kathryn thumath 02/03/20 KTHUMATH 1 The Haber Process

kathryn thumath 02/03/20 KTHUMATH 1 The Haber Process 02/03/20 This is the Industrial Manufacture of Ammonia NH3 It is made by reacting nitrogen and Hydrogen together.

Hydrogen comes from Methane or Naphtha Nitrogen comes from the Air The process is reversible, we will not get 100% yield. The conditions used help increase yield Using an Iron catalyst, T = 500/600C, 175x atmospheric pressure. KTHUMATH 2 The reaction N2 + 3 H2 Making Ammonia in the Laboratory This can be done by heating an ammonium compound with an alkali. Example Ca(OH)2 + NH4Cl= CaCl2 +NH3+H2O

02/03/20 = 2 NH3 KTHUMATH 3 Properties of Ammonia

02/03/20 It is alkaline It is less dense than air. It is very soluble in water It can neutralise acids It is a colourless gas It has a strong fishy smell It is used to make fertilisers (Ammonium salts) It is used to make Nitric Acid KTHUMATH 4 Making Ammonium Salts

02/03/20 They can be made in neutralisation reactions with acids. The experiment should be carried out using titration apparatus. Acid fills the burette, ammonia is pipetted into a flask and a few drops of indicator is added. The end point is when the indicator turns green. Repeat the titration to get duplicate results and take an average.Evaporate water to get solid salt. KTHUMATH 5 Nitrogen Dioxide

02/03/20 NO2 can be made by sparking air. It is a brown gas. The electric spark provides the energy to break the N2 triple bond.This is not economoly viable. It is formed when Nitrogen and Oxygen react.( It is also produced in car exhausts) It is an acidic gas and contributes partly to acid rain.It is soluble in water- Nitric Acid It is used to form Nitric Acid which is used to make fertilisers. KTHUMATH 6 The Ostwald Process

02/03/20 This is the industrial manufacture of Nitric Acid. 1. Air + Ammonia = Nitrogen monoxide ( Platinum/Rhodium catalyst, 900C. 2. NO passes through cooler where it reacts with O2 forming NO2 3. NO2 and O2 pass to absorption tower, passing over water soaked glass beads. 4. The Nitric Acid produced collects at bottom of tower. KTHUMATH 7 The Equations!

02/03/20 NH3 + Air = NO NO + Air = NO2 NO2 + H2O + O2 ( Air) = HNO3 The Nitric Acid will then be used in Neutralisation reactions to form salts - Fertilisers KTHUMATH 8 Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen In Air can be fixed in 2 ways. Lightning storms or in root nodules. It is used to make nitrates which are essential to make plant proteins. Plants can be eaten by animals which covert to animal proteins. When plants or animals die the proteins are converted into ammonium compounds. Their waste manure/sewage can also be added to soil. The ammonia is then turned back into nitrates which can be re used. Ammonia is also made in the Haber process and can be added to the soil in compounds. 02/03/20 KTHUMATH 9

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