BUILDING AN EMPIRE PERIOD 7.1 1898-1901 From its inception, the United States had been an isolationist country (remember Washingtons Farewell
Address & the Monroe Doctrine) Around the turn of the century, the U.S. begins to pursue a policy of imperialism Imperialism a policy where countries take over or assert their influence through military and
economic dominance (i.e. what Britain had done with the 13 colonies). CAUSES OF AMERICAN IMPERIALISM: 1. To spread American democracy and Christianity to other parts of the world (Manifest Destiny)
2. Investors were looking for new markets to make profits (Hawaiian sugar) 3. Strategically placed military bases 4. Keeping up with the European powers who we all expanding their influence around the world
SEWARDS FOLLY 1867 Secretary of State William Seward purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. The purchase was ridiculed (Sewards Folly, Sewards Icebox) because Alaska was
seen as a frozen wasteland. This was Americas first expansion that wasnt directly connected to one of the other American territories. SPURNING THE HAWAIIAN PEAR Treaties signed between
the U.S. and Hawaii in 1875 and 1887, guaranteed cooperative business between the U.S. and Hawaii 1. U.S. got the rights to Pearl Harbor for a Naval Base 2.American business men
began to invest in the Hawaiian sugar and pineapple trade COUP IN HAWAII The McKinley Tariff (1890) Raised the tax on imported goods to almost 50% Cut into the profits of American investors that were involved with foreign markets (particularly Hawaii)
Because of the high tariff, many American investors begin to support the idea of annexing Hawaii (The annexation was opposed by Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani) 1893 Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown by a revolution led by American citizens and supported by American Marines.
American business man Sanford Dole was named the President of the Republic of Hawaii. THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR CUBANS RISE IN REVOLT In 1895, Cuba revolts against Spain
Many Americans supported the Cuban Revolution because of the reports of human rights violations on the Cubans at the hands of the Spanish Cuban political opponents of Spain were being
thrown into concentration camps YELLOW JOURNALISM LEADS TO JINGOISM The yellow journalists competed against each other to come up with sensational war stories The yellow journalism led to jingoism, and many Americans began to fervently support U.S. intervention in
Cuba. THE MYSTERY OF THE MAINE EXPLOSION 1898 - The Navy sends the U.S.S. Maine (a battleship) to evacuate American citizens from Cuba
While the U.S.S. Maine was parked in Havana Harbor, it mysteriously exploded, killing 260 officers and naval men The cause was unknown. YELLOW JOURNALISM
MCKINLEY UNLEASHES THE DOGS OF WAR The American public wanted war President McKinley (a Civil War veteran) privately didnt like war or the violence, but was pressured to intervene by American popular support April 11, 1898 - the president sent his war
message to Congress with three points: 1. war with Spain was inevitable anyways because they were violating the Monroe Doctrine 2. America had to defend democracy THE PROMISE TO CUBA The Teller Amendment was adopted by Congress at beginning of U.S. involvement in the war, and it
proclaimed that when the U.S. overthrew Spanish rule in Cuba, it would give the Cubans their freedom and not annex the island. The Great White Fleet At this time, Theodore Roosevelt was the
Assistant Secretary of the Navy. He had been responsible for modernizing the U.S. Navy and making the U.S. one of the premier Naval forces in the world.
THE GREAT WHITE FLEET Spain had moved most of their military troops to Cuba to try and repel the American invasion. This move left their other territories, such as the Philippines left vulnerable. February 1898 - Teddy Roosevelt ordered Naval Commodore George Dewey to sail to the
Philippine Islands and take them on behalf of the United States. UNEXPECTED IMPERIALISTIC PLUMS August 1898 Commodore Deweys forces arrived and captured Manila (The Capital of the Philippines) Filipino insurgents, led by the revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo, helped the Americans overthrow Spanish
rulers Aguinaldo, assumed that the United States would make a promise for independence to the Philippines (like the Teller Amendment to Cuba) THE ROUGH RIDERS Meanwhile, Teddy Roosevelt resigned his position as Assistant Secretary of the
Navy so he could help lead a regiment of volunteers to go fight in Cuba. The Rough Riders were organized and led by Theodore Roosevelt and Colonel Leonard Wood Comprised of former cowboys, ivy league scholars, and
convicts Helped the American Marines defeat the Spanish at the Battle of San Juan DEFEATING THE SPANISH August, 1898 - Soon after the Battle of San Juan, the Spanish signed an armistice, and surrenders to the United States
Treaty of Paris, 1898 officially ended the war. Terms of the treaty: 1. 2. America, got Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines from Spain (paid Spain $20 million for the territory) Cuba got its independence (as promised in the Teller Amendment
AMERICAS COURSE (CURSE?) OF EMPIRE In the United States, the most controversial aspect of the Treaty of Paris 1898 was the annexation of the Philippines. The Anti-Imperialist League formed to oppose American ratification of the treaty The League firmly opposed to this new imperialism and
colony-building foreign policy of the United States Compared the new United States to the British government that our country had won independence from a century earlier. Prominent members included Williams Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers, and Andrew Carnegie. Despite fierce political opposition to the Treaty of Paris ratification, it was approved by the U.S.
Senate. THE CUBAN CONSTITUTION Once Cuba became an independent nation, they wrote a constitution America encouraged Cuba to add an amendment to the new Cuban Constitution, called the Platt Amendment The Platt amendment stated that: 1.
2. 3. the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba (no tariffs or embargos) the U.S. would get Guantanamo Bay to build a naval base. THE PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION
REVOLT IN THE PHILIPPINES The Filipinos assumed that they would receive independence at the conclusion of the SpanishAmerican War when they didnt, they revolted against the U.S. The revolt was led by Emilio Aguinaldo and lasted over 2 years, but was eventually put down by overwhelming American military forces.
THE PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION OPENING THE DOOR TO CHINA HINGING THE OPEN DOOR IN CHINA China was carved into spheres of influence by the European powers.
China was split up into districts and controlled by European countries for exclusive trading rights U.S. Secretary of State John Hay wrote what is now called the Open Door Note to urge the European nations to allow all countries equal trading access to China. THE OPEN-DOOR POLICY
Reaction to The Open Door Policy Most countries already holding spots of China were reluctant because they had nothing to gain and a lot to lose. Russia didnt accept it at all
but the others did, on certain conditions China was opened for trade to the whole world. THE BOXER REBELLION In 1900, an extremist group within China known as the Boxers started the Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion started because: The Boxers were Angry about all the foreign influence in China (especially Christian influence) they revolted and took over the capital of China (Beijing) Took foreigners hostage The Goal of the rebellion was to force the European foreigners out of their country.
BREAKING THE REBELLION A multi-national military force (including the U.S.) was organized and easily broke the Boxer Rebellion China was forced to pay $333 million in damages to the European countries that had been economically affected by the rebellion
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