ATmega103 Timer0 and Interrupts 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial

ATmega103 Timer0 and Interrupts 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 1 The Need for Processor Interrupts Up to now if you wanted to do something in a program as soon as a bit was set (key pressed, bit set in a register, voltage exceeded a given threshold,) you had to keep reading the bit until it changed ! This is clearly not an efficient way of doing things .. This is why interrupts were introduced as a means of getting the processors attention on demand Tim Sumner, Imperial College, 23/02/20 Rm: 1009, x47552 2 Processor Interrupts Interrupts are subroutine calls initiated not by an rcall command but by hardware signals. These hardware signals cause the processor to jump to interrupt service routines. At the end they return control to your program just where it was just before the

interrupt occurred. 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 3 The ATmega103 Timers and Interrupts A device that counts time (Timer) could be one of the reasons for interrupt (internal) 24 different reasons to interrupt the CPU and execute an interrupt service routine. Eight external interrupt inputs 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 4 The ATmega103 Memory Map The first 24 2-byte

addresses in flash program memory are reserved for interrupts: your program jumps to one of these addresses if an interrupt occurs. 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 5 Interrupts mapping ;Address;Labels;Code; Comments 23/02/20 $0000 jmp RESET ; Reset Handler $0002 jmp EXT_INT0 ; IRQ0 Handler - PortD $0004 jmp EXT_INT1 ; IRQ1 Handler - PortD $0006 jmp EXT_INT2 ; IRQ2 Handler - PortD

$0008 jmp EXT_INT3 ; IRQ3 Handler - PortD $000A jmp EXT_INT4 ; IRQ4 Handler - PortE $000C jmp EXT_INT5 ; IRQ5 Handler - PortE $000E jmp EXT_INT6 ; IRQ6 Handler - PortE $0010 jmp EXT_INT7 ; IRQ7 Handler - PortE $0012 jmp TIM2_COMP ; Timer2 Compare Handler $0014 jmp TIM2_OVF ; Timer2 Overflow Handler $0016 jmp TIM1_CAPT ; Timer1 Capture Handler Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 6

Interrupts mapping 23/02/20 $0018 jmp TIM1_COMPA ; Timer1 CompareA Handler $001A jmp TIM1_COMPB ; Timer1 CompareB Handler $001C jmp TIM1_OVF ; Timer1 Overflow Handler $001E jmp TIM0_COMP ; Timer0 Compare Handler $0020 jmp TIM0_OVF ; Timer0 Overflow Handler $0022 jmp SPI_STC ; SPI Transfer Complete Handler $0024 jmp UART_RXC ; UART RX Complete Handler $0026 jmp UART_DRE ; UDR Empty Handler

$0028 jmp UART_TXC ; UART TX Complete Handler $002A jmp ADC ; ADC Conversion Complete Handler $002C jmp EE_RDY ; EEPROM Ready Handler $002E jmp ANA_COMP ; Analog Comparator Handler Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 7 Using interrupts Global enable via the status register Masks to work at bit level within devices Control registers to select type of signal 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552

8 Global Level: Status Register D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 I T H S V N Z C By now you should know what

The V,N,Z,C bits are. In order to use any interrupts on ATmega103 you must set the I bit using the command sei 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 9 At device level: EIMSK use to mask which external interrupts are used EICR used to control how interrupts are recognised EIFR flags to show which have been triggered 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 10 Example: The Timer/Counter Mask Register TIMSK 23/02/20 D7 D6

D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 OCIE2 TOIE2 TICIE1 OCIE1A OCIE1B TOIE1 OCIE0 TOIE0 OCIE2: Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Interrupt Enable TOIE2:Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable TICIE1: Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Interrupt Enable OCIEA1, OCIEA2:Timer/Counter1 Output

CompareA,B Match Interrupt Enable TOIE1: Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt Enable Tim Sumner, Imperial College, OCIE0: Timer/Counter0 Rm: 1009, x47552 Output Compare 11 Timer/Counter0 Control Register TCCR0: D7 Re s 23/02/20 D6 PWM 0 D5 COM0 1 D4 COM0 0 D3 D2 CTC0 CS0 2

