Chapter 3 Activity at plate boundaries - volcanoes

Chapter 3 Activity at plate boundaries - volcanoes Volcanic activity Most volcanic activity takes place along the margins or boundaries of plates. Volcanic activity can result in: o mid-ocean ridges and islands o volcanic cones.

Eruption in Iceland Eruption in Hawaii Mid-ocean ridge and islands

They form when two plates separate beneath the ocean floor. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge formed when the American and European plates separated. Volcanic fissure When two plates separate, magma comes to the surface through a long crack

called a fissure. Volcanic fissure The Giants Causeway in Northern Ireland formed when magma poured up through a fissure and cooled into hexagonal (six-sided) shapes. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Iceland

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (E) was formed when the American plate (C) pulled away from the Eurasian (A) and African (B) plates. The ridge breaks the surface of the ocean to form Iceland (D). Iceland: a volcanic island

Iceland was formed when the North American plate pulled away from the Eurasian and African plates. At 20 million years old, it is the youngest country in Europe

Volcanic plume (Iceland) Some volcanic eruptions in Iceland send large plumes of smoke and ash into the atmosphere. Some of these have interfered with air

traffic over Europe. Iceland: a volcanic island A large fissure (crack) runs through Iceland where the American plate (left)

and Eurasian plate (right) pulled apart. Today, it is used as a tourist trail. The Blue Lagoon, Iceland

Iceland uses geothermal energy to generate electricity and heating The Blue Lagoon is one source of geothermal energy. Its hot springs are also a major tourism attraction. Volcanic cones Volcanic cones are formed when magma finds its way to

the surface through a hole called a vent (1). Layers of lava and ash build up as the cone grows. The opening at the top of the pipe (2) is called a crater (3). Volcanic cones

Active volcano during an eruption. The Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is the most active volcanic zone in the world. It encircles the Pacific Ocean where most of the Earths plates are in collision.

Mount St. Helens volcano Mount St Helens is a volcano in the Rocky Mountains. Photograph show the cone and its surrounding area before the eruption. Note the bulges to the front of the mountain Mount St. Helens volcano

Photograph shows the cone and its surrounding area after the eruption. Note the absence of forest and the scars left by the mudflows. Mount St. Helens volcano

Image showing the destruction caused to the forests that surrounded Mt. St. Helens. Mount St. Helens now The volcano is still active but not violently so. Note the new cone building up in the large crater. Vegetation has returned to some of the area.

And, away from Earth ! NASA satellite image of a volcano on Mars Illustration credits

NASA USGS Shutterstock Compuscript

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