University of Leicester Year 1 Psychology Learning and

University of Leicester Year 1 Psychology Learning and Memory Professor Graham Davies Lecture 2 Copies of overheads Operant Conditioning Alternative approaches to Learning: Thorndike

Trial and error learning The Puzzle Box Law of effect (1913) Alternative approaches to Learning: Kohler Objections to Thorndike The Mentality of Apes (1925) The role of insight

Alternative approaches to learning: Skinner Behaviour of Organisms (1938) Skinner Box Operant Conditioning The ABC of operant conditioning A = antecedents =

stimulus conditions) lever, or click: (or food dispenser B = behaviour = pressing lever

C = consequences (what happens as a result of behaviour) = food being dispensed (reinforcement)

Fundamentals of Operant Conditioning The role of reinforcement Primary vs. secondary reinforcement (Wolfe, 1936) Schedules of reinforcement Shaping-successive approximations

Biological Constraints on Conditioning Breland & Breland (1966) Animal Behavioural Enterprises Clash between instinctive and learned behaviour Applications of operant conditioning

Programmed learning (Holland & Skinner, 1964) Token economies - behaviour which earns or loses points - points exchanged for reinforcer - uses in prisons -and supermarkets! Similarities between classical and operant

conditioning Acquisition, extinction and recovery Discrimination and generalisation Differences between classical and operant conditioning Autonomic vs. sympathetic

Class of response Contingencies

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