Mesopotamia Land Between the Rivers VIDEO FERTILE CRESENT

Mesopotamia Land Between the Rivers VIDEO FERTILE CRESENT Mesopotamia Fertile land between the

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 20 to 150 miles wide SUMER First Civilization Collection of City-States

Each city-state centered around a temple called a Ziggurat Vocabulary What is an independent government made

up of a city and its surrounding lands? City-State SUMERIAN INVENTIONS

Wheel, sail, plow

Sewer, arch Number system Geometry Algebra Cuneiform

Cuneiform Oldest written language From The Epic of Gilgamesh .You know the city Shurrupak, it stands on the banks of Euphrates? That city grew old and the gods that were in it

were old. There was Anu,-lord of the firmament, their father, and warrior Enlil their counsellor, Ninurta the helper, and Ennugi watcher over canals; and with them also was Ea. In those days the world teemed, the people multiplied, the world bellowed like a wild bull, and the great god was aroused by the clamour. Enlil heard the clamour and he said to the gods in

council, "The uproar of mankind is intolerable and sleep is no longer possible by reason of the babel." So the gods agreed to exterminate mankind. Enlil did this, but Ea because of his oath warned me in a dream. He whispered their words to my house of reeds, "Reed-house, reed-house! Wall, O wall, hearken reedhouse, wall reflect; O man of Shurrupak, son of Ubara-Tutu; tear down your house and build a boat, abandon possessions and look for life, despise worldly goods and save

your soul alive. Tear down your house, I say, and build a boat. These are the measurements of the barque as you shall build her: let hex beam equal her length, let her deck be roofed like the vault that covers the abyss; then take up into the boat the seed of all living creatures."

Vocabulary What is the oldest written language? Cuneiform What civilization invented it? Sumerians

THE BIRTH OF EMPIRE Sargon of Akkad ca. 2350 B.C. Created worlds first empire by controlling northern and southern Mesopotamia Spread Sumerian culture beyond TigrisEuphrates Valley

Vocabulary What do we call it when ideas are spread from one place to another? Cultural Diffusion Ishtar

The story of Mesopotamia is the story of the RISE &

FALL of Empires 1

st Babylonian Empire Ca. 2000 BCE Amorites invade Establish capital at Babylon, on the

Euphrates River BABYLONIAN EMPIRE The Assyrians conquered the 1st Babylonian Empire, ca. 1700-612 BCE The Chaldeans conquered the Assyrians, ca. 612-539 BCE

They became the Neo-Babylonians, or the 2nd Babylonian Empire The PERSIANS conquered them, 539 BCE 1st Empire

BABYLONIANS First Written Laws: HAMMURABIS CODE

- Tower of Babylon --Hanging Gardens 2nd Empire Phoenicians VIDEO

Traders Collection of city-states About 1100 B.C. dominated Mediterranean trade Shipbuilders and seafarers

First Mediterranean people to voyage beyond the Strait of Gibraltar Merchandise Red-purple dye - Made from rotten snails

Papyrus Wine Weapons Precious metals Ivory Slaves

Alphabet Needed to record transactions Created a phonetic alphabet 22 letters Same phonetically as the

Hebrew First two letters: aleph, beth Phoenician Alphabet Vocabulary What do we call the Phoenician writing

system? The Phoenician Alphabet Hebrews Canaan the Promised-Land: faced

drought, famine, starvation Abrahams Covenant with God: A nation out of one Father of all three major world religions Isaac and Ishmael Judaism and Islam

Enslaved in Egypt Led by Moses out of Egypt 40 years wandering in the desert -10 Commandments -The Torah

Back in Canaan (Israel), war over land with Philistines AND FINALLY, THE PERSIANS Came from present-day Iran

Cyrus the Great seized Babylon. - Freed the Jewish people - Allowed them to return to Israel - Allowed them to rebuild the Temple of Solomon

Tolerant rulers Darius the Great built the city of Persepolis Zoroastrianism - Monotheistic - Good vs. Evil - Afterlife=a good place & a bad place!

Vocabulary What is the monotheistic Persian religion that believes in a struggle between good and evil? Zoroastrianism

Fertile Crescent Sumerians Akkadians Amorites (1st Babylonian Empire) Hittites (IRON WEAPONS) Assyrians (IRON WEAPONS, FIERCE ARMY)

Neo-Babylonians (Chaldeans [related to the Amorites]), 2nd Babylonian Empire Persians VIDEO 1

VIDEO 2

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