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Threat Threat & & Surrender Surrender 1673-1674 1673-1674 comp. comp.&&ed. ed.by by Mark MarkH. H.Rothenberg Rothenberg 2003 Mark H. Rothenberg 2003 Mark H. Rothenberg The ThePatchogue-Medford Patchogue-MedfordLibrary Library Salutes Salutesthe theTown Townon onits itsAnniversary Anniversary The Third Anglo-Dutch War
Odyssey of Cornelis Evertsen & Jacob Benckes, Pt. 1 In 1673, the Dutch state of Zeeland secretly sent one of its 4-frigate naval squadrons (each maritime Dutch state had its own navy), under veteran Captain Cornelis Evertsen, the Youngest (a son & grandson of admirals, both naval heroes, as he was), on a raiding mission, to strike a blow at enemy commerce, seize rich prizes to support further raids, private gain, and the war effort. His specific instructions were bold: to attempt to intercept & seize the entire British East Indies Fleet, on annual its round back to Europe, loaded with treasure, unless he found himself outgunned. Unfortunately, in his staging area in the Canary Islands, he ran afoul of a slightly more powerful English squadron (which, unknown to him, was on an exactly reverse mission, to intercept and seize the Dutch East Indies Fleet). Following two uneven battles, Evertsen, whod done well but whose ships suffered damage, decided to follow his alternate instructions, to raid the Anglo-French Caribbean and if feasible, proceed up the North American coast, and disrupt the Anglo-Dutch Grand Banks fishing fleets (off Newfoundland), then to proceed back to Zeeland. By coincidence, while raiding (with mixed The Third Anglo-Dutch War Odyssey of Cornelis Evertsen & Jacob Benckes, Pt. 2 success) the Caribbean, he ran into a Amsterdam squadron (state of Holland), of another 4 frigates, under seasoned Capt. Jacob Benckes. The two decided to combine forces, which rendered them, at the time, the single most powerful naval force in the Western Hemisphere.
Their raids continued, with uneven success, when word reached them that the annual British-American Tobacco fleet was soon to sail from Chesapeake Bay. They quickly launched a devastating raid in the Chesapeake Bay fleet and its would-be defenders. While there, word reached them of a golden opportunity to retake all of the lost province of New Netherlands, as the key fort was in disrepair, and the governor, away. The fleet, with its many prizes sailed north, reconquered New-York, raided the Grand Banks, and returned home to ingratitude. Surprisingly, Zeeland, Holland, & the Netherlands didnt want the massive old province back, viewing as lucrative only as bargaining chip for a peace desperately needed. Sources: Shomette, Donald G. The Empire Strikes Back on the East End in 1674. In Awakening the Past, ed. by Tom Twomey. NY: New Market Pr., 1999: pp. 132-155; also on East Hampton Librarys website @ http://www.easthamptonlibrary.otg/lic/lectures/donaldshomettelecture.htm and Shomette, Donald G. & Robert D. Haslach. Raid on America: The Dutch Naval Campaign of 1672-1674. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1988, repr. 2002. 386 p. (Highly recommended). Commanders of the Dutch Invasion Fleet of 1673-74 Capt. Cornelis Evertsen, the Youngest Commander of the Zeeland Squadron Capt. Jacob Benckes Commander, Amsterdam Squadron Third Anglo-Dutch War: On Crying Wolf English Complacency & Dutch Re War, having broken Conquest,
