PULSAR WIND NEBULAE FROM RADIO TO X-RAYS Andrew Melatos (U. Melbourne) 1. Basic PWN physics: shock confinement, wave-like pulsar wind (unique) 2. Radio-to-X-ray diagnostics composition, energy transport, magnetic field geometry WHAT IS A PWN? Bubble of magnetic field and relativistic e Inflated by pulsar, confined by environment Synchrotron source:

centre-filled, highly pold Wind cools adiabatically invisible as far as termination shock Crab nebula (optical) ENVIRONMENTAL ZOO Vela SNR Like Crab, but older (Helfand et al. 01) Black Widow binary

H+ X-ray shocks Wind ablates companion Guitar nebula (Gaensler et al. 03) H bow shock PSR speeding through ISM (Chatterjee & Cordes 03) FLARES FROM PSR B1259-63 Eccentric binary PSR Splashes into Be stars disk eclipse Pulsed radio DM, RM

density, B field Unpulsed radio & X-ray shock physics transient mini-PWN (Connors et al. 02) radio eclipse 1.4 GHz TERMINATION SHOCK PSR wind ram pressure P L/4r2c

termination shock SN remnant + filaments backwash confined by SNR P Lage/(4r3/3) blast wave Reverse shock: contracts as backwash accumulates

WAVE-LIKE WIND Jdisp E r-1 Jcond n r-2 circular poln (helix) linear poln (stripes) Jdisp > Jcond for r > 105rLC current sheet

Global plasma wave oscillating at CROSSBOW MORPHOLOGY (Hester et al. 02) Chandra (X-ray) HST (optical) Torus (wisps) + jet (knots) vary daily Gemini

(near-IR) mHz variability in near IR: Hokupaa adaptive optics beware PSF & background (Melatos et al. 04) Crab: wisps I & II J K Vela: X-ray jet = fire hose

Crab: sprite + rod + 20 min (Pavlov et al. 03) +2d RADIO ELECTRONS Radio, X-ray wisps coincide Move in concert ( 0.24c) Uniform radio spectrum VLA,5 GHz

radio and X-ray e accelerated together! Near-IR spectrum varies: sprite -0.2 wisps -0.70.1 (Bietenholz et al. 01) MULTI- DIAGNOSTICS Wisp structure wind composition Ion cyclotron acceleration and-rays Confinement geometry energy transport Energy flux versus latitude Electromagnetic or kinetic? Polarization magnetic field geometry

Collimation and stability I. WISPS = ION SHOCK? Ions gyrate B field compressed ion bunches variability (Spitkovsky & Arons 02; cf. Komissarov & Lyubarsky 03) Internal structure of shock resolved unique!

Ion current = Goldreich-Julian (dNi/dt 1034 s-1) Neutrinos! p p (in known ratio L : L) II. CONFINEMENT GEOMETRY X-ray backflow from aft shock bow shock + CD radio backflow from fore shock termination shock Example: The Mouse (Gaensler et al. 03) Radio + X-ray synchrotron tails

Mach number from stand-off distance ENERGY FLUX VS LATITUDE Shape: ram pressure Brightness: Doppler Anisotropic wind or ISM density gradient (Chatterjee & Cordes 04) Monopole flux sin2(Komissarov & Lyubarsky 03) (Gaensler et al. 02)

EM KE CONVERSION = EM flux : KE flux Shock: 10-3 so MHD flow can decelerate from shock (c/3) to edge of PWN (1500 km s-1) Pulsar: 106 (e cascades) Force-free linear accelerator (Contopoulos et al. 02) Reconnection in striped wind (Lyubarsky & Kirk 01) Wave conversion via instability (Melatos 98) Striped wind: Vphase = Vwind Reconnection and heating (Lyubarksy & Kirk 01)

Electromagnetic wave: large amplitude (p) Unstable (Melatos & Melrose 96) Puzzles How launched? Synchro-Compton radn? Energy transport? neutral sheet E E B

B V V alternating B III. POLARIZATION = B FIELD 3C58 in X-rays (Murray et al. 02) MHD simulations

(van der Swaluw 03) Collimation: postshock hoop stress (E+JB 0 before the shock) & anisotropic energy flux Disruption of B MHD kink instability (Begelman 98) BUT poln regular regenerated by dynamo? SUMMARY Radio-to-X-ray PWN: SN remnant, ISM, eclipsing binary Shock = crossbow which varies daily PSR wind = two-zone large-amplitude wave

Radio & X-ray wisps ions ISM bow shock anisotropic energy flux SNR calorimeter EM : KE Radio & X-ray poln B field & collimation

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Data and Database Administration

    Data and Database Administration

    Big Data. Data that exist in very large volumes and many different varieties (data types) and that need to be processed at a very high velocity (speed). Analytics. Analytics is the systematic process of transforming raw data into knowledge and...
  • Basic Concepts (2) - Computer Science- UC Davis

    Basic Concepts (2) - Computer Science- UC Davis

    Logic and Digital Logic CPUs Patrice Koehl Computer Science UC Davis * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *...
  • Assessing Student Learning & Giving Feedback to Students

    Assessing Student Learning & Giving Feedback to Students

    Feedback and assessment are broken in higher education. Student numbers have grown: we can't use the same processes and instruments for a system where getting on for 50% of the 18-30 year old population study in post-compulsory education, compared to...


    Disposal Productivity Factors A. Job conditions Material type Water level and moisture content Job size Length of haul Haul road condition (accessibility and load restrictions) Productivity Factors (cont.) B. Management conditions Equipment conditions and maintenance practices Skills of work force...
  • WOOD Joints - OHS Technology

    WOOD Joints - OHS Technology

    Joinery Joinery is the part of Woodworking that involves joining pieces of wood together Some require fasteners, adhesives Types of Wood Joints Butt Joint The simple butt joint is most commonly used. This joint is formed by nailing or screwing...
  • Αιματολογία ΙΙΙ (Θ)

    Αιματολογία ΙΙΙ (Θ)

    Το παρόν υλικό διατίθεται με τους όρους της άδειας χρήσης Creative Commons Αναφορά, Μη Εμπορική Χρήση Παρόμοια Διανομή 4.0 [1] ή μεταγενέστερη, Διεθνής Έκδοση.
  • Eliot Rosewater 2008-09

    Eliot Rosewater 2008-09

    Divergentby Veronica Roth. DJ Risingby Love Maia. The Fault in Our Starsby John Green. The Girl of Fire and Thornsby Rea Carson ... In the Shadow of the Lampby Susanne Dunlap. The Knife and the Butterflyby Ashley Hope Perez. Level...
  • The Changing Landscape of RA Management: Understanding JAK ...

    The Changing Landscape of RA Management: Understanding JAK ...

    The Changing Landscape of RA Management. Focus on the JAK Inhibitors. Moderator. Peter C. Taylor, MA, PhD, FRCP. Norman Collisson Professor of Musculoskeletal Sciences