Topics Primates vs. other mammals Sub orders and

Topics Primates vs. other mammals Sub orders and super family Hominin evolution Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus, Australopithecus Human cladogram ?? Pre-agricultural, post-agricultural, postindustrial human societies Cultural evolution human impact on biosphere Ch. 22 Evolution of Primates p. 457-458.

Primates first appeared ~56 mybp - paleoanthropology Arboreal lineage (lived in trees) Evolved the opposable highly flexible digits: thumb with other four fingers with nails instead of claws - Provide excellent grasp of tree branches - Seen to greater or lesser extent in the feet, depending on the life style of the primate Long slender limbs suited to climbing and treetop mobility Video 1 First primates Video 2 Simple classification Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates

p. 458. Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates p. 458. Eyes in front - excellent stereoscopic vision - needed to climb, capture food Excellent hearing Large brains, social animals, work together as a group Long life span, late sexual maturity Females bear usually one baby; long gestation and long nurturing and protection of baby

Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates p. 458-459. Lesser apes, great apes, humans Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates pp. 459-465. Anthropoids Monkeys, apes and humans Origin North Africa and Asia

Relative brain size cerebrum highly developed center of learning, voluntary movement and interpretation of sensations Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates pp. 464-466. Hominin evolution Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates pp. 462-471.

Human and Ape Skeletal Features Human skeletons - need for upright walking - as a ground dwelling ape Human curvature of the spine - adaptation to provide better balance and weight distribution for bipedalism Human foramen magnum - Underneath the skull Lacks supraorbital ridge have U-shaped jaw Pelvis adjusted for upright walking Foot evolved for ground dwelling, fast running - opposable thumb has been lost Out-of-Africa Model based on Y chromosome data

Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates p. 462-463. Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates pp. 469-471. Agriculture

Greatly changed humans No need to forage; hunter-gatherers became more stable Resulted in more permanent dwellings, towns Agriculture started in several areas, yet cereals (corn, wheat, rice) critical; can be produced in large quantity Domestication of animals easier to obtain food, clothing from domesticated animals Agriculture - more productive than hunting and gathering more efficient use of food, allowing other human activities to develop Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates

pp. 470-471. Cultural Evolution All primates - genetically very similar Humans 98% identical to gorillas; 99% to chimpanzees Slight genetic difference - greater intelligence, power of reasoning Reasoning leads to cultural evolution, which refers to the control of lifestyle by passing on information from one generation to other Important basic element is development of language, allowing information transfer

Cultural evolution drives change in society, changed/eliminated natural environments Ch. 22 The Evolution of Primates pp. 470-471. Effect on Biosphere

Cultural evolution - effects on the natural world Pollution Massive population growth Concentration of agriculture; similar concentration of people in cities Over fishing Over grazing

Loss of arable land Alarming rate of spp. extinction Humans now realize the need to protect the land, water, air and biota

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