out again in 1672, English New-York, with 16721673 its large Dutch population, became rather uneasy, esp. as ships began to carry news of a supposedly approaching Dutch fleet (rumored somewhere to the South). The efficiently corrupt administration of New-Yorks Governor Francis Lovelace saw the danger, & Lovelace sought funds to improve the long neglected & decayed defenses of Ft. James (at the base of Manhattan), from the Ridings of Yorkshire. Long Island, including Brookhaven Town, led the opposition, opposition on grounds that such funds would improve a fort that only protected and secured the Dutch in NewYork City, who themselves contributed nothing toward the forts maintenance, and who were of doubtful loyalty; while doing nothing to protect English interests on Long Island. Island They repeatedly refused to vote funds. So, the critical fort that defended not just a city, but a province, remained in a dismal state of disrepair. Third Anglo-Dutch War: Crying Wolf On English Complacency & Dutch ReThose persistent rumors of an approaching Dutch Fleet multiplied, &
Conquest, 1673 varied, enough so, that they eventually began to be routinely, smugly dismissed when, after each alarm, nothing immediately transpired. With war scares ebbing & flowing, and efforts to restore the key provincial fort to working order having largely failed, Gov. Lovelace exploring a new avenue, focused on strengthening inter-colonial communications and military relations, so that if invasion came, New York might be swiftly reinforced from New England. In correspondence, esp. with Connecticut Colony & its Governor John Winthrop, Jr., Lovelace worked to establish a postal route between New York & Hartford. Hartford Lulled into thinking it safe, he absented himself to Hartford, CT to finalize arrangements for the route. The Dutch combined Fleet, then raiding the Chesapeake, got wind of his absence, & sailed swiftly north to seize a golden opportunity. The phantom fleet suddenly materialized in New York Bay, and on August 9, 1673 to take took Fort James (renamed Ft. Willem Hendrick) & New-York City (renamed New Orange), and shortly thereafter, the entire Dutch province (renamed New Belgium) fell, launching a Dutch Re-conquest of entire New Netherlands. Netherlands A Fleeting Fleet The Brilliant Dutch Meteor of 1673-74 Long Islanders appeals to New England for aid initially fell on deaf ears, due to the overwhelming strength & fearful speed of the Dutch armadas descent on the area Connecticut Colony Played a Double Game, lodging a formal protest, asserting its Long
Island claims, (summarily dismissed by the Dutch), while professing its neutrality and peaceful intentions toward the Dutch (rather suspect, as England was then at war with The Netherlands); while simultaneously negotiating to create a military alliance of New England, for a quick descent on central & eastern L.I. to secure its claims , should the opportunity present itself. As long as it was backed by the most powerful fleet in the Western Hemisphere two 4ship frigate squadrons, along with its numerous manned & armed prizes of war led by two able & forceful commanders, Cornelis Evertsen & Jacob Benckes, & an equally iron-handed marine Col. Anthony Colve, now serving as city, & later provincial, Governor General, fairly complete English submission obtained in Brookhaven & in all of Long Island (former East Riding, with the exception of the easternmost villages) Once the Dutch squadrons sailed to raid the Anglo-French Grand Banks fisheries (en route to Holland), New Belgium (formerly N.Y. province) lost its ability to enforce its will everywhere, and found itself overextended, feeling vulnerable to counterattack. Their Fleet now at large, the Dutch government skillfully maintained the illusion of strength, while assuming a defensive posture at New Orange (New York City) against counter-invasion. Former Ft. James was heavily fortified in a series of make-work projects. War, 1673-74 The Steenwyck Commission: Demands Oaths of Loyalty the Restive English of the Eastern & Dutch Governor-General Anthony Colve sent a delegation, headed by Cornelis Steenwyck (right) to administer Isle loyalty oaths to all Long Island towns East of Oyster Bay. The Steenwyck Commission was harassed, threatened, sent packing to New Orange, returning nearly empty handed. Next, two Dutch dispatch ships were captured, revealing, then confirming to
