10th World Studies 2.12.18 Turn in: Nothing Take out: Planner Pen/Pencil Todays objective: I can describe how the happenings of Europe begin to impact the impending War. Todays Agenda: Causes of the Great War Brief Run-down on
Alliance System Militarism HW: TBD: Militarism Research CAUSES OF THE GREAT WAR Mmilitarism Aalliances Nnationalism Iimperialism Aassassination
Who: Germany, Russia, Austro-Hungarian Empire (Shhh its a secret!) (1872-75 & 1881-87) Why: Spheres of Influence in the BalkansImperialism Germany (Bismarck) trying to broker peace Also Germany concerned about France due to F-P War What: No territorial changes in Balkans w/o prior agreement However, A-H could annex Bosnia-Herzegovina whenever they liked. Any of the 3 @ war with another nation, those in the DKB would come to aid. 1879: Dual Alliance Who: Germany and A-H Empire Why:
Bismarck saw it as a way to avoid German isolation and preserve peace. Close historical ties between the two nations would be strengthened What: Both countries agreed to come to the aid of the other in case of a Russian attack Both countries agreed to neutrality in case of attack from any other nation. Remained a key piece of political power between the two nations through the end of WWI. 1882: Triple Alliance Who: Germany, A-H Empire, and Italy Why: (again, a secret) Italy looking for support/protection following
losing territory to France in Northern Africa (East/West goals)Imperialism What: Germany & Austria-Hungary would support Italy if France attacked w/o provocation Italy would assist Germany if attacked by France If A-H & Russia were at war, Italy would remain neutral When renewedA-H/Italy needed to agree in any territorial change in the Balkans (spheres of influence again) 1887: Reinsurance Treaty Who: Germany and Russia Why: Secret againA-H & Russia tension from Dreikaiserbund over the Balkans
Russian influence in eastern Europe, and access to the Black Sea (AlsoSee the Triple Alliance) What: Each would remain neutral if a 3rd great power was involved Except if Germany attacked France Russia attacked A-H 1894: Franco-Russian Alliance Who: France and Russia Why: Quite simply because Reinsurance Treaty wasnt renewed Germany thought political ideals would keep France and Russia apart Bismarck wanted to avoid 2 Front War
(Also secret) France wanted support against Germany, Russia against A-H What: France attacked by Germany or Italy, supported by GermanyRussia would mobilize 700-800K troop to fight Germany Russia attacked by Germany or A-H, supported by GermanyFrance would mobilize 1.3M troops to attack Germany 1902: Anglo-Japanese Alliance Who: Britain and Japan Why: To protect interests in China and Korea Prevent Russian expansion in the East What: Each was to assist in any threat to
interests in China and Korea Served to discourage France from supporting Russia in Russo-Japanese War Continued through WWIJapan fought on the side of the Allies 1904: Entente Cordiale Who: Britain, Ireland, and France Why: To ease tension between the great powers Give the appearance of others opposing Germany What: Not so much a treaty, more of an agreed understanding. Allowed Britain freedom in Egypt Allowed France freedom in Moroccoas long as they allowed for reasonable negotiations with Spain Britain ceded islands to France (off French Guinea),
moved the border of Nigeria in favor of France, and agreed to French control of the upper Gambia valley. France gave up some fishing rights in Newfoundland Spheres of influence in Siam (Thailand) were agreed upon 1907: Anglo-Russian Alliance Who: Britain and Russia Why: To settle colonial disputes in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet What: Neither country would interfere in Tibets internal affairs Recognized Britains influence over Afghanistan. Solidified holdings and influence
in Persia 1907: Triple Entente Who: Britain, France, and Russia Why: A delayed response to the Triple Alliance Growing unrest about Germanys military power Bury old tensions between rivals What: Moral obligation to support each other No formal specifics as to support in event of war, but more of an unspoken/written understanding A. Alliances
Agreement between two countries to defend each other if attacked by another country Increased fear and suspicions Hoped to create a balance of power in Europe Quickly become ENTANGLED Alliance System, before 1914 Triple Triple Entente: Entente: Triple Triple Alliance: Alliance: POW!
POW! Alliance System, 1914 Triple Triple Alliance: Alliance: Triple Triple Entente: Entente: Originally, the Ottoman Empire attempted to join with the Western Allies. Russiainterested, but no. Francedidnt want to upset Russia Britainnot really interested Germanyheck yes!
Alliance System, 1915 Triple Triple Alliance: Alliance: Triple Triple Entente: Entente: The Treaty of London (1915) Italy hesitated to enter WWI, although allied with Germany, A-H, and in turn the Ottoman Empire. Western Allies made the promise of territorial gains to entice them to join the Alliesin particular land in A-H and Ottoman Empire.
CAUSES OF THE GREAT WAR Mmilitarism Aalliances Nnationalism Iimperialism Aassassination (C)Competition M. Militarism
(also competition) The tendency to regard military efficiency as the supreme ideal of the state and to subordinate all other interests to those of the military. Glorification of military power. Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers in millions of s. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914
94 130 154 268 289 398 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10%
Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73% M. Militarism (also competition) The tendency to regard military efficiency as
the supreme ideal of the state and to subordinate all other interests to those of the military. Glorification of military power. ARMY Troops = Germany v. Russia, France 1880 1914 Germany 1.3m 5.0m France 730,000 4.0m Russia 400,000 1.2m The Importance of Naval Supremacy Alfred Thayer Mahan US Naval War College
The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660-1783 (1890) The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 17931812 (1892) Control of the seas = Great Success Emphasis placed on LARGEST & most POWERFUL navy Coupled with the importance of economic control of the seas. Have the larger, more powerful navywin wars Control the commerce that travels during war timewin current and future wars Force is never more operative than when it is known to exist but is not brandished. The Importance of Naval Supremacy Alfred Thayer Mahan: Both early works very influential in both Germany and England
Theory of Naval Superiority: Based on the Two Power standard. Royal Navy should be the size of the next two largest navies combined. 1889Naval Defense Act Simply the formalization of the policy that had been in place informally since the 1850s. France/Russia the next two largest at the time. The Fleet Acts Mit einem Worte: wir wollen niemand
den "in one word: We wish to throw no one in into the Schatten stellen, aberour wirown verlangen shade, but we demand place inauch
the unseren Platz an der Sonne. sun." 1898: The First Naval Law 1900: The Second Naval Lawintroduced following an international incident with the British involving the 2nd Boer War 1906/08/12: Naval Laws, all following incidents Dreadnought Race Jackie Fisher: HMS Dreadnought (All big gun warship) [1906-1923] Admiral that reforms the navy as we know it
Alfred von Tirpitz: Risikoflotte risk fleet Created the German navy from virtually nothing Turned to Unterseeboots in attempt to overtake Brits. Naval Strength, August 1914 Dreadnoughts Battle Cruisers Cruisers
During the Summer/Fall of 1914 France loses as many soldiers as the US lost in the entire 19th C 70,000,000 soldiers 35,000,000 DEAD 11% of Frances TOTAL population injured or killed 4 years 230 soldiers/hour 16 Countries involved Fighting touches Africa, Asia, Europe, Americas
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