany could unify

A new breed of conservative leaders, including Napoleon III, Cavour, and Bismarck, co-opted the agenda of nationalists for the purposed of creating or strengthening the state. The creation of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which recognized the political power of the largest ethnic minority, was an attempt to stabilize the state by reconfiguring the national unity In Russia, autocratic leaders pushed reforms and modernization, which gave rise to revolutionary movements Alexander II: He freed the serfs in 1861 and instituted many reforms, including zemstvos(which were local governments), reforming education, centralizing the judicial system, limiting the powers of the nobles. However, the Russian secret police still sent thousands of dissents into exile and Alexander was assassinated in 1881. III. The unification of Italy and Germany transformed the European balance of power and led to efforts to construct a new diplomatic order

Cavours Realpolitik strategies, combined with the popular Garibaldis military campaigns, led to the unification of Italy Bismarck employed diplomacy and industrialized warfare and weaponry and the manipulation of democratic mechanisms to unify Germany After 1871, Bismarck attempted to maintain the balance of power through alliances directed at isolating France Three Emperors League: The League of the Three Emperors was an alliance between the German Empire, the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from 1873 to 1887. Chancellor Otto von Bismarck took full charge of German foreign policy from 1870 to his dismissal in 1890. Bismarcks dismissal in 1890 led to a system of mutually antagonistic alliances and heightened international tensions Nationalist tensions in the Balkans drew the Great Powers into a series of crises, leading up to World War I

First Balkan War: This comprised actions of the Balkan League(Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro against the Ottoman Empire. The Balkan League won and as a result, captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. KC 3.5: A variety of motives and methods led to the intensification of European global control and increased tensions among the Great Powers. The European imperial outreach of the 19th century was in some ways a continuation of three centuries of colonization, but resulted from the economic pressures and necessities of a maturing industrial economy. European still had strong economic influence in the Western hemisphere and increasing dominance in East and Southern Asia European national rivalries accelerated the expansion of colonies Notions of global destiny and racial superiority fed the drive for empires and

technology and medicine made it possible New imperialism was promoted by interest groups including politicians, military officers and soldiers As an example of a new complex phase of imperial diplomacy, the Berlin Conference outlined procedures for the partition of Africa Some groups in the colonies did resist, and by 1914 anticolonial movements had taken root within the non-European world and in Europe itself Imperialism led to a global exchange of cultures and people I. European nations were driven by economic, political, and cultural motivations in their new imperial ventures in Asia and Africa

European national rivalries and strategic concerns fostered imperial expansion and competition for colonies Search for raw materials and markets drove Europeans to colonize Africa and Asia Europeans justified imperialism through an ideology of cultural/racial superiority II. Industrial and technological developments facilitated European control of global empires Advanced weapons invariably ensured the military superiority of Europeans Breech-loading rifle: A firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel. These were faster to reload than the muzzleloading rifle Communication and transportation technologies made conquest easier Advances in medicine supported European control of Africa and Asia by preserving European lives

Quinine: Used to prevent and treat malaria. This disease had been killing many Europeans that went to Africa to explore/conquer. III. Imperial endeavors significantly affected society, diplomacy, and culture in Europe and created resistance to foreign control abroad Imperialism created diplomatic tensions that strained the alliance system Fashoda Crisis(1898): The Fashoda Incident or Crisis was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa, occurring in 1898. A French expedition to Fashoda on the White Nile river sought to gain control of the Upper Nile river basin and thereby exclude Britain from the Sudan. Imperial encounters with non-European peoples influenced the styles and subject matter of artists and writers and provoked debate about colonization Paul Gauguin and Pablo Picassos Primitivism: Primitivism is a Western art movement that borrows visual forms from non-Western or prehistoric peoples. This borrowing was an important

development of modern art. Pan-German League: movement whose goal was the political unification of all people speaking German or a Germanic language As non-Europeans became educated in Western values, they challenged European imperialism through nationalist movements and/or modernization Japans Meiji Restoration: This was the period in Japan when the emperor decided to embrace Western ways as a way to compete with the West. This period created a very strong industrial economy in Japan. Paul Gauguin Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? This painting is a huge, brilliantly colored but enigmatic work painted on rough, heavy sackcloth. It contains numerous human,

