gricultural Training and Educatio to Feed the Future:

gricultural Training and Educatio to Feed the Future: SANREM Educating for Sustainable Intensification Outline Background/context Accomplishments to date Future challenges Lessons from university selfassessments Innovations in education and training OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Title XII Legislation Declaration of Policy-Sec. 296(a) (2) Improved human capacity and institutional resource development for the global application of agriculture and related environmental sciences. OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Comparative Advantage of Innovation Labs in Human Resource Development Integration of academic, research and outreach in degree training programs Focus on finding solutions to private and public sector problems Collaboration with diverse partners (e.g.,

agribusiness, government institutions, IARCs, NGOs, foundations, etc.) Long-term institutional collaborative relationships OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM CRSPs Degree Training Total across ten CRSPs Total Degrees (BS, MSc and PhD) awarded (19782014) 4,324 Total post-graduate degrees awarded (19782014) 3,397 Proportion of women among all trainees 36% Distribution of CRSP/IL Degrees 1979-2014 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

I ) A ck re on se ea se o u M l ti t t p i a l u A s r (P Ph cu IS ow ve

ut i S s ti C h N L r / is se BA al an an Ho ul / b aF e P o u m S B l I

q u S in G A H ra BA G y Dr e Li v Bachelors M IP RM IL e SO T ng a IN Ch

e t a im l C kc sto Masters C (L C) t t t e M i ls nu an en E ur o t a n

S l R i m N p Pe cu m ge a u ro SA a u T R n q l a al /A M l m ci s i S

So m a n Dy ti tri u N nd o P PhD on Other OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM ANREM CRSP Phase III-IV Degree Trainee Bachelors Masters Ph.D. All Men

44 50 31 125 Women 35 44 38 117 70 94 69 242 TOTAL 48 % Women OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM

SANREM CRSP Phase III-IV Short-term Trainees Country Men Women Total Bolivia Cambodia Ecuador Ghana Guatemala Haiti Honduras India Indonesia Kenya Lesotho Mali Mexico Mozambique Nepal Peru Philippines Tanzania Uganda USA Vietnam Zambia TOTAL 4,897 482

3,805 459 12 1,495 20 626 366 604 1,601 70 47 4,051 333 779 2,160 63 1,512 294 359 18,843 3,480 284 2,129 239 6 1,054 15 357 324 372

1,451 47 29 3,911 188 596 1,398 42 1,498 200 223 19,016 8,377 766 5,934 698 18 2,549 35 983 690 976 3,052 117 76 7,962 521 1,375 3,558 105

3,010 494 582 37,859 42,878 36,859 79,737 80,000 trainees 22 countries 46 % women OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Sustainable Intensification Pretty et al. (2011) producing more output from the same area of land while reducing the negative environmental impacts and at the same time increasing contributions to natural capital and the flow of environmental services Seven key components of successful sustainable intensification are: combining science and farmer inputs creating novel social infrastructure improving farmer knowledge and capacity engaging with the private sector focusing on womens education ensuring availability of microfinance ensuring public sector support for agriculture To what extent are our traditional practices of agricultural

education and technology transfer applicable to the promotion of sustainable intensification? OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM The Transition to Complex Adaptive Systems In the early 20th century, Quantum theory taught us that (instead of being the objective observers of the universe) we are participants along with the objects of our observation. It is only now that the implications for the applied sciences are becoming apparent. This involves not only: the traditional sciences and new partners but also: interactions and feedback mechanisms across multiple systems and scales All partners are learning and adapting simultaneously OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM The Transition to Adaptive Management Farmers are the key actors. They face dynamically changing climate and markets.

They need to appropriate new science and technology so that they can make sustainable adaptations Why does the farmer need to know about how agricultural technology works beyond simply how to use it? S/he may want to use it to solve another problem. Waiting for researchers to figure out what to do next will likely cost the her farm or his livelihood. OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Fostering Technical Change in Agriculture How does adaptive management change agricultural education and training? What is the role of learning in the process of innovation? Is learning a matter of information transfer resulting in adoption of innovations? Or, is learning a matter of developing capacities for ongoing adaptation? Whose capacities should be developed? Where, in fact, does innovation occur? The Educational Challenge Change agent perspectives Agricultural change agents are trained in conventional production practices and that are conveyed as memorized scientific facts Farmer agro-ecological perspectives agro-ecological knowledge and its application in

production informs farming discourse at the local level Conservation agriculture requires adaptation CA doesnt fit well with that memorized knowledge and challenges conventional farming wisdom OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Lessons from institutional self-assessments Instructional quality is characterized by: A lack of syllabi (and their use) A lack of coherence between Learning objectives Pedagogical practices Student assessment Although experiential learning is valued and emphasized by faculty and administrators, the tradition of memorization is profoundly engrained. Quality control efforts are only just beginning across Africa. OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Lessons from institutional self-assessments Underfunding agricultural education leads to low morale and rent-seeking behaviors of talented faculty members. Individuals take on teaching assignments across multiple institutions leading to instructional reliance on nonpermanent faculty. Others seek and win externally-supported research projects that dont compensate the institutions for the time lost to instruction. There is a lack of incentives for quality (student-oriented) teaching suggesting that even minimal rewards may help to re-focus efforts.

OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Innovations in Graduate Training 1. New models for graduate degree programs Joint or dual institutional degree programs Sandwich programs Distance education programs Life-long professional development programs 2. Changes in Graduate Program Structure Professional training vs. research focus

Multidisciplinary vs. disciplinary Value Chain vs. subsector focus Designer graduate programs for target populations 3. Value Addition to Host Country Graduate Programs Research opportunities in U.S. university laboratories Internships in U.S. agribusinesses Participation in U.S. university outreach programs (Land-Grant Model) U.S. university faculty instruction of courses at HC universities OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM

Innovation Networks Innovation networks configure actors to facilitate the flow of information and access to resources and services Composed of: Farmers Farmer organizations Extension Input suppliers Researchers Agencies Policymakers OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Innovation Platforms Create a forum for social learning Establish a foundation for negotiation Facilitate network connections Foster farmer-market connections OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Innovations in learning for agricultural professionals (from suppliers to producers to processors to consumers)

1. New models for local innovation Innovation networks Cluster development among value chains Peer-to-peer training; farmer field schools Public/private partnerships 2. Developing communities of practice Bridging across localities Connecting local with regional and national partners

Creating spaces for innovation 3. Negotiating new roles and skills for facilitators and learners Local leadership development Support and sustain new brokerage roles An enabling national policy environment OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Innovation Brokers Main Functions of Innovation Brokers: Analyzing the context and articulating demand Bringing together stakeholders into networks Facilitating interaction for innovation Challenges include: Formal education still reinforces top-down approaches Acquiring and maintaining funding Maintaining neutrality

OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM 21st Century Land Grant Legacy Leaves behind: Intellectual leadership in transdisciplinary negotiation Strategic and creative partnerships involving all stakeholders An engaged next generation of agricultural leaders Integrates research/teaching/action into locally responsive institutions Existing models appear to be largely NGO-led Maintains the role of the honest broker Educated negotiation OIRED/Virginia Tech - SANREM Thank you for your attention. Comments/questions welcomed

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