New England that the Dutch Fleet was headed for Europe, rendering New Netherlands vulnerable to invasion. The illusion unraveled with New England alerted to the true state of affairs, and now it was the English turn to rattle sabres. (Colve was hardly a happy man.). The New England colonies stepped up military preparations, but argued ceaselessly over strategy, procedure, appointments, and precedence. East End & Central L.I. villages, including Setauket, began to more openly defy the Dutch and to reassert their allegiance to England Southampton appealed to Connecticut, then to Massachusetts, Bay, finally to all the English colonies in America, for military help Southold pleaded its fear and expectation of Southampton reprisals, should it submit to the Dutch, stalling its reply on submission Colve, not one to suffer defiance or stalling tactics gladly, dispatched his sole two remaining warships to secure the oaths of allegiance by force. Cornelis Steenwyck The Forgotten Battle of Southold: A Critical Skirmish: A Dutch Landing Party Repulsed Brookhaven is dispatched Secured for England at In Feb. 1674, Connecticut a company of militia, under
a very nervousSouthold Maj. Fitz-John&Winthrop (the Governors son, Westminster see portrait at right), to back its claim of sovereignty over eastern Long Island & to stiffen & rally local resistance against the Dutch. Maj. Winthrop, leery of engaging green colonial militia against hardened, proven Dutch veterans, was less than thrilled with his assignment. But, probably to his own surprise (& not without help), performed it well. (Amphibious) Battle of Southold, February 24, 1674: Winthrops small force, reinforced by L.I. East End militia, his resolve stiffened by several Massachusetts Bay Colony military advisors, and a brace of artillery, successfully repulsed a Dutch amphibious landing attempt by veteran Capt. Eewoutsen, from the 25-gun Suriname, & lighter snaauw [or snow],Zeehond. Eewoutsen returned to New Orange with more depressing news for Colve. The Dutch thereafter confined their efforts to repelling an anticipated counter-invasion. Brookhaven residents could resume being English. End Game, 1674 , Part 2 Stalemate & Resounding English Diplomatic Victory Brookhaven is Secured for England at A brief Stalemate ensued, with & Military
Preparations by both sides. Southold Westminster New England was still outfitting an expedition, when news arrived of wars end, & the signing of the Peace of Westminster . Dutch New World conquests served merely as critical bargaining chips for a much beleaguered Holland, invaded by, and reeling before, the combined might of English & French armies (uncharacteristically in alliance). As the Netherlands survival as a country was at stake, its diplomats had no qualms in using their recovered, extensive, unmanageable holdings as leverage. The United Provinces was happy to exchange the administrative nightmare of an overextended mainland empire, for national survival, with the bonus of a compact Caribbean trading and raiding base, in Surinam. New Belgium reverted to England, once again becoming New-York. All the brilliant efforts of Evertsen, Benckes, & Colve in reconstituting the former New Netherlands had come to naught, and the formal Dutch claim to New Netherlands (& the Brookhaven area) was thereafter abandoned. Sources: Shomette, Donald G. The Empire Strikes Back on the East End in 1674. In Awakening the Past, ed. by Tom Twomey. NY: New Market Pr., 1999: pp. 132-155 and Shomette, Donald G. & Robert D. Haslach. Raid on America: The Dutch Naval Campaign of 1672-1674. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1988, repr. 2002. 386 p. (Highly recommended). Buying & Selling a Slave, Part 2 Sold Again, From L.I. Back to CT 9th day of March, 1674 Richard floyd, floyd of Setakett, sold the above said Negro, named Antony, to John Hurd, of Stratford [CT] .
