A Look at Theories: Part 1 Copyright Texas

A Look at Theories: Part 1 Copyright Texas Education Agency, These Materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education 2017. Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts and schools educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only, without obtaining written permission of TEA.

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Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 2 Theories: What are they, and why do we care? Theory: a body of principles used to interpret a set of circumstances or facts

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 3 Think of Theories as Windows Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 4 Pedagogy versus Andragogy What are they? Pedagogy defined: The art of

teaching (children) Andragogy defined: The art of helping adults learn How do these ideas impact the way we see people? Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 5 The Way We Look at Things Behaviorism, constructivism, attachment theory,

normative development or systems theory. Each one offers a view Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 6 Attachment Theory John Bowlby first researcher in this area believed attachment was all or nothing Ainsworth (1913 1999)

determined three types of attachment secure ambivalent avoidant Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 7 Ainsworth and Attachment (Click on picture)

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 8 What does it mean? Early responsive, nurturing care Teaches infants that the world is a safe place Teaches infants that their needs will be met Provides the foundation for successful social-emotional development throughout life Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved.

9 Behaviorism Theory Experience guides development and behavior System of rewards and punishment Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 10 Locke John Locke (1632-1704)

Parents as primary educators Children learn through experiences Play is the primary experience Tabula rasa blank slate Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 11 Other Behaviorists Ivan Pavlov John Watson

B.F. Skinner Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 12 Instruction on Behaviorism (click on picture) Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 13

Psychoanalytic Theory Exploration of the unconscious mind in order to cure All thoughts and activities are influenced by the unconscious mind Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 14 Freud

Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) Theorized that psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed stages Believed the first five years of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality Developed the idea of the unconscious and the idea that all people are made up of an id, ego and superego Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 15 Psychoanalytic Theory

(click on picture) Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 16 Cognitive Developmental Theory Attempts to explain how people think and process information Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved.

17 Piaget Jean Piaget (1896 1980) Born in Switzerland Studied the development of his three children, Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent Believed that children actively construct their own knowledge by means of exploration and activities

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 18 Piaget Stages Sensorimotor (Birth to 2 years) Preoperational (2 7 years)

Concrete operations (7 11 years) Formal operations (11 years and beyond) Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 19 Jean Piaget (click on pictures) Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved.

20 Sociocultural Theory Social interaction leads to continuous step-by-step changes in children's thought and behavior Can vary greatly from culture to culture Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved.

21 Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky (1896 1934) Born in Western Russia (Belorussia) Scaffolding -- Children will acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a culture by interacting with an adult or a more knowledgeable peer

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 22 Vygotsky and Socioculturalism (click on pictures) Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 23 Questions?

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 24 References and Resources Articles: Holmes, G. and Abington-Cooper. M. (2000). Pedagogy vs. andragogy: A false dichotomy? The Journal of Technology Studies. 26 (2). Retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/Summer-Fall-2000/holmes.html Mcleod, S. A. (2007). Simply Psychology Psychology Articles for Students. Retrieved fromwww.simplypsychology.org/ Images: Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft. Textbooks: Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood. (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th Edition). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. Websites: AROPA Freud File Sigmund Freud Life and Work http://www.freudfile.org/ Discovery Education Puzzle Maker http://www.puzzlemaker.com Jean Piaget Society Society of scholars, teachers and researchers interested in exploring the nature of the developmental construction of human knowledge. http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 25 References and Resources Muskingum College Jean Piaget http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/piaget.htm Muskingum College Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm PBS Public Broadcasting System Sigmund Freud

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhfreu.html Simply Psychology Articles on theories, compiled by Saul McLeod, Lecturer at Wigan and Leigh College, UK. http://www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html Stanford Encyclopedia of Psychology John Locke http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2012/entries/locke/ Victorian Web Compilation of scholarly and student articles. http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/index.html Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved.

26 References and Resources YouTube: Ainsworth and Attachment: Part I This first part looks at the early influences on the work of Mary Ainsworth, including John Bowlby and Konrad Lorenz http://youtu.be/4HHTohtXEq8 Behaviorism 101 Vanessa Monaghan/Claire Whitehead/Catherine Lonegan/Ciara McDonnell developed this video on behaviorism. http://youtu.be/RU0zEGWp56Y Instruction on Piaget Conservation Experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o

Instruction on Piaget Stages of development http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRF27F2bn-A Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts Motivation, Personality and Development http://youtu.be/7vFf5CS27-Y Instruction on Vygotsky An Introduction to Socioculturalism http://youtu.be/InzmZtHuZPY Instruction on Vygotsky Scaffolding http://youtu.be/12TcwDSrdnM Jean Piaget

Piaget on Piaget http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1JWr4G8YLM Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2017. All rights reserved. 27

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