State of Kuwait Ministry of Education KUWAIT NATIONAL

State of Kuwait Ministry of Education KUWAIT NATIONAL CURRICULUM Primary Education Critical Thinking in a competency based classroom Critical Thinking Skills in Education The sections in this page are: What is Critical Thinking?

Characteristics of Critical Thinkers Why Teach Critical Thinking? Critical Thinking in Education The Logic of Critical Thinking The Ethics of Critical Thinking What is Critical Thinking? Critical = Evaluative To avoid misunderstanding, we begin by explaining what it isn't: Critical thinking is not necessarily being "critical"

and negative. In fact, a more accurate term would be evaluative thinking. The result of evaluation can range from positive to negative, from acceptance to rejection or anything in-between. Critical evaluation can produce a glowing recommendation. For example, the quotes and links should be used with an attitude of "critical thinking" evaluation. What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined

process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth,

breadth, and fairness. What is Critical Thinking? Here are two brief definitions of what it is: Critical thinking is "reasonably and reflectively deciding what to believe or do." ... Critical thinking means making reasoned judgments. Basically, it is using criteria to judge the quality of something, from cooking to a conclusion of a research paper. In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a

person uses to assess the validity of something: a statement, news story, argument, research, etc. What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking can be seen as having two components: a set of information and belief generating and processing skills. 2) the habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behavior. It is thus to be contrasted with:

1) the mere acquisition and retention of information alone, because it involves a particular way in which information is sought and treated. 2) the mere possession of a set of skills, because it involves the continual use of them. 3) the mere use of those skills ("as an exercise") without acceptance of their results. ?Why should we teach Critical Thinking Critical thinking is purposeful, self-

regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based. CT is essential as a tool of inquiry. As such, CT is a liberating force in education and a powerful resource in one's personal and civic life.

The Characteristics of a critical thinker: While not synonymous with good thinking, CT is a pervasive and self-rectifying human phenomenon. The ideal critical thinker is habitually inquisitive. well-informed. trustful of reason. open-minded, flexible and fair-minded in evaluation. honest in facing personal biases.

prudent in making judgments. The Characteristics of a critical thinker: The ideal critical thinker is willing to reconsider. clear about issues, orderly in complex matters diligent in seeking relevant information. reasonable in the selection of criteria. focused in inquiry. persistent in seeking results which are as

precise as the subject and the circumstances of inquiry permit. Educating critical thinkers: Thus, educating good critical thinkers means working toward this ideal. It combines developing CT skills with nurturing those dispositions which consistently yield useful insights and which are the basis of a rational and democratic society.

Why should we teach Critical Thinking? Education in critical thinking offers an alternative to a drift toward postmodern relativism, by emphasizing that we can "distinguish between facts and opinions or personal feelings, judgments and inferences, inductive and deductive arguments, and the objective and subjective." Critical thinking encourages us to recognize that our "rationally justifiable confidence" in a

claim can span a wide range, from feelings to fact and everything in between. Why should we teach Critical Thinking? Recent research suggests that critical thinking is typically an intrinsic part of instruction at any level. It is taken for granted as an automatic byproduct of their teaching. Yet without critical thinking systematically designed into instruction, learning is transitory and superficial." Critical Thinking Skills in Education

The ability to think critically involves three things: an attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences, knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, and some skill in applying those methods. Critical thinking calls for a persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends.

...Critical thinking requires an ability to recognize problems and find workable means for meeting those problems. to gather and marshal pertinent information. to recognize unstated assumptions and values. to comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discrimination. to interpret data. to appraise evidence and evaluate

arguments. ...Critical thinking requires to recognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical relationships between propositions. to draw warranted conclusions and generalizations. to put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives. to reconstruct one's patterns of beliefs on the

basis of wider experience. to render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life. A well cultivated critical thinker: raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely; gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively comes to well-reasoned conclusions and

solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards; thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and : A well cultivated critical thinker communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.

Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and selfcorrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities and a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism. Strategies for Developing Critical Thinking

Strategy #1 Critical Thinking Start with lower-level questions as a beginning assessment. Doing so will allow students to move up on Blooms Taxonomy and build their confidence while doing so. Activate students knowledge and as higher-level questions are .presented, students will be required to think 19 Strategy #2 Critical Thinking

Reading for understanding is important. Students cannot think deeply and critically if they do not truly know what a question is asking. Require students to read and re-read before attempting to answer questions and . require them to prove their answers 20 Strategy #3 Critical Thinking Vary your instructional strategies. Varying

the ways students are provided information requires that they also vary their levels of thinking when providing information back to . you 21 Strategy #4 Critical Thinking Collaboration is a key component of an effective classroom and makes for critical thinking. Allowing students opportunities

to collaborate, communicate, and even disagree often provides varying perspectives and allows others to think reflectively on the ideas and ways of .thinking of others 22 Strategy #5 Critical Thinking Act as a facilitator. As a practitioner, while you are full of knowledge, so are students.

Allowing them to share and apply their knowledge helps them to be active learners, and allows you to be a facilitator .of learning 23 THANK YOU

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