Understanding Visual Media IS146: Foundations of New Media

Understanding Visual Media IS146: Foundations of New Media Prof. Marc Davis, Prof. Peter Lyman, and danah boyd UC Berkeley SIMS Tuesday and Thursday 2:00 pm 3:30 pm Spring 2005 http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/academics/courses/is146/s05/ IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 1 Lecture Overview

Review of Last Time History and Technology of Digital Imaging Today Understanding Visual Media Preview of Next Time Case Study: Cameraphone IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 2

Lecture Overview Review of Last Time History and Technology of Digital Imaging Today Understanding Visual Media Preview of Next Time Case Study: Cameraphone IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 3

Image reading Visual communication is always coded It seems transparent only because we know the code already, at least passively but without knowing what it is we know, without having the means for talking about what it is we do when we read an image. Our culture is moving from textual to visual Until now, language, especially written language, was the most highly valued, the most frequently analyzed, the most prescriptively taught and the most meticulously policed code in our society. Visual literacy is not taught and needs to be

If schools are to equip students adequately for the new semiotic order, if they are not to produce people unable to use the 'new writing' actively and effectively, then the old boundaries between 'writing' on the one hand, traditionally the form of literacy without which people cannot adequately function as citizens, and, on the other hand, the 'visual arts', a marginal subject for the specially gifted, and 'technical drawing', a technical subject with limited and specialized application, should be redrawn. SIMS-IS146 17.03.2005 Image technology development of

development of development of technology (e.g. colour, brushes, canvas, etc.) development of presentation techniques (e.g. central perspective) technology (e.g. camera, film stock, etc.) development of presentation techniques

(e.g. illumination) technology (e.g. camera, compression, manipulation) development of presentation techniques (e.g. automatic collage) Painting SIMS-IS146 17.03.2005 VERMEER VAN

DELFT, c. 1665, Oil on canvas, 46,5 x 40 cm, Mauritshuis, The Hague Photo (1830) Digital image (1950) The camera Analog camera produces a

continuous image, simulating the capture of the eye. Negative (reverse reality) Actual image (various manipulation processes) Analog technology is expensive and complicated to handle. SIMS-IS146 17.03.2005 The digital image

0 1 1 0 1 01 0 1 001

0 1 0001 0 1 00001 0 1

000001 0 1 0000001 SIMS-IS146 17.03.2005 The image is a matrix of values, representing the colour, texture, dimension, etc.

The digital image - size 1 Bit -> black and white 8 Bit -> greyscale 16 Bit -> 64.000 colours (High Colour) 24 Bit -> 16 Mil. colours (True Colour) File size for True Colour 640 x 480 x 3 800 x 600 x 3 1024 x 768 x 3 1280 x 1024 x 3 SIMS-IS146 17.03.2005

= = = = 0,87 MB 1,37 MB 2,25 MB 3,75 MB The digital image - manipulation Pixel or vector

Image format Resolution Mode File type Image enhancement resize colour enhancement artistic filters establishing planes any other sort of manipulation ALWAYS ask: what do I intend to do with the image now AND in the future? SIMS-IS146 17.03.2005

Lecture Overview Review of Last Time History and Technology of Digital Imaging Today Understanding Visual Media Preview of Next Time Case Study: Cameraphone IS146 SPRING 2005

2005.03.29 SLIDE 10 Understanding Comics Scott McCloud - comic artist Explains visual communication through comics Explains comics through visual communication "If you've ever felt bad about wasting your life reading comics, then check out Scott McCloud's classic book immediately. You might still feel you've wasted your life, but you'll know why, and you'll be proud. - Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons. IS146 SPRING 2005

2005.03.29 SLIDE 11 What Are Comics? Juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer. (p. 9) How do comics differ from Photographs? Movies? Hieroglyphics? Emoticons? IS146 SPRING 2005

2005.03.29 SLIDE 12 Why Understand Comics? IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 13 Old Comics: Trajans Column IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 14

Old Comics: Mayan Codex Nuttall IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 15 Old Comics: Tortures of St. Erasmus IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 16

Scott McClouds Big Triangle Picture Plane Reality Language In Chapter Two of Scott McClouds 1993 book Understanding Comics, he devises a map of visual iconography (i.e., pictures, words, symbols) that takes the shape of a triangle. IS146 SPRING 2005

2005.03.29 SLIDE 17 Scott McClouds Big Triangle Picture Plane Reality Language The lower left corner is visual resemblance (e.g., photography and realistic painting).

IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 18 Scott McClouds Big Triangle Picture Plane Reality Language The lower right includes the products of what he calls iconic

abstraction (e.g., cartooning). IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 19 Scott McClouds Big Triangle Picture Plane Reality Language And at the top are the denizens of the

picture plane (pure abstraction) which cease to make reference to any visual phenomena other than themselves. IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 20 Scott McClouds Big Triangle Picture Plane Reality The move from realism to cartoons along the bottom

edge is a move away from resemblance that still retains meaning, so words, the next logical step in the progression, are included at far right, thereby enclosing anything in comics visual vocabulary between the three points. IS146 SPRING 2005 Language 2005.03.29 SLIDE 21 Scott McClouds Big Triangle

Picture Plane Reality Language McCloud found that The Big Triangle as it came to be known, was an interesting tool for thinking about comics art... IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 22

Scott McClouds Big Triangle Picture Plane Reality Language ...and for visual art and language in general! IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 23

Cartoons and Viewer Identification IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 24 Closure: From Parts To The Whole IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 25

Closure: Bridging Time and Space IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 26 Closure in Comics IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 27 Closure: The Gutter in

Comics IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 28 Closure: Moment-To-Moment IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 29 Closure: Action-To-Action

IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 30 Closure: Subject-To-Subject IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 31 Closure: Scene-To-Scene IS146 SPRING 2005

2005.03.29 SLIDE 32 Closure: Aspect-To-Aspect IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 33 Closure: Non-Sequitur IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 34

Questions for Today How do we interpret images and sequences of images? How do we read different visual representations of the world (especially different levels of realism and abstraction) differently? How does what is left out affect how we understand images and sequences of images? IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 35

Questions for Today What are some of the differences between how text and images function in comics? What would be lost/gained in moving between images and text? IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 36 Questions for Today How could we represent images and sequences of images in order to

make them programmable? What could computation do to affect how we produce, manipulate, reuse, and understand images and sequences of images? IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 37 Lecture Overview Review of Last Time History and Technology of Digital Imaging

Today Understanding Visual Media Preview of Next Time Case Study: Cameraphone IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 38 Readings for Next Time Marc Davis, Simon King, Nathan Good, and Risto Sarvas. From Context to Content: Leveraging Context to

Infer Media Metadata. in: Proceedings of 12th Annual ACM International Conference on Multimedia (MM2004). New York: ACM Press, p. 188-195, 2004. Discussion Questions Nancy A. Van House, Marc Davis, Morgan Ames, Megan Finn, and Vijay Viswanathan. The Uses of Personal Networked Digital Imaging: An Empirical Study of Cameraphone Photos and Sharing. in: Extended Abstracts of the ACM Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (CHI2005). New York: ACM Press, Forthcoming 2005. Discussion Questions

IS146 SPRING 2005 2005.03.29 SLIDE 39

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