Witnes RICHARD R. FLOYD JOHN TOOKER, SALLE BRINSMAID. BRINSMAID Source: Brookhaven (N.Y.:Town). Clerk. Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to 1800. Patchogue, NY: The Town, Printed at the Office of the Advance, 1880: p. 30. Questions for Students & Teachers: What do you think Anthony, the slave, might have thought of all this? Is it right to treat people like other things you own? Why would someone in Brookhaven buy a slave in Connecticut, only to turn around and sell the slave back to another person in Connecticut? Historical Notes: Between the 1st sale (1672) and the 2nd (1674) the Dutch retook & gave up New York, & Brookhaven Town with it. Slaves were not freed in New York until 1827. Puritan New England Style Reining in the Younger Set & Curbing Wild Impulses Just Say No?: Orders and ORDERS and constatutions maed Constitutions, July 8, 1674,
Pt.by 1 the Athoaty [i.e., authority] of this towne, 8th July, 1674, to be duly cept and obsarved: 1. whereas there have beane much abuese a prophaneing of of the lords day, by the younger sort of people in discourssing of vaine things and Runing of Raesses. Therefore, we make an order, that whoesoever shall doe the lieke againe, notis shall be taken of them, an be presented to the nex court, there to answer for ther falts and to Reseve such punishment as they desarve. 2. whereas, It have bene two coman in this towne, for young men and maieds to be out of ther fathers and mothers house at unseasonable tiems of niete, It is therefore ordered that whoesoever of the younger sort, shall be out of there fathers or mothers house past nien, of the clock, shall be sumonsed in to the next court, and ther to pay cort charges, with what punishment the cort shall se cause to lay upon them, ecksept thay can give suffissient Reson of there being out late. Brookhaven Goes Back to Normal, Puritan New England Style Reining in the Younger Set & Curbing Wild Impulses Just Say No?: Orders and 3. whereas, god hath bene much dishonered, much
Constitutions, 8, 1674, Pt. 2by pressious tyme misspentJuly and men Impoverished drinking and tippling, ether in ordinery [i.e., tavern] or other privet houses. Therefor, we maeke this order that whoe soe ever shall thus transgress, or sett drinking above two houres, shall pay 5s[hillings], and the man of the house for letting them have it after the tyme perfixed, shall pay 10s, exsept strangers onely. [As the latter were presumably just passing through, and not staying, they could be drunk out of their minds.] 4. That whosoever shall Run any Rases, or Run otherwise a hors back in the streetes or within the town platt, shall forfet 10s. To thee use of the towne. These above sayed orders is sett up, and mad knowne the day and daete above written. [Editorial note: Think about what the town was like before the punishments. Casts an interesting light on 17th century life and impulses.] Source: Brookhaven (N.Y.:Town). Clerk. Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to 1800. Patchogue, NY: The Town, Printed at the Office of the Advance, 1880: pp. 33-34. Tobaccus Mastic Deed, Part 1 September 19, 1674
Know all men by these presents, that I, Tobakes, Sachem of Unkechake, within the bounds and limetts of Setakett, upon long Island, for good and valluable causses and considerations have given, granted, bargened and sould, and doth by these presents give, grant , bargen and sell unto the town of Setakett, all the mowable medow land, whether hier [higher] land or lower, that lieth betweene a River called conitticut, to another River called Mastick. I say, I, Tobakes, have allinated and sould unto the Inhabitants of Setakett, from me, my haires, ecksecketers, administrators, or asings, to the above said inhabitents, ther haires, ecksecktors, admestraters, or asings forever, to have and to hould, as likewise I doe give them fre[e] egres[s] and Regress to there medowes without any mollestation, and to the full and absollute confermation of the above sayed premises I doe here sett my hand and seale, this 19 day of Sept. 1674 Signed and sealed in the presens of us Tobaccus Mastic Deed, Part 2 September 19, 1674 MATHEW BARNES, CESERUR, his X mark TOBACKUS, X his seale. This Day was Mathew Barnes sworne before me, that hee saw RUNGUAS, his X mark and was witnesse to the sealing
WOGHIG, his X mark and delivery of this Deed. Seatalcutt, Feby 22th, 1675 JOHN, his X mark MATTHIAS NICHOLLS. MASATUS, his X mark MR. GUDAR, his X mark This Deed is recorded this 6th of THOMAS, his X mark march, 1675-76, By me, Henry ROGER SATTERLY, Pierson, Cleark of ye Sessions, of the East Rideing. Source: Brookhaven (N.Y.:Town). Clerk. Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to 1800. Patchogue, NY: The Town, Printed at the Office of the Advance, 1880: pp. 32-33.
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