Lesson 5 The Big Idea The people of

Lesson 5 The Big Idea The people of ancient India made great contributions to the arts and sciences. Main Ideas Indian artists created great works of religious art. Sanskrit literature flourished during the Gupta period. The Indians made scientific advances in metalworking, medicine, and other sciences.

Religious Art: Temples Both Hindu and Buddhist temples began flourishing under Gupta rule. Once simply constructed meeting places, Hindu temples became complex towers covered with intricate carvings. Buddhist temples were large and impressive, some carved out of mountainsides. Buddhist stupas were built to house sacred objects from the life of the Buddha. They were covered with detailed carvings.

Religious Art: Paintings and Sculpture Great artists were commissioned by rich and powerful members of society. Paintings offered a perspective on the daily life and religious belief of the ancient Indians; many of these paintings could be found on the walls of temples. Indian sculptors carved columns, statues, and entire temples in the likenesses of the Buddha and Hindu gods.

Sanskrit Literature Mahabharata Ramayana One of the worlds longest literary works The story of a god, Vishnu, who has taken human form

The story of two Indian families struggling for control of a kingdom Written long after the Mahabharata; contains models for the ideal ruler (Rama) and the ideal mate (Sita) Many long passages of

Hindu beliefs and practices Sanskrit Literature Other Works Chadra Gupta II hired a famous writer named Kalidasa to write plays for the royal court. The Panchatantra, a book of stories intended to teach moral lessons and quick thinking, was translated into many languages.

Scientific Advances Metalworking Pioneers of metallurgy, the Indians created tools and weapons by mixing iron and other metals together. Mathematics The Indians invented the concept of zero and developed a sophisticated number system,

the Hindu-Arabic numerals. Medicine Using plants and minerals, Indian doctors made advances in medicinal science. They were among the first to practice inoculation and perform surgery. Astronomy

Indian astronomers knew of seven about the nine planets in the solar system and could predict eclipses of the sun and moon.

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