D1 D0 CS0 1 CS0 0 The timer pre-scale factor : CS02; CS01; CS00 CTC0: Clear Timer/Counter on Compare Match COM00 / COMM01:Compare Output Mode, Bits 1 and 0 PWM0: Pulse Width Modulator Enable Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 12 Pre-scaling the Timer via TCCR0 f Counter TOSC1 ASO f

CS00 CS01 CS02 f/8 f/ 32 f/ 128 f/ 256 f/ 1024 Multiplexor Clock Generator 23/02/20 f/ 64 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 Timer0 Clock 13 Pre-scaling the Timer via TCCR0

23/02/20 CS0 2 CS01 CS0 0 Frequency (PCK0 = 4 MHz) 0 0 0 Timer/Counter0 is stopped 0 0 1 PCK0 0 1 0 PCK0/8

0 1 1 PCK0/32 1 0 0 PCK0/64 1 0 1 PCK0/128 1 0 0 PCK0/256 1 1

1 PCK0/1024 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 14 Timer/Counter0 TCNT0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 This is the counter preset .These 8-bit registers contain the value of the Timer/Counters. Both Timer/Counters are realized as up or up/down (in PWM mode) counters with read and write access. If the Timer/Counter is written to and a clock source is selected, it continues counting in the timer clock cycle after it is preset with the written value. 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 15 Example Program In the example program the 4 Mhz

clock of the ATmega103 is pre-scaled by 256 and the timer zero is loaded with $B2. So the counter overflows ($00) every 250 x 256 x ($FF-$B2 + 1) nsec (approx every 5 msec) and causes an interrupt. Every 200 interrupts a counter is incre- mented and the results is displayed on the PORTB LEDs. 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 16 Interrupt Section jmp Init jmp xxx ; 2 word instruction to set correct vector ; next interrupt nop ; use this two liner if no routine available reti . . . jmp TIM0_OVF ; Timer 0 Overflow interrupt Vector nop ; Vector Addresses are 2 words apart reti .

. . ;******************************************************* At Program address 0 your program jumps to the initialization Here it comes under hardware control when Timer0 overflows 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 17 Interrupt initialization ; ; **** Timer0 Setup Code **** ; ldi r16,$06 ; Timer 0 Setup out TCCR0, r16 ; Timer - PRESCALE TCK0 BY 256 ; (devide the 4 Mhz clock by 256) ldi r16,$b2 ; load timer with n=178 out TCNT0,r16

; The counter will go off ; in (256 - n)*256*250 nsec ; ; **** Interrupts Setup Code **** ; ldi r16, $01 ; Timer Interrupt Enables out TIMSK, r16 ; T0: Overflow ; 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 18 Interrupt Service Routine ;******************************************** TIM0_OVF: in R4,SREG ;save SREG inc r17 ; increment cycle nop cpi r17,$C8 ;compare cycle with 200 brne again ;if <> jump to again out PORTB, r18 ; send stuff to PORTB inc r18 ; Increment the portB number clr r17 ;clear cycle and start counting

; again 200 interrupts again: ldi r16,$B2 ;reload timer value out TCNT0,r16 out SREG,r4 ;restore sreg reti ;*********************** 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 When an interrupt occurs : D7 of SREG is set to 0 and the program jumps to the interrupt service routine It is a good idea to save the information stored on the status register and restore it at the end of the program reti sets the interrupt bit, in the SREG, back to 1 so the next interrupt can be serviced

19 Main Program Main: ; ; waisting time nop nop nop nop ; rjmp main But the timer is counting in the background and when it overflows it causes an interrupt forcing the program to execute the interrupt service routine. After that it comes back in the loop where it was when the interrupt occurredsee STUDIO demo. 23/02/20 Tim Sumner, Imperial College, Rm: 1009, x47552 20

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