Identify components of virtual humans Identify approaches to creating virtual human Understand current and research applications of virtual humans Conflict I have a financial interest in Shadow Health, Inc. Shadow Health, Inc. develops virtual patient software for nursing education. Virtual Environment Fidelity

Virtual Iraq, USC, Virtual Environment Fidelity Ford Vehicle Virtual Environment Fidelity Flatworlds, USC, Virtual environments have high fidelity Virtual Iraq, USC, ICT

Ford Vehicle Flatworlds, USC, Goal of Talk I propose the next area of VR and computer graphics research will focus on virtual humans How virtual humans affect people

How people are using virtual humans Research directions of virtual humans Motivate you to explore virtual humans in your own research Image courtesy of Skip Rizzo, University of Southern California Impact of VH in environments

https :// D44& nFco1U0& Example Virtual Human Interaction

Video courtesy of Skip Rizzo, University of Southern LO: Identify what is a virtual human A virtual character in human form Sometimes referred to a: Virtual character Digital human Avatars have come to mean

representations of users LO: Identify components of a virtual human Virtual humans are composed of There exist many VH generation systems for 3d models

3d models Content (Audio, Gestures, Script) Make Human Autodesk Character Generator Output a common file format (e.g. fbx) Components of interacting with a virtual human Common technologies

Display screen displays, HMDs, environment displays Audio standard speakers Sensing Kinect, cameras, microphone, Wizard of Oz approaches Cognition AI systems, NLP/NLU, Wizard of Oz approaches Creating a virtual human

1. Create a virtual human model using a 3d modeling program 2. Create the conversation corpus for a virtual human (e.g. 3. Record audio and animations

4. Integrate with a rendering engine (e.g. Unity3D, Unreal Engine, OGRE) 5. Integrating sensing system (e.g. Can interacting with a virtual human make you a better person?

Dr. Gregory House Good with medical knowledge Not so good with interacting with people DerekRoss Shepherd Dr. Doug Good with medical knowledge Good with interacting with people LO: Virtual humans applications and research Virtual humans as interaction partners

How can they affect us? Teach us? Change us? Affect: Bias Would health profession students treat

these virtual human patients differently? Images from the Virtual Patients project at Affect: Paranoia Images courtesy of Mel Slater, University of Barcelona Affect: Social Facilitation Zanbaka, ICAT 2004 Affect: Phobia treatment

Fear of public speaking (Pertaub 2002, Virtually Better) Affect: Emotions and Ethics Affect: Social norms What would you do if she sneezed? Pixels mean different things What do you see? Training

Think of tasks that everyone does almost everyday Interact with another person Yet training for this is very limited. Humans are social creatures!

How do people train to interact with others? Lectures Human resources training Case studies Videos Role-play

With other students, instructors, actors Actors -> gold standard for many fields Medicine Military Training with a VH Impacts Education (teachers with students)

Military (leadership training) Law Enforcement (police officers and suspects) Justine Cassell Carnegie Mellon University, USC ICT Real change in behavior Would you be influenced more by? Baylor & Plant 2005

Avatars affect us Being affected by your avatar Weight loss Energy consumption Bailenson, Stanford

Virtual Patient Virtual human patients train students on Eliciting important information

E.g. What medications are you taking? Developing communication skills Organization of inquiry Diagnostic Virtual humans provide:

Opportunities for practice Exposure to infrequ ent yet critical sc enarios Standardization Patient variability

Feedback Diagnostic reasoning Virtual patients in education Misconception: virtual patients would replace standardized patients Complements standardized patients Presentation of abnormal findings (e.g. cranial nerves)

Vulnerable populations (e.g. pediatrics, mental health) Practice before seeing SPs (e.g. intimate exams) Are assisted by standardized patients Standardized patients would support VPs (talk to SP, physical exam on VP) 8 universities, 30+ researchers, 9 years of VP

research Create virtual patients Deploy virtual patients Enable Curricular building and integration of training scenarios Teaching and training with

Variety of scenarios Variety of patients After-action review systems Looking for new collaborators Write papers Obtain nationally-competitive funding. Virtual Patients Sample Applications

Abnormal findings Intimate exams Team training Educational Benefits Feedback Understand your students

NERVE: The Neurological Examination Rehearsal Virtual Environment Medical students Use neurological tests to diagnose a patient with a vision disorder Discuss patient history

Conduct physical exams Includes lecture notes, simulation, and evaluation Receive additional exposure to patients with abnormal findings (Cranial Nerve 2,3,4,5,6,7,12) Each scenario has Male African-American Female African-American Male Caucasian Female Caucasian Physical Examinations of

Virtual Human Patients Mixed reality humans Combine virtual humans with mannequin simulators Intimate Exams Clinical breast exam

Prostate Exam Students can Practice physical examination and communication skills Real-time feedback of exam performance

Coverage Pressure Conversation topics Team Training NSF-supported collaboration with UVA Simulate team scenarios using a combination of humans and virtual humans Video

Virtual People Factory Web-based interface to virtual humans Deployed Early 2008 50+ active developers 4000+ interactions 100,000+ utterances

Vulnerable populations, bias, low-English profeciency Current state of virtual patients Still in its infancy Need to research:

Would enable new tool to address Topics to apply VPs Quantify benefits Cultural competency Patient Centered care Team training Accomplished through:

Curricular integration Interactive Demo Build a virtual patient How long and how much

If you want to build a VP similar to an existing VP, then weve had students build VPs in approximately 5 hours If you want to build a new one, several weeks. Our online resources ( are available free for research purposes Future Implications Revolutionize interpersonal training

Culture Communication Skills Help people with communication skills deficiencies Fear of public speaking Social phobias (e.g. paranoia)

Autism Bias Images courtesy of Sabarish Babu Clemson University So Can Virtual Humans Make You a Better Person? If you want them to, we know they can Affect you

You can learn from interacting them Change your behavior I hope this talk motivated you to Explore virtual humans in your research As a community, have more people

interact with your research Embrace the new wave of technology to interact and distribute Inspire people outside this room Thank You! Build your own virtual patients: Contact: [email protected] Support: National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health

After-Action Review by Educators IPSVizn Web-based interface Educators can review student interactions Experts can

Identify trends (mean of class) Identify outliers Evaluate topics covered Commercialization If you want to start a company

Find the right people Get a business person Find the right people Find the right people Expect 60-80 hour work day Know your markets/competition Mobile Distribution of Simulation

Deploy simulations via mobile platforms Android app, released December 2010, over 4600 downloads In Android Market, search for Virtual Patient Image from Museum of Science and Industry

Science museum in Tampa, FL Integrate a VH interaction Public health literacy Research

About 4000 people per year enter our exhibit About n=~400 per year are usable datapoints for studies Repositories MedEdPORTAL

Peer reviewed medical education resource 400 institutions downloads in 10 months

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