SPANISH-AMERICAN CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS by Don L. F. Nilsen
SPANISH-AMERICAN CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen 1 SPAIN, FRANCE, ITALY AND PORTUGAL 2 SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
3 Don Quixotes Mind: Rocinante, Dulcinea, Sancho Panza, Lance & Windmills 4 CODE SWITCHING L. Dabne said that in the case of the first generation, Code Switching is
often used as a remedial strategy to incompetence. However in the second generation, code switching can fulfill different functions: 5 It can enable the speaker to claim a personal identity. It can express a kind of complicity with the others or, on the other hand, it can reveal a strategy of divergence from the
environment. 6 Code Switching can enable the speaker to comment about the language (metalinguistic use) Code Switching can also be used to comment on what has just been said (metadiscursive use). Or, finally, Code Switching can be used to change the type of interaction, to select other
interlocutors or to switch from a dialogue to a collective exchange (metacommunicative use). 7 SPANGLISH Spanglish is a new kind of slang finding its way not only into conversations but also into short stories, novels, popular music, comedy acts, and television sitcoms. Sprinkled through English sentences are such insertions as Que no?, Tambien,
and Yo se. 8 Sometimes English words are combined with Spanish words, so that barber shop and peluqueria becomes barberia. Similarly, chilling out becomes chileando, and to park becomes parkear.
9 HISPANIC NAMES In Spain and Latin America, if a girl were named Ana Maria Lpez Garcia, she has two surnames. The first one is her fathers (Lpez), and the second one is her mothers (Garcia). 10 If Ana Maria Lpez Garcia married Gregoria
Daz Rodriguez, then she would write her name as Ana Maria Lpez de Daz. In Mexico, Ana Maria Lpez de Daz would go by her maiden name daily (Maria Lpez Garcia), but on formal documentation she would identify herself with her married name (Ana Maria Lpez de Daz). 11 If she were to have a child, Alicia, Alicias full name
would be Alicia Lpez Daz, keeping both her fathers and her mothers surnames. 12 SPANGLISH TEST 1 bacuncliner vacuum cleaner
biper beeper or pager boyla boiler
chileando chilling out choping shopping fafu fast food
jangear hanging out joldoperos muggers, holdup artists 13
SPANGLISH TEST 2 liqueo to leak maicrogey microwave oven pulover T-shirt roofo
roof sangiche sandwich tensn ten-cent store like K-Mart or Woolworths 14 Phonological Differences 1 English has 13 vowels; Spanish has
only 5 vowels Spanish is a syllable-timed language; English is a stress-timed language Spanish /d/ and // are alaphonic as in duda 15 Phonological Differences 2 English has a retroflex /r/; Spanish has a flapped /r/ and a trilled /r/ written as and English has no velar fricative or
Spanish doesnt distinguish between // and / /, or between /s/ and /z/ 16 Orthographic Differences 1 Spanish is pronounced /y/; Spanish is pronounced /l/
Spanish is a velar fricative Spanish and are both the same (bilabial fricatives) Spanish has <> for the /ny/ sound
Spanish is not pronounced Spanish has a but no or 17 Orthographic Differences 2 Spanish begins questions with <> and exclamations with Spanish uses a period for thousands,
and a comma for a decimal; English does the reverse Spanish uses for quotation marks, not 18 Morphological Differences Spanish verbs are more highly inflected than are English verbs Spanish adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in number and gender Spanish has grammatical gender; English has
natural gender Spanish uses the definite article differently as in el seor Jones 19 Syntactic Differences English adjectives come before nouns; Spanish adjectives come after nouns. Spanish has pro-drop which means that a subject pronoun can be dropped; English does not. Spanish has double negatives (No
tiene nada); English does not. 20 Semantic Differences 1 Some English-Spanish cognates dont have the same meaning. Consider the following Spanish words: actual, libraria, grocera, molestar, embarazada and principio. In English, these words mean present, bookstore, vulgarity, to bother, pregnant and beginning, respectively.
21 Semantic Differences 2 A single Spanish word can have more than one English meaning: Spanish hacer means either make or do Spanish su means either his, her, or its Spanish en means either on, in, into, or at 22 Semantic Differences 3
Or, a single English word can have more than one Spanish meaning: English time in Spanish can be tiempo, vez, or hora English hot in Spanish can be picante, or caliente 23 In conclusion, consider these riddles: Spanish plata means silver, Spanish oro means gold, and Spanish platano
means banana Qu es come oro, pero plata no es? Platano es. 24 Spanish se parecen means similarity Spanish manzano means apple Spanish tren means train Spanish pera means pear Spanish espera means to wait En qu se parecen una manzano y un tren?
No es pera. = No espera. 25 Spanish estrellas means stars Spanish hay means are there Spanish cielos means heavens Spanish cinquenta means fifty Spanish sin quenta means countless Cuantas estrellas hay en los cielos? Cinquenta. = Sin quenta 26
Spanish perezoso means lazy Spanish mundo means world Spanish nada means both nothing and it swims Cual animal es el mas perezoso del mundo? El pez. Qu hace el pez? Nada. 27
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