animal, and symbolic figures arranged across an island landscape. The sea and Tahitis volcanic mountains are visible in the background. It is Paul Gauguins largest painting, and he understood it to be his finest work. KC 3.6: European ideas and culture expressed a tension between objectivity and scientific realism on one hand, and subjectivity and individual expression on the other. The romantic movement of the early 19th century set the stage for later cultural perspectives by encouraging individuals to cultivate their uniqueness and to trust intuition and emotion Later artistic movements such as Impressionism, Expressionism, and Cubism, which rested on subjective interpretations of reality, arose from the attitudes fostered by romanticism In science, Darwins evolutionary theory raised questions about human nature, and physicists began to challenge the uniformity and regularity of the Newtonian universe

In 1905 Einsteins theory of relativity underscored the position of the observer in defining reality, while the quantum principles of randomness and probability called the objectivity of Newtonian mechanics into question The emergence of psychology led to investigations of human behavior Freuds investigations into the human psyche suggested the power of irrational motivations and unconscious drives Many writers and artists saw humans as governed by spontaneous, irrational forces I. Romanticism broke with neoclassical forms of artistic representation and with rationalism, placing more emphasis on intuition and emotion. Romantic artists and composers broke from classical artistic forms to emphasize

emotion, nature, individuality, intuition, the supernatural, and national histories Francisco Goya: Regarded as the most important Spanish artist of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Over the course of his long career, Goya moved from jolly and lighthearted to deeply pessimistic and searching in his paintings, drawings, etchings, and frescoes. Chopin: A Polish composer and a virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era, who wrote primarily for the solo piano. Romantic writers expressed similar themes while responding to the Industrial Revolution and to various political revolutions Mary Shelley: Her writings, like most Romantic authors, praised imagination over reason, emotions over logic, and intuition over science-making way for a vast body of literature of great sensibility and passion. In their choice of heroes, also, the romantic writers replaced the static universal types of classical 18th-century literature with more complex, idiosyncratic characters. They became preoccupied with the genius, the hero, and the exceptional figure in general, and a focus on his passions and inner struggles and there was an emphasis on the examination of human personality and its moods and mental potentialities. In Shelleys Frankenstein, these romantic ideas are perfectly demonstrated Goya

Goya clearly had in mind for this royal group the composition of Velzquez's Meninas, which he had copied in an engraving many years before. Like Velzquez, he has placed himself at an easel in the background, to one side of the canvas. But his is a more formal royal portrait than Velzquez's: the figures are grouped almost crowded together in front of the wall and there is no attempt to create an illusion of space. The eyes of Goya are directed towards the spectator as if he were looking at the whole scene in a mirror. The somewhat awkward arrangement of the figures suggests, however, that he composed the group in his studio from sketches made from life. II. Following the revolutions of 1848, Europe turned toward a realist and materialist worldview Positivism, or the philosophy that science alone provides knowledge, emphasized the rational and scientific analysis of nature and human affairs

Darwin provided a rational and material account of biological change and development and inadvertently a justification for racialist theories Marxs scientific socialism provided a systematic critique of capitalism Realist and materialist themes and attitudes influenced art and literature as painters and writers depicted the lives of ordinary people and drew attention to social problems Fyodor Dostoevsky: Focused on the difficult realities of life in Russia. In Crime and Punishment, he focused on trying to exist in a time of poverty and social tension III. A new relativism in values and the loss of confidence in the objectivity of knowledge led to modernism in intellectual and cultural life Philosophy largely moved from rational interpretations of nature and human society to an emphasis on irrationality and impulse, a view that contributed to the belief that conflict and struggle led to progress

Nietzsche: He proclaimed to the world that god is dead and attacked the religious institutions for creating a slave mentality amongst the people. He suggested a plan for becoming what one is through the cultivation of instincts and various cognitive faculties, a plan that requires constant struggle with ones psychological and intellectual inheritances. Freudian psychology provided a new account of human nature that emphasize the role of the irrational and the struggle between the conscious and subconscious Developments in the natural sciences undermined the primacy of Newton Planck: Many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized our understanding of atomic and subatomic processes Modern art, including impressionism, post-impressionism, and cubism moved beyond the representational to the subjective, abstract, and expressive Claude Monet In the late 1860s, Claude Monet,

Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others painted in a new style, called Impressionism by contemporaries. The name was first used by critics, viewing a new exhibition held in 1874, and was directed precisely and derisively at a painting by Monet of a harbor at dawn, which he titled Impression: Sunrise. This painting is a striking example of the new style. Period 4: c. 1914 to Present Why 1914: World War I Why Present: We do not have time machines. Big Events: World War I, Great Depression, Rise of Totalitarianism, Soviet Union, World War II, The Cold War

KC 4.1: Total war and political instability in the first half of the 20 th century gave way to a polarized state order during the Cold War and eventually to efforts at transnational union. European politics and diplomacy in the 20th century were defined by total war and its consequences and a destruction in the balance of power Treaty of Versailles create unstable conditions Russia had a revolution in 1917 Newly formed democracies after World War I were too weak to deal with the Great Depression The League of Nations was unable to maintain peace World War II was more violent than WWI; during this war the Germany government killed many different groups of people

During 20th century, European imperialism and feelings of superiority reached a peak The second half of the 20th century would see the end of colonial, but a continuation of economic dominance called neocolonialism Many people immigrated to Europe, creating many problems for the governments Continued KC 4.1. The end of World War II gave way to the start of the Cold War The Soviet Union and the United States controlled international relations in Europe The Cold War promoted political and economic unity in Western Europe, lead to the establishment of a succession of ever-more comprehensive organizations of

economic cooperation In 1957, 6 countries formed the Common Market, which soon expanded Success of economic union led to the founding of the European Union in 1991 and the establishment of the euro Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Eastern Europe countries moved toward democracy and capitalism After Cold War, there was a re-emergence of nationalist movements within states, which led to Balkan wars in Yugoslavia and tensions among the former Soviet states. I. World War I, caused by a complex interaction of long and short term factors, resulted in immense losses and disruptions for both victors and vanquished. A variety of factors, M.A.I.N. (militarism, alliance, imperialism and nationalism),

turned a regional dispute in the Balkans into WWI New technologies confounded traditional military strategies and led to massive troop losses Barbed Wire: This razor-covered wire, that protected the trenches, become a really dangerous weapon of war. It served as a very dangerous barrier. Military stalemate and total war led to protest and insurrection in the belligerent nations and eventually to revolutions that changed the international balance of power The war in Europe quickly spread to non-European theaters Armenian Genocide: In April 1915 the Ottoman government embarked upon the systematic decimation of its civilian Armenian population. The persecutions continued with varying intensity until 1923 when the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic of Turkey. The Armenian population of the Ottoman state was reported at about two million in 1915. An estimated one million had perished by 1918, while hundreds of thousands had become homeless and stateless refugees. By 1923 virtually the entire Armenian population of Anatolian Turkey had disappeared.

The relationship of Europe to the world shifted significantly with the globalization of the conflict, the emergence of the United States as a world power, and the overthrow of European empires II. The conflicting goals of the peace negotiators in Paris pitted diplomatic idealism against the desire to punish Germany, producing a settlement that satisfied few Wilsonian idealism clashed with postwar realities. Democratic states emerged from former empires and eventually succumbed to significant crises. Poland: After World War I, Poland became independent after over 100 years of being ruled by the countries around them. Poland attempted to form a democracy, but that government was overthrown by Jzef Klemens Pisudski. He ruled the country as an authoritarian until Poland was partitioned again at the start of WWII. The League of Nations, created to prevent future wars, was weakened from the outset by the nonparticipation of major powers(US, GB, and USSR) Versailles settlement, particularly its provisions on the assignment of guilt and

reparations of war, hindered the German Weimar Republics ability to establish a stable and legitimate political and economic system. III. In the interwar period, fascism, extreme nationalism, racist ideologies, and the failure of appeasement resulted in the catastrophe of World War II, presenting a grave challenge to European civilizations. French and British fears of another war, American isolationism, and the deep distrust between Western democratic, capitalist nations, and the communist Soviet Union allowed fascist states to rearm and expand Munich Agreement and its violation: In 1938, a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined. This was supposed to be Hitlers last territorial demand, but he soon conquered Czechoslovakia Germanys Blitzkrieg warfare in Europe, combined with Japans attacks in Asia and the Pacific, brought the Axis powers early victories. American and British industrial, scientific, and technological power and the all-out military commitment of the USSR contributed critically to Allied victories.

Fueled by racism and anti-Semitism, Nazi Germany, with the cooperation of some other Axis powers and collaborationist governments, sought to establish a new racial order in Europe, which culminated with the Holocaust Wannsee Conference: On January, 20, 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, Himmler's second in command of the SS, convened the Wannsee Conference in Berlin with 15 top Nazi bureaucrats to coordinate the Final Solution (Endlsung) in which the Nazis would attempt to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe, an estimated 11 million persons. IV. As World War II ended, a Cold War between the liberal democratic West and the communist East began, lasting nearly half a century Despite efforts to maintain international cooperation through the newly created United Nations, deepseated tensions between the USSR and the West led to the division of Europe, which was referred to in the West as the Iron Curtain The Cold War played out on a global stage and involved propaganda campaigns; covert actions; limited hot wars in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean; and an arms race, with the threat of a nuclear war

The Yom Kippur War: On October 6, 1973, hoping to win back territory lost to Israel during the third ArabIsraeli war, in 1967, Egyptian and Syrian forces launched a coordinated attack against Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar. Taking the Israeli Defense Forces by surprise, Egyptian troops swept deep into the Sinai Peninsula, while Syria struggled to throw occupying Israeli troops out of the Golan Heights. Israel counterattacked and recaptured the Golan Heights. A cease-fire went into effect on October 25, 1973. The US exerted a strong military, political, and economic influence in Western Europe, leading to the creation of world monetary and trade systems and NATO International Monetary Fund: 189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. Countries east of the Iron Curtain came under the domination of the Soviet Union within the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance(COMECON) and the Warsaw Pact The collapse of the USSR in 1991 ended and led to establishment of capitalist economies throughout Eastern Europe. Germany was reunited, the Czechs and the Slovaks parted, Yugoslavia dissolved, and the European Union expanded. V. In response to the destructive impact of two world wars, European

nations began to set aside nationalism in favor of economic and political integration, forming a series of transnational unions that grew in size and scope over the second half of the 20 th century. European Coal and Steel Community, envisioned as a means to spur postwar economic recovery, developed in the European Economic Community and the European Union, this led to efforts to establish a shared European identity One of the major continuing challenges to countries in the EU is balancing national sovereignty with the responsibilities of membership in an economic and political union The creation of the Euro: A common European currency was formed in 1999. Many countries parted with their national currency and adopted the Euro. VI. Nationalist and separatist movements, along with ethnic conflict and ethnic cleansing, periodically disrupted the post-WWII peace Nationalist Violence: Chechnya: The people in Chechnya wanted independence from Russia and some groups resorted to violence to try and make this happen.

Separatist Movements: Basque(ETA): For four decades, the armed organization Eta has waged a bloody campaign for independence for the seven regions in northern Spain and south-west France that Basque separatists claim as their own. Ethnic Cleansing: Bosnian Muslims: In April 1992, the government of the Yugoslav republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its independence from Yugoslavia. Over the next several years, Bosnian Serb forces, with the backing of the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army, targeted both Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) and Croatian civilians for atrocious crimes resulting in the deaths of some 100,000 people (80 percent Bosniak) by 1995. It was the worst act of genocide since the Nazi regimes destruction of some 6 million European Jews during World War II. VII. The process of decolonization occurred over the course of the century with varying degrees of cooperation, interference, or resistance from European imperialist states. Wilsons principle of national self-determination raised expectations in the non-European world for freedom from colonial domination expectations that led to international instability The League of Nations distributed former German and Ottoman possessions to France and GB through the mandate system, thereby altering the imperial balance of power and creating a strategic interest in the Middle East and its oil

Mandate Territories: Lebanon and Syria: Officially the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. During the two years that followed the end of the war in 1918, and in accordance with the SykesPicot Agreement that was signed between Britain and France during the war, the British held control of most Ottoman Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and the southern part of the Ottoman Syria (Palestine and Jordan), while the French controlled the rest of Ottoman Syria (modern Syria, Lebanon, Alexandretta and other portions of southeastern Turkey). Despite indigenous nationalist movements, independence for many African and Asian territories was delayed until the mid- and even late 20th century by the imperial powers reluctance to relinquish control, threats of interference from other nations, unstable economic and political systems, and Cold War strategic alignments Indian National Congress: From its foundation on 28 December 1885 by A.O.Hume a retired British officer until the time of independence of India on 15 August 1947, the Indian National Congress was considered to be the largest and most prominent Indian public organization, and central and defining influence of the Indian Independence Movement. KC 4.2: The stresses of economic collapse and total war engendered internal conflicts within European states and created conflicting conceptions of the relationship between the individual and the state, as demonstrated in the ideological battle between liberal democracy, communism, and fascism.

During WWI, states increased the degree and scope of their authority. They centralized power and controlled information and used propaganda. At the end of the war, distrust from the people led to the fall of four empires; the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian. The democratic nations that arose in their place lacked a democratic tradition and suffered from weak economies and ethnic tensions Russia experienced a civil war and the creation of a new state(USSR) In Italy and Germany, charismatic leaders led to fascist movements to power, seizing control of the post-WWI government and fighting against the Treaty of Versailles In the post-WWII period, governments expanded social services and control of the economy In the 1990s, there was a collapse of communism and the fall of the Soviet Union, but the

post-Soviet Union world was not simply for easier side of Europe I. The Russian Revolution created a regime based on Marxist-Leninist theory In Russia, WWI exacerbated long-term problems of political stagnation, social inequality, incomplete industrialization, and food and land distribution, all while creating support for revolutionary change Petrograd Soviet: The February Revolution was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. It was centered on Petrograd, then Russian capital, on Women's Day in March. The revolution was confined to the capital and its vicinity, and lasted less than a week. Military and worker insurrections, aided by the revived the Soviets, undermined the Provisional Government and set the stage for Lenins long-planned revolution This led to a prolonged civil war, but Lenin prevailed In order to improve economic performance, Lenin comprised with free-market principles under the New Economic Policy, but Stalin abandoned those reforms

Collectivization: The Soviet Union ended the private ownership of agricultural Stalins economic modernization came at a high price, including the liquidation of the kulaks, famine in the Ukraine, purges of political rivals, unequal burdens placed on women, and the establishment of an oppressive political system Gulags: The term GULAG is an acronym for the Soviet bureaucratic institution, Glavnoe Upravlenie ispravitel'no-trudovykh LAGerei (Main Administration of Corrective Labor Camps), that operated the Soviet system of forced labor camps in the Stalin era. II. The ideology of fascism, with roots in the pre-World War I era, gained popularity in an environment of postwar bitterness, the rise of communism, uncertain transitions to democracy, and economic instability. Fascists used propaganda as a tool to build support and attack democracy Mussolini and Hitler rose to power by exploiting postwar bitterness and economic instability, using terror and manipulation

Francos alliance with Italian and German fascists in the Spanish Civil War led him to victory After failures of democracy, authoritarians took over in Central and Eastern Europe Romania: From 1918 to 1938, it was a liberal constitution monarchy, but the economic problems and problems with national groups led to the establishment of a dictatorship III. The Great Depression, caused by weaknesses in international trade and monetary theories and practices, undermined Western European democracies and fomented radical political responses throughout Europe World War I debt, nationalistic tariff policies, depreciated currencies, disrupted trade patterns, and speculation created weaknesses in economies worldwide Dependence on post-WWI American capital led to economic collapse after the 1929 stock mark crash Western democracies failed to overcome the Great Depression and were weakened by extremist movements

Keynesianism in Britain: This idea advocated a strong governmental management of the economy and a high level of social services Popular Fronts in France and Spain: The Popular Front initiatives of the 1930s in Spain and France were parliamentary experiments in social and economic reform conceived, against a background of ever-increasing Fascist aggression in Europe, as a means of checking political reaction in the domestic arena. IV. Postwar economic growth supported an increase in welfare benefits; however, subsequent economic stagnation led to criticism and limitation of the welfare state. Marshall Plan funds financed an extensive reconstruction of industry and infrastructure and stimulated an extended period of growth in Western and Central Europe, often referred to as an economic miracle, which increased the economic and cultural importance of consumerism. The expansion of cradle-to-grave social welfare programs in the aftermath of WWII, accompanied by high taxes became a contentious domestic issue V. Eastern European nations were defined by their relationship with the Soviet

Union, which oscillated between repression and limited reform, until Mikhail Gorbachevs policies led to the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the fall of the Soviet Union Central and Eastern European nations within the Soviet bloc followed an economic model based on central planning, extensive social welfare, and specialized production among bloc members After 1956, Khrushchevs de-Stalinization policies failed to meet their economic goals and prompted revolts in Eastern Europe Following a long period of stagnation, Gorbachevs perestroika and glasnost, failed to stave off the collapse of the Soviet Union The rise of new nationalism in Central and Eastern Europe brought peaceful revolution in most countries but resulted in war and genocide in the Balkans and instability in some formers Soviet republics. KC 4.3: During the 20th century, diverse intellectual and cultural movements questioned the existence of object knowledge, the ability of reason to arrive at truth, and the role of religion in determining

moral standards. Trend of 20th century was from optimistic view of science and technology to the formation of skepticism that doubted the possibility of objective knowledge and of progress. Existentialism, postmodernism, and renewed religiosity challenged the perceived dogmatism of positivist science While society became increasingly secular, religion continued to play a role After WWI, new discoveries and theories in physics challenged the certainties of a Newtonian universe By the mid-20th, dramatic new medical technologies prolonged life Dangers of scientific and technological achievements were demonstrated with devastating weaponry

The art world was defined by experimentation and subjectivity, which asserted the independence of visual arts from realism I. The widely held belief in progress characteristic of much of 19 th century thought began to break down before WWI; the experience of war intensified a sense of anxiety that permeated many facets of thought and culture, giving way by the centurys end to a plurality of intellectual frameworks. When WWI began, Europeans were confident in the ability of science and technology to address human needs and problems The effects of world war and economic depression undermined this confidence II. Science and technology yielded impressive material benefits but also caused immense destruction and posed challenges to objective knowledge The challenge to Newtonian universe opened the door to uncertainty in other fields

Medical theories and technologies extended life but posed social and moral questions that eluded consensus and crossed religious, political, and philosophical perspectives Physicists: Niels Bohr: A Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Eugenics: the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics) Military technologies made possible industrialized warfare, genocide, nuclear proliferation, and the risk of nuclear war III. Organized religion continued to play a role in European social and cultural life despite the challenges of military and ideological conflict, modern secularism, and rapid social changes. Totalitarianism and communism in Central and Eastern Europe brought mixed responses from the Christian churches

Christian responses to totalitarianism: Pope John Paul II: He was very active in trying to end the oppressive governments in eastern Europe, especially in Poland. Reform in the Catholic Church found expression in the Second Vatican Council, which redefined the Churchs dogma and practices and started to redefine its relations with other religious communities **Synthesis would be the 95 Theses, Thomas More etc. Increased immigration into Europe altered Europes religious makeup, causing debate and conflict over the role of religion in social and political life IV. During the 20th century, the arts were defined by experimentation, selfexpression, subjectivity, and the increasing influence of the United States in both elite and popular culture. New movements in the visual arts, architecture, and music demolished existing aesthetic standards, explored subconscious and subjective states, and satirized Western society and its values Visual Arts: Dadaism: Dada was an artistic and literary movement that began in Zrich, Switzerland. It arose as a reaction to World War I and the nationalism that many thought had led to the war. Influenced by other

avant-garde movements - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting, and collage. Dada's aesthetic, marked by its mockery of materialistic and nationalistic attitudes, proved a powerful influence on artists in many cities, including Berlin, Hanover, Paris, New York, and Cologne, all of which generated their own groups. The movement dissipated with the establishment of Surrealism. Architectural Movements: Bauhaus: The German architect Walter Gropius (1833 to 1969), who became a US citizen in 1944, founded the Bauhaus Movement as a school of arts in Weimar, the city of Goethe. What was revolutionary about his concept was the combination of a wide variety of arts architecture, sculpture and painting with crafts and engineering. It was the general objective to create a visionary and utopian craft guild that would combine beauty with usefulness. Music: Compositions of Igor Stravinsky: One of music's truly epochal innovators; no other composer of the twentieth century exerted such a pervasive influence or dominated his art in the way that Stravinsky did during his seven-decade musical career. Aside from purely technical considerations such as rhythm and harmony, the most important hallmark of Stravinskys style is, indeed, its changing face. Emerging from the spirit of late Russian nationalism and ending his career with a thorny, individual language steeped in twelvetone principles, Stravinsky assumed a number of aesthetic guises throughout the course of his development while always retaining a distinctive, essential identity. Dada Bauhaus Architecture

IV. Continued arts of the 20th century. Throughout the century, a number of writers challenged traditional literary conventions, questioned Western values, and addressed controversial social and political issues. Franz Kafka: A German-language writer of novels and short stories who is widely regarded as one of the major figures of the 20th century literature. His work fuses elements of realism and the fantastic, typically features isolated protagonists faced by bizarre or surrealistic predicaments and incomprehensible social-bureaucratic powers, and has been interpreted as exploring themes of alienation, existential anxiety, guilt, and absurdity. Increased imports of United States technology and popular culture after World War II generated both enthusiasm and criticism KC 4.4: Demographic changes, economic growth, total war, disruptions of traditional social patterns, and competing definitions of freedom and justice altered the experiences of everyday life. The disruptions of two total wars, the reduction of barriers to migration within Europe because of economic integration, globalization, and the arrival of new permanent residents from outside of Europe changed the everyday lives of Europeans in

significant ways. More people living in cities than rural communities Standard of living went up, populations went down, so governments encouraged childbirth with better child care and created large-scale guest-worker programs New citizens to Europe created challenges to European identity and a backlash against groups that were viewed as outsiders By the 1960s environmental problems caused by industrialization was causing many problems and students began to protest against institutional authority Feminists movements gained increased participation in politics, yet social patterns still hindered gender equality In the 21st century, Europeans continued to wrestle with issues of social justice and how to define European identity.

I. The 20th century was characterized by large-scale suffering brought on by warfare and genocide as well as tremendous improvements in the standard of living. WWI created a lost generation, fostered disillusionment and cynicism, transformed the lives of women, and democratic societies. WWII destroyed a generation of Russian and German men, virtually destroyed European Jews Mass production, new food technology, and industrial efficiency increased disposable income and create a consumer culture in which greater domestic comforts were available. New communication and transportation improved connections and contributed to globalization Telephone: Revolutionized the way that people communicated over long distances and

made connects possible all over the world. II. The lives of women were defined by family and work responsibilities, economic changes, and feminism. During the world wars, women became more involved in military and political mobilization as well as in economic production In Western Europe through the efforts of feminists, and in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union through government policy, women finally gained the vote, more education and careers, but social inequalities still existed. Economic recovery after WWII led to a baby boom, often promoted by governments Subsidies for large families: To encourage higher birth rates, some governments offered money to families with a lot of children New modes of marriage, partnership, motherhood, divorce, and reproduction gave women more

options in their personal lives Second-wave feminism: Activity that first began in the early 1960s in the United States, and eventually spread throughout the Western world and beyond. In the United States the movement lasted through the early 1980s and continued to demand greater equality for women The pill: The birth control pill allowed women to decided when they would have children and gave them the ability to postpone child birth after they finished college and had a job. Women attained high political office and increased their representation in legislative bodies in many nations. Margaret Thatcher of Great Britain: A British stateswoman and politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. III. New voices gained prominence in political, intellectual, and social discourse. Green parties in Western and Central Europe challenged consumerism, urged sustainable development, and, by the late 20th century, cautioned against globalization

Gay and lesbian movements worked for expanded civil rights, obtaining in some nations the right to from civil partnerships with full legal benefits or to marry Intellectuals and youth reacted against perceived bourgeois materialism and decadence, most significantly with the revolts of 1968. Economic growth of the 1950s and 1960s led to guest workers from southern Europe, Asia, and Africa immigrated to Western and Central Europe; however, after the economic downturn of the 1970s, these works and families often became targets of anti-immigrant agitation and extreme nationalist political parties French National Front: This is a socially conservative, nationalistic political party in France. Its major policies include economic protectionism, a zero tolerance approach to law and order issues, and opposition to immigration.

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