2 Basic Chemistry PART B PowerPoint Lecture Slide

2 Basic Chemistry PART B PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY EIGHTH EDITION

ELAINE N. MARIEB Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biochemistry: Essentials for Life Organic compounds Contain carbon Most are covalently bonded Example: C6H12O6 (glucose) Inorganic compounds Lack carbon Tend to be simpler compounds

Example: H2O (water) Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Important Inorganic Compounds Water Most abundant inorganic compounds Vital properties High heat capacity Polarity/solvent properties Chemical reactivity Cushioning

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Important Inorganic Compounds Salts Easily dissociate into ions in the presence of water Vital to many body functions Include electrolytes which conduct electrical currents Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Important Inorganic Compounds Acids Can release detectable hydrogen ions Bases Proton acceptors Neutralization reaction Acids and bases react to form water and a salt Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings pH

Measures relative concentration of hydrogen ions pH 7 = neutral pH below 7 = acidic pH above 7 = basic Buffers: chemicals that can regulate pH change Figure 2.11 Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Important Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Include sugars and starches Classified according to size Monosaccharides simple sugars Disaccharides two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis Polysaccharides long branching chains of linked simple sugars Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Important Organic Compounds Lipids Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen Insoluble in water PRESS TO PLAY LIPIDS ANIMATION

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lipids Common lipids in the human body Neutral fats (triglycerides) Found in fat deposits Composed of fatty acids and glycerol Source of stored energy Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Lipids Common lipids in the human body (continued) Phospholipids Form cell membranes Steroids Include cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Important Organic Compounds Proteins Made of amino acids Contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Proteins Account for over half of the bodys organic matter Provides for construction materials for

body tissues Plays a vital role in cell function Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies PRESS TO PLAY CHEMISTRY OF LIFE PROTEINS: ENZYME ANIMATION Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Enzymes

Act as biological catalysts Increase the rate of chemical reactions Figure 2.17 Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Important Organic Compounds Nucleic Acids Provide blueprint of life Nucleotide bases A = Adenine G = Guanine

C = Cytosine T = Thymine U = Uracil Make DNA and RNA Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nucleic Acids Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Organized by complimentary bases

to form double helix Replicates before cell division Provides instruction for every protein in the body Figure 2.18c Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Important Organic Compounds Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Chemical energy used by all cells

Energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Figure 2.